Patala, Pāṭalā, Paṭala, Pātāla, Pāṭala, Pātala: 51 definitions


Patala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Patal.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands of The Seven Lower Worlds.—Pātāla: the Patāka hand twisted downwards is applicable.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Pāṭalā (पाटला) is a Sanskrit word referring to Bignonia suaveolens from the Bignoniaceae (bignonias) family according Monier-Williams and Apte, but according to the Pandanus database, it refers to Stereospermum colais (“Trumpet Flower”) from the same family. According to the India Biodiversity Portal, the former name is a synonym of the latter. It can also be spelled as Pātala (पातल). It is also known as Tāmrapuṣpī, Alivallabhā and Alipriyā. In English, the plant is also known as the “Trumpet flower tree” or the “Yellow snake tree”. It has the following botanical synonym: Stereospermum suaveolens.

According to the Amarakośa, the plant has the following synonyms: Pātali, Amoghā, Kācasthālī, Phaleruhā, Kṛṣṇavṛṇtā and Kuberākśī. The Amarakośa is a 4th century Sanskrit botanical thesaurus authored by Amarasiṃha.

According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th century Ayurvedic work), the plant (Pāṭalā) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter. In this work, the plant is mentioned being part of the Daśamūla group of medicinal drugs.

2) Pāṭala (पाटल) is a Sanskrit word for a variety of rice (ṣaṣṭika) which is said to have an inferior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The literal translation of the word is “pale red” or “pink”. The plant Pāṭala is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Pāṭala is said to be sweet and guru, but has amlapāka and as such aggravates pitta.

3) Pāṭala (पाटल) is another name (synonym) for Kampillaka, which is the Sanskrit word for Mallotus philippensis (kamala tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Patala [पाटल] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Stereospermum chelonoides (L.f.) DC. from the Bignoniaceae (Jacaranda) family having the following synonyms: Bignonia chelonoides, Bignonia suaveolens, Stereospermum suaveolens. For the possible medicinal usage of patala, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Patala in the Hindi language is the name of a plant identified with Flueggea virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Royle from the Phyllanthaceae (Amla) family having the following synonyms: Phyllanthus virosus, Securinega virosa, Phyllanthus virosus.

Patala [పాటల] in the Telugu language is the name of a plant identified with Stereospermum tetragonum DC. from the Bignoniaceae (Jacaranda) family having the following synonyms: Bignonia colais, Stereospermum colais, Stereospermum personatum.

Patala [पाटला] in the Sanskrit language, ibid. previous identification.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Pāṭalā (पाटला).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—It has coarse leaves and fragrant rosy flowers blossoming in spring. Its root bak is astringent, bitter, hot and destroys vāta and kapha.

Source: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Pāṭalā (पाटला)—Sanskrit word for a fish. This animal is from the group called Nādeya-matsya (‘fresh water fish’). Nādeya-matsya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).

Source: Sushruta samhita, Volume III

Of the Patalas (coats of the eye), two are in the eye-lid (Vartma-mandala) and four in the eye proper, wherein occurs the dreadful disease known as the Timira (loss of vision).

Of these four

  1. the first or anterior coat (Patala) supports the humour Jala and light (Tejas), (note: By “Jala” is meant here the serum (Rasa) in the skin, and by “Tejas” the blood in the veins (Sirā) carrying the (Tejas) known as the Ālochaka.)
  2. the second coat or Patala (choroid) is supported by muscles ;
  3. the third coat or Patala (Sceroim and Cornea) consists of Medas (lit. fat)
  4. and there is the fourth which is a fifth part of the whole and is known as the Drishti.

There are, however, divisions and subdivisions of these coats.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Paṭala (पटल) refers to a type of scented flower used to perfume wine, according to the Raghuvaṃśa. XIX.46, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Kumārasambhava describes the wine extracted from flowers (puṣpāsava or madhūka) and also deals with the after effects of drinking wine. Sugar was also used as an antidote for the intoxication caused by wine. Flowers of mango and red paṭala were also used to perfume various wines.

The food-utensils that are made of Pāṭala-patra (leaves) have the following dietetic effects: pāṇḍuśothaśvāsasomarogaghna (cures jaundice, inflammatory swelling, dyspnoea and polyuria).

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Pāṭalā (पाटला) refers to the medicinal plant known as Stereospermum suaveolens, St. Bk., and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Pāṭalā. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Pāṭalā (पाटला) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Stereospermum colais (Buch.-Ham.ex Dillw.) Mabberley” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning pāṭalā] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Pāṭalā (पाटला):—One of the sixty-eight Rasauṣadhi, very powerful drugs known to be useful in alchemical processes related to mercury (rasa), according to Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara (chapter 9).

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Pāṭala (पाटल) is the name of a flower used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.11:—“[...] offerings of flowers, especially white flowers and rare flowers, shall be made to Lord Śiva. Flowers of Apāmārga, Karpūra, Jātī, Campaka, Kuśa, Pāṭala, Karavīra, Mallikā, Kamala (lotus) and Utpalas (lilies) of various sorts shall be used. When water is poured it shall be poured in a continuous stream”.

2) Pātāla (पाताल) is the name of a legendary island, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.11 (“The Victory of Kumāra”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Reducing that powerful Asura to ashes in a trice the spear carried out the job without strain and returned to Kumāra. Then Kumāra told the Nāga child Kumuda—‘Go home fearlessly. That Asura has been slain along with his army’. On hearing the words of Guha, Kumuda, the son of the Nāga chief eulogised and bowed to Kumāra and went to Pātāla in great delight. [...]”.

Note: Pātāla is an island accessible through the sea-route. It is an abode of the Nāgas with Bhogavatī as the capital. (cf M M. K. Paṭala, XL P. 454) It is variously identified with Ceylon in the mid-ocean. G. P. 1. 69. 24), Indo-China and old Annam. See Avasthi, Studies in Sk. P. P. 113.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Pāṭala (पाटल).—A monkey. This monkey met Śrī Rāma at Kiṣkindhā when the latter was going to Laṅkā to meet Vibhīṣaṇa. (Chapter 88, Sṛṣti Khaṇḍa, Padma Purāṇa).

2) Pātāla (पाताल).—The last of the seven regions or worlds under the earth said to be peopled by Nāgas. The seven regions one below the other are (1) Atala (2) Vitala (3) Sutala (4) Talātala (5) Rasātala (6) Mahātala and (7) Pātāla. In all these regions there are beautiful cities and buildings built by Maya, the great architect. The daityas, dānavas and nāgas live in these regions.

2) Pātāla is seventy thousand yojanas high each division being ten thousand yojanas high. The earth in these regions is of different hue like white, black, red and yellow. It is filled with rubbles, black granite and gold. Once Nārada on his return to Svarga from Pātāla said that Pātāla was more beautiful than Svarga. The ornaments worn by nāgas are profusely studded with shining diamonds. Daytime is lighted by the Sun and the night by the Moon. There is neither heat nor cold there and the happy nāgas living contentedly do not feel the passage of time.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Pāṭalā (पाटला).—The goddess enshrined at Puṇḍravardhana.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 35.

1b) A tīrtha sacred to Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 33.

2) Pātāla (पाताल).—(Sutalam): the nether-world where live the Lords of Nāgaloka with their hoods of jewels; at the bottom of this region lives Śeṣa;1 of golden colour, residence of Bali having been given by Vāmana as also of Mucukunda, Daityas and Asuras; women of;2 sacred to Parameśvarī;3 when Śukra wanted to go to the camp of the Devas the Asuras threatened to leave for P.;4 of seven regions below the earth;5 destroyed by Rudra's flame in the dissolution.6

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 26; 5. 41; V. 24. 7 and 31; 25. 1; Matsya-purāṇa 154. 197; 163. 91; 249. 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 164; 97. 18; 98. 80 and 86; 100. 157; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 5. 13; VI. 8. 48.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 172; 20. 13-15; 42. 5; III. 36. 4; 53. 11; 54. 12; 69. 30; IV. 1. 153; 38. 35. Matsya-purāṇa 43. 33; 246. 69; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 12; 41 ff.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 39.
  • 4) Ib. 47. 68. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 9. 111. IV. 4. 19.
  • 5) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 5. 1-12; IV. 4. 19; V. 1. 72;
  • 6) Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 3. 24-5.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Pātāla (पाताल) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Pātāla) is named Hāṭakeśvara. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Pāṭala (पाटल) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (e.g. Pāṭala) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa, or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam, is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Pāṭala (पाटल) refers to one of the thirty-six sacred trees, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “According to the Kula teaching (these) [i.e., Pāṭala] are the most excellent Kula trees that give accomplishments and liberation. (They are full of) Yoginīs, Siddhas, Lords of the Heroes and hosts of gods and demons. One should not touch them with one’s feet or urinate and defecate on them or have sex etc. below them. One should not cut etc. or burn them. Having worshipped and praised them regularly with their own flowers and shoots, one should always worship the Śrīkrama with devotion with their best fruits and roots. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Paṭala (पटल) refers to “petals”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] May goddess Bhāratī shine upon me, I pray. She carries a rosary and a book in her hands, she has the stainless complexion of the full moon, and she embodies the entirety of knowledge. I venerate the beloved husband of Rati, the beautiful Mind-born [God Kāmadeva]. He carries a bow and arrows of flowers and his complexion resembles the petals of Dhak (palāśa-paṭala). [Again,] I approach the beloved husband of Prīti, bent round like the full moon, [serving as] the base for the ring of goddesses, in order to draw the Śrīcakra for the sake of prosperity. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Kathā

Pātāla (पाताल, “nether regions”) is the name of a region where Nāgas are born and assume forms at will, according to the sixth Ucchvāsa of the Udayasundarīkathā. It is in this world where the aged Śeṣa resides and king Śikhaṇḍatilaka lives in the captial city Indīvara. His daughter, Udayasundarī is the main heroine of the tale.

Soḍḍhala has given geographical references in the work. The nether regions were divided into seven divisions. In this matter he follows Vāyupurāṇa. Rājaśekhara also has referred to seven nether regions. In the Purāṇas they are

  1. Atala,
  2. Vitala,
  3. Sutala,
  4. Talātala,
  5. Mahātala,
  6. Rasātala
  7. and Pātāla.

The Udayasundarīkathā is a Sanskrit epic tale written by Soḍḍhala in the early 11th century, revolving around the Nāga princess Udayasundarī and Malayavāhana (king of Pratiṣṭhāna).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Pātāla (पाताल) refers to the “Underworld”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225-226).—Accordingly, while describing the shire of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, “[Then follows the image of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, which matches the conception of Kālarātri in the passage from the Mahābhārata:] Her feet were never bereft of cloths [dyed with] red lac thrown upon the mound of her seat [on the altar] as if they were the lives of all creatures arrived there for shelter; she resembled an inhabitant of the Underworld  (pātāla-nivāsinī) because of the intense darkness obstructed [only] by the flashes from axes, spears, etc., weapons deadly for beings, that seemed to hold nets of hair stuck from decapitations because of the reflections of black yak-tail whisks cast [upon their surfaces]; [...]”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Pātāla (पाताल) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Pātālanṛsiṃha or Pātālanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Pātāla (पाताल) refers to:—The lowest of the seven lower planetary systems. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Pāṭala (पाटल) refers to a type of flower (Bignonia Suaveolenis—“trumpet flower”), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If the eclipsed disc should appear yellow resembling the topaz in colour, the Vaiśyas will perish and there will be prosperity in the land. If the disc should appear to be burning, there will be fear from fire; if it should resemble gold ore, there will be wars in the land. If the disc should appear black resembling the colour of the stem of dūrvā grass (Agrostis linearis) or yellow, there will be much death in the land. If of the colour of the flower pāṭali [i.e., pāṭala-kusuma] there will be fear from lightning”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Pāṭala (पाटल) or Pāṭalaka refers to the “pink color” which were used as symbols for the unknowns, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—Āryabhaṭa I (499) very probably used coloured shots to represent unknowns. Brahmagupta (628) in the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta mentions varṇa as the symbols of unknowns. As he has not attempted in any way to explain this method of symbolism, it appears that the method was already very familiar. [...] In the case of more unknowns, it is usual to denote the first yāvattāvat and the remaining ones by alphabets or colours [e.g., pāṭala].—Cf. Pṛthūdakasvāmī (860) in his commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta (628) and Bhāskara II in the Bījagaṇita.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Pātāla (पाताल) refers to the “subterranean realms”, according to verse 3-52 of the Śivasaṃhitā.—Accordingly, “A man who dwells in the subterranean realms (pātāla-vāsin) [pātālavāsinaḥ puṃso] can see [up to] the world of Brahma. [This] power called Prāpti is very difficult to attain for those who are not Yogins”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Patala

A dancer. He lived in a village near Benares. One day, having earned some money in a fete in the city, he sat down on the bank of the river, eating and drinking with his wife. He became drunk, and fastening his lute round his neck, he went with his wife down to the river. The water filled his lute and he began to sink. His wife thereupon let go of his hand and came out of the river. Seeing him about to drown, the wife begged of him one song wherewith to earn her living. He sang her a stanza to the effect that the water of the Ganges, which was the salvation of many, proved to be his bane.

This story was among those related by the Bodhisatta in the Padakusalamanava Jataka (J.iii.507f). The Parupanas made the use of this story in poking fun at the Ekamsikas, because the texts chosen by the Ekamsikas to prove their case proved just the contrary (see Bode, op cit., 76, n. 3.).

2. Patala

A tank restored by Parakkamabahu I. Cv.lxviii.44.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Paṭala (पटल) refers to a “mass (of fire blaze)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān gives instructions for protection of crops]: “[...] They will be well protected. There will be a sealing of the boundaries for all Nāgas: the slopes of the great fire-mountain will completely cover the four directions and the great fire blaze mass (jvālā-paṭala) cloud that is the expanded [wings] of the Garuḍa speed bird, called a great mass, will cover the sky. It is there for the protection of all flowers and fruits. All Nāgas and so on will be burnt by that. All harmful Nāgas will be destroyed”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Pātāla (पाताल) refers to the “underworld”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, [while explaining the knowledge circle (jñānacakra)]: “[...] [There are accomplishments of] the sword, eye-ointment, and pill; [accomplishments of] the foot-ointment and alchemy; and accomplishments of the shoes, quicksilver, and the underworld (pātāla): the wise can attain [them] The third, the Knowledge Circle, is thus [taught]. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Pātāla (पाताल) or Saptapātāla refers to the “seven lower regions” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 123):

  1. dharaṇitala (the plains of the earth),
  2. acala (the mountain),
  3. mahācala (the great mountain),
  4. āpa (the water realm),
  5. kāñcana (the golden realm),
  6. sañjīva (the reviving hell),
  7. naraka (hell).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., pātāla). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Pāṭala (पाटल) is the name of the caitya-tree (identified with Bignonia suaveolens) under which the parents of Vāsupūjya are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to the Śvetāmbara tradition. According to the Digambara tradition the tree is known as Tenduva. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.

Vāsupūjya is the twelfth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Vasupūjya and his mother is Jayā according to Śvetāmbara or Vijayā according to Digambara, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Pātāla (पाताल) is the name of the Yakṣa accompanying Anantanātha: the fourteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The symbolic mark which distinguishes Anantanātha from all other Tīrthaṃkaras is the hawk according to Śvetāmbaras and the bear according to the Digambaras. The Yakṣa and Yakṣiṇī, the goblins, serving him are named Pātāla and Anantamatī (Śvetāmbara Aṃkuśā) respectively. The Chowri-waver, in his case, was king Puruṣottama-Vāsudeva by name. The tree associated with his enlightenment is Aśvattha (Ficus religioso).

The Digamhara and the Śvetāmbara books agree insofar as the [Pātāla] Yakṣa has three faces, six arms and the vehicle of a dolphin. The former texts state in a version of difference that he holds a goad, spear, bow, rope, plough and fruit and in additionbears a canopy of a three-hooded snake. The latter texts represent his hands as holding a lotus, sword, noose, mongoose, fruit and rosary.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Pātāla (पाताल) is the name of the Yakṣa (i.e., Śāsanadevatās or ‘messenger-deities’) associated with Ananta, according to chapter 4.4 [anantanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“Pātāla, originating in that congregation, three-faced, with a makara for a vehicle, red, with three right hands holding a lotus, sword, and noose, and with three left hands holding an ichneumon, shield, and rosary, became Śrī Ananta’s messenger-deity. Likewise originated, Aṅkuśā, fair-bodied, with a lotus-vehicle, with a sword and noose in her right hands, and a shield and goad in her left hands, became also a messenger-deity of Ananta Svāmin”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Pātāla (पाताल) refers to “hell”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Whatever objects, sentient and non-sentient, there are in the three worlds [com.—in heaven, earth (lit: mortality) and hell (svargamṛtyupātāle)], they all are described by mendicant as continually transitory. The meeting of beloved women is like a city in the sky. Youth or wealth is like a mass of clouds. Relations, children and bodies, etc. are perishable as lightning. You must understand that the whole action of the cycle of rebirth is thus momentary”.

2) Paṭala (पटल) refers to a “mass (of clouds)”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “The meeting of beloved women is like a city in the sky. Youth or wealth is like a mass of clouds (jalada-paṭala-tulya). Relations, children and bodies, etc. are perishable as lightning. You must understand that the whole action of the cycle of rebirth is thus momentary”.

Synonyms: Jāta, Prasara, Saṃbhāra, Pracaya, Jāla, Samūha.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Patala is the name of a flower (pushpa) mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Patala refers to the “trumpet-flower”.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees, creepers medicinal and flowering plants (e.g., Patala) and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Patala, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pātāla.—(IE 7-1-2), sometimes used to indicare ‘seven’. Note: pātāla is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Patala in India is the name of a plant defined with Alpinia galanga in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Languas vulgare J. König (among others).

2) Patala is also identified with Flueggea virosa It has the synonym Phyllanthus virosus Willd. (etc.).

3) Patala is also identified with Radermachera xylocarpa It has the synonym Bignonia xylocarpa Roxb. (etc.).

4) Patala is also identified with Stereospermum chelonoides It has the synonym Bignonia suaveolens Roxb.) (Bignonia L., named in honor of Abbé Jean Paul Bignon, 1662–1743, librarian to King Louis XIV. See Carl Linnaeus, Species Plantarum 2: 622–625. 1753 and Genera Plantarum Ed. 5. 273. 1754, Genera Plantarum 137. 1789, Henry C. Andrews, The Botanist’s Repository. 2: t. 86. London 1800. (etc.).

5) Patala is also identified with Stereospermum colais It has the synonym Dipterosperma personatum Hassk. (etc.).

6) Patala is also identified with Stereospermum suaveolens It has the synonym Stereospermum suaveolens (Roxb.) DC..

7) Patala is also identified with Trichosanthes cucumerina It has the synonym Trichosanthes pachyrrhachis Kundu (etc.).

8) Patala is also identified with Trichosanthes dioica.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, Zweite Auflage (1931)
· A review of the references to the Hortus malabaricus (1839)
· Taxon (1978)
· Plants of the Coast of Coromandel (1820)
· Ethnobotany (2004)
· Bulletin of the Botanical Society of Bengal (1948)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Patala, for example health benefits, chemical composition, diet and recipes, side effects, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

paṭala : (nt.) a covering; membrane; envelope; lining; film. || pātāla (nt.) an abyss; proclivity; the other side of the earth. pāṭala (adj.) pale-red; pink.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pāṭala, (adj.) (cp. Class. Sk. pāṭala, to same root as palita & pāṇḍu: see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under palleo & cp. paṇḍu) pale red, pink J. IV, 114. (Page 450)

— or —

Pātāla, (cp. Epic Sk. pātāla an underground cave) proclivity, cliff, abyss S. I, 32, 127, 197; IV, 206; Th. 1, 1104 (see Brethren 418 for fuller explanation); J. III, 530 (here explained as a cliff in the ocean). (Page 452)

— or —

Paṭala, (nt.) (connected with paṭa, cp. Sk. paṭala in meaning “section” Vedic, in all other meanings later Sk. ) 1. a covering, membrane, lining, envelope, skin, film Vism. 257 (maṃsa° of the liver, where KhA 54 reads maṃsa-piṇḍa), 359 (phaṇa°); DhsA. 307 (7 akkhi° membranes of the eye); KhA 21 (samuppaṭana), 55 (udara° mucous membrane of the stomach), 61 (id.); DhsA. 330 (id.); SnA 248 (id.); PvA. 186 (eka° upāhanā, singlelined, cp. paṭalika & palāsika & see Morris J. P. T. S. 1887, 165); Vism. 446 (kappāsa° film of cotton seed); Bdhd 66 (id.).—2. roof, ceiling PvA. 52 (ayo° of iron). ‹-› 3. a heap, mass (esp. of clouds) J. I, 73 (megha°); DhsA. 239 (abbha°).—madhu° honey comb J. I, 262; DhA. I, 59; III, 323.—4. cataract of the eye Dāvs. V, 27. (Page 391)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paṭala (पटल).—n (S) A coat or an integument; a covering skin or membrane. 2 A coat of the eye. 3 A film over the eye, the web or nebula. 4 fig. A film over the understanding. In this sense mōhapaṭala or māyēcēṃ paṭala, ajñānapaṭala, andhakārapaṭala, dvaitapaṭala. 5 (In Sanskrit. Multitude, quantity, heap.) A cloud, volume, dense mass (as of dust or smoke.)

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pāṭala (पाटल).—a (S) Of a pink or pale red color. 2 A color of cows,--white mixed with red.

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pātalā (पातला).—(An old preterit of pāvaṇēṃ To attain unto. Found abundantly in poetry.) Arrived at or reached: also come upon or happened unto: also come about or taken place.

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pātaḷa (पातळ).—a ( H) Thin, not thick. 2 Thin, dilute, weak--a liquid substance. 3 Of loose texture; not closely compacted--cloth &c. 4 Rare, tenuous, not dense. 5 Not close; separated by wide intervals; thinly scattered; sparse. 6 Lean, slim, slender. 7 Faint, feeble, slight--acquaintance, affection, love, friendship.

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pātaḷa (पातळ).—n A lower garment of females.

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pātāla (पाताल).—n (S) pop. pātāḷa n Hell; the regions under the earth, and the abode of the nāga or serpents. A common term for the seven infernal regions. See saptapātāla. 2 Used fig. as per ex. ēkā upāsānēṃ ḍōḷē pātāḷānta gēlē or pōṭa pātāḷāsa gēlēṃ. pātāḷa phōḍūna or pātāḷāntūna kāḍhaṇēṃ To bring to light (some deed of darkness). 2 To make a farfetched conjecture or imagination; to draw ex imo profundo. pātāḷīṃ ghālaṇēṃ To ruin utterly.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

paṭala (पटल).—n A coat; a covering skin. A cos of the eye. A film over the under- standing. A cloud, volume.

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pāṭala (पाटल).—a Of a pink colour.

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pātalā (पातला).—n Arrived at or reached.

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pātaḷa (पातळ).—a Thin Of loose texture. Rare. Lean. Faint, slight. n A lower gar- ment of females.

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pātāla (पाताल).—n pātāḷa n Hell; the regions under the earth. pātāḷa phōḍūna or pātāḷāntūna kāḍhaṇēṃ To bring to light (some deed of dark- ness). pātāḷī ghālaṇēṃ To ruin utterly.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paṭala (पटल).—[paṭ veṣṭane kalac]

1) A roof, thatch; विनमितपटलान्तं दृश्यते जीर्णकुड्यम् (vinamitapaṭalāntaṃ dṛśyate jīrṇakuḍyam) Mu.3.15.

2) A cover, covering, veil, coating (in general); शिरसि मसीपटलं दधाति दीपः (śirasi masīpaṭalaṃ dadhāti dīpaḥ) Bv.1. 74.

3) A film or coating over the eyes.

4) A heap, multitude, mass, quantity; रथाङ्गपाणेः पटलेन रोचिषाम् (rathāṅgapāṇeḥ paṭalena rociṣām) Śi. 1.21; जलदपटलानि (jaladapaṭalāni) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.361; क्षौद्रपटलैः (kṣaudrapaṭalaiḥ) R.4.63; मुक्तापटलम् (muktāpaṭalam) 13.17; तारकपटल (tārakapaṭala) Gītagovinda 7.

5) A basket.

6) Retinue, train.

7) A mark on the forehead or any other part of the body.

-laḥ, -lī 1 A tree.

2) A stalk.

3) A collection; आयुर्वायुविघट्टिताभ्रपटलीलीनाम्बुवद् भङ्गुरम् (āyurvāyuvighaṭṭitābhrapaṭalīlīnāmbuvad bhaṅguram) Bh.

-laḥ, lam A section or chapter of a book.

Derivable forms: paṭalam (पटलम्).

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Pāṭala (पाटल).—a. [paṭ ṇic kalac] Pale-red, of a pink of palered colour; अग्रे स्त्रीनखपाटलं कुरबकम् (agre strīnakhapāṭalaṃ kurabakam) V.2.7; R.1.83;2. 29;7.27; पाटलपाणिजाङ्कितमुरः (pāṭalapāṇijāṅkitamuraḥ) Gītagovinda 12.

-laḥ The pale-red or pink colour; कपोलपाटलादेशि बभूव रघुचेष्टितम् (kapolapāṭalādeśi babhūva raghuceṣṭitam) R.4.68.

2) The trumpet-flower, Bignonia Suaveolens; पाटलसंसर्गसुरभि- वनवाताः (pāṭalasaṃsargasurabhi- vanavātāḥ) Ś.1.3.

-lam 1 The flower of this tree; R.16. 52; यत् स भग्नसहकारमासवं रक्तपाटलसमागमं पपौ (yat sa bhagnasahakāramāsavaṃ raktapāṭalasamāgamaṃ papau) 19.46.

2) A kind of rice ripening in the rains.

3) Saffron.

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Pāṭalā (पाटला).—

1) The red Lodhra.

2) The trumpet-flower (the tree or its blossom).

3) An epithet of Durgā.

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Pātāla (पाताल).—[patatyasminnadharmeṇa pat-ālañ; cf. Uṇādi-sūtra 1.114]

1) The last of the seven regions or worlds under the earth said to be peopled by Nāgas. the seven regions are:-- अतल, वितल, सुतल, रसातल, तलातल, महातल (atala, vitala, sutala, rasātala, talātala, mahātala) and पाताल (pātāla).

2) The lower regions or world in general; मा मेति व्याहरत्येव तस्मिन् पातालमभ्यगात् (mā meti vyāharatyeva tasmin pātālamabhyagāt) R.15.84;1.8; पातालान्न विमोचितो बत बली नीतो न मृत्युः क्षयम् (pātālānna vimocito bata balī nīto na mṛtyuḥ kṣayam) Subhāṣ.

3) An excavation, a hole.

4) Submarine fire.

5) (In astrol.) The fourth house or sign from that in which the sun is present.

-laḥ 1 A kind of instrument for distillation or the calcination and sublimation of metals.

2) Name of Jupiter's year (of 361 days).

Derivable forms: pātālam (पातालम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pāṭala (पाटल).—(?) , nt. (= Sanskrit paṭala, which is read in one ms. of Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā and should perhaps be adopted), film on the eye, cataract: akṣirogo vā pāṭalaṃ (v.l. pa°) vā bhavet Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 97.10.

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Pātāla (पाताल).—name of a locality: Mahā-Māyūrī 90 (compare Lévi p. 103, suggesting the port at the mouth of the Indus).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṭala (पटल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) A heap, a number, a quantity or multitude. nf. (-laṃ-lī) 1. A chapter of a book. 2. A tree. 3. A stalk. mf.

(-laḥ-lā) A roof, a thatch. n.

(-laṃ) 1. A cover, a coating, an enclosing or surrounding skin or membrance. 2. A place, a spot, a circle or district. 3. A mark on the forehead with Sandal wood 4. A basket. 5. Train, retinue. 6. A coat or film over the eyes. E. paṭ to go, kalac aff.

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Pāṭala (पाटल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) Of a pink or pale-red colour. m.

(-laḥ) 1. Pale-red, rose colour. 2. Rice ripening in the rains. f.

(-lā) 1. The Trumpetflower, (Bignonia suave-olens.) 2. Red Lodh'. 3. A name of Durga. 4. Pale-red. nf.

(-laṃ-lā) 1. The flower of the Bignonia snave-olens. 2. Rice. 3. Saffron. E. pāṭa extension, and to get, aff. ḍa; also pāṭali; or paṭa-ṇic-kalac .

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Pātāla (पाताल).—n.

(-laṃ) The regions under the earth, and the abode of the Nagas or serpents. 2. A hole, a chasm. 3. Submarine fire. 4. The fourth sign from that in which the sun is present. m.

(-laḥ) A sort of apparatus for calcining and subliming metals, formed of two earthen pots, the upper one inverted over the lower, and the two joined together by their necks with cement, and placed in a hole containing fire. E. pat to alight, Unadi aff. ālañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṭala (पटल).—I. n. 1. A roof. 2. A coverture, a veil, [Prabodhacandrodaya, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 116, 15. 3. A film over the eyes, [Suśruta] 2, 277, 4. 4. A heap, a multitude, Mahābhārata 12, 4249. Ii. m. and n. A section of a book.

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Pāṭala (पाटल).—I. adj., f. . 1. Of a pale red colour, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 7, 24. 2. Pallid, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 182. Ii. m. 1. Pale red, rose colour, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 4, 68. 2. A kind of rice ripening in the rains. 3. A proper name. 4. The tree of trumpet flower, Bignonia suaveolens. Iii. f. , The tree and its flower. Iv. n. Its flower, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 152.

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Pātāla (पाताल).—i. e. perhaps pāta -ālaya, n. 1. One of the seven hells, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 209, 3. 2. The regions under the earth, and the abode of the Nāgas or serpents.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paṭala (पटल).—[neuter] ī [feminine] cover, veil, screen, roof, basket, chest, heap, mass, multitude; [neuter] & [masculine] division, section, chapter of a book.

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Pāṭala (पाटल).—[adjective] pale-red; [masculine] pale-red colour, redness; [Name] of a tree, [neuter] its blossom, [feminine] ā = both.

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Pātāla (पाताल).—[neuter] lower world, abode of serpents or demons, also a cert. hell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paṭala (पटल):—[from paṭ] n. (and rarely f(ī). ) a roof, thatch, [Varāha-mihira]

2) [v.s. ...] a veil, cover, [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] (ifc. f(ā). )

3) [v.s. ...] a basket, chest, box, [Bālarāmāyaṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] a heap, mass, multitude ([especially] in [compound] with a word denoting ‘cloud’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] nm. an enclosing or surrounding skin or membrane ([especially] of the eyes), a film over the eyes, cataract etc., [Suśruta; Kāraṇḍa-vyūha]

6) [v.s. ...] n. a chip, piece, portion, [Kādambarī]

7) [v.s. ...] a section or chapter of a book ([especially] of [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya])

8) [v.s. ...] train, retinue, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a (sectarian or ornamental) mark on the forehead or other parts of the body with sandal-wood, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] m. [varia lectio] for paṭara (See above)

11) [v.s. ...] mf. a tree or a stalk (vṛkṣa [varia lectio] vṛnta), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) Pāṭala (पाटल):—mf(ā)n. pale red, pink, pallid, [Kauśika-sūtra; Varāha-mihira; Kāvya literature]

13) m. a pale red hue, rose colour, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

14) Bignonia Suaveolens (the tree bearing the trumpet-flower), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

15) a species of rice ripening in the rains, [Suśruta]

16) Rottleria Tinctoria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

18) Pāṭalā (पाटला):—[from pāṭala] f. Bignonia Suaveolens, [Kāvya literature]

19) [v.s. ...] red Lodhra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] a kind of fresh water fish, [Suśruta]

21) [v.s. ...] a form of Durgā, [Tantrasāra]

22) [v.s. ...] of Dākṣāyaṇī, [Matsya-purāṇa]

23) Pāṭala (पाटल):—n. the trumpet-flower (also f(ā). ), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

24) saffron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) Pātāla (पाताल):—[from pāt] n. (rarely m.; ifc. f(ā). ; perhaps [from] 2. pāta as antarāla [from] antar; cf. [Uṇādi-sūtra i, 116]) one of the 7 regions under the earth and the abode of the Nāgas or serpents and demons (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 102 n. 1 etc.]; sometimes used as a general Name for the lower regions or hells; in [Mahābhārata] also Name of a town in the serpent-world), [Āruṇeya-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

26) [v.s. ...] an excavation, hole in the earth, [Mahābhārata]

27) [v.s. ...] she submarine fire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

28) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) the fourth house, [Varāha-mihira]

29) [v.s. ...] Name of a Tīrtha, [Catalogue(s)]

30) [v.s. ...] m. = yantra blow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

31) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) Name of Jupiter’s year of 361 days

32) [v.s. ...] (in music) a kind of measure

33) [v.s. ...] Name of the attendant of the 14th Arhat of present Ava-sarpiṇī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paṭala (पटल):—(laṃ) 1. n. A cover, a membrane; a district; a mark on the forehead; a basket; a retinue; coat of the eye. (laḥ-lā-laṃ) A heap, number, quantity. m. f. (laḥ-lā) A roof or thatch. n. f. (laṃ-lī) A book; a tree; a stalk.

2) Pāṭala (पाटल):—(laḥ) 1. m. Pale red; rice ripening in the rains. f. () Bignonia suave-olens. f. n. Its flower, red Lodh; Durgā. a. Pink.

3) Pātāla (पाताल):—(laṃ) 1. n. Regions under the earth, the abode of serpents; a hole; submarine fire; fourth sign from the sun. m. Apparatus for the calcining of metals.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Paṭala (पटल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Paḍala, Payāla, Pāḍala, Pāḍalā, Pāyāla.

[Sanskrit to German]

Patala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Paṭala (पटल) [Also spelled patal]:—(nm) a table; film; screen; board; layer; ~[likā] lamella.

2) Patalā (पतला) [Also spelled patla]:—(a) thin, slender, tenuous; fine; flimsy, dilute(d); narrow; ~[pana] thinness; slenderness, tenuouness; fineness; flimsiness, dilution; narrowness; —[dubalā] lean and thin; emaciated; —[paḍanā] to be mellowed down; to be afflicted; to be diluted; —[mūtanā] to yield, to admit being inferior; [patalī āvāja] tanyphonia.

3) Pāṭala (पाटल) [Also spelled patal]:—(nm) a typical ochre-coloured flower and its tree; (a) rose-red, ochrous.

4) Pātāla (पाताल) [Also spelled patal]:—(nm) the nether-most world; —[loka] the nether-most world (as referred to in the Puranas), the farthest of the seven nether-worlds.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Paṭala (ಪಟಲ):—

1) [noun] the climber Trichosanthes anguina of Cucurbitaceae family.

2) [noun] its gourd, used as a vegetble.

--- OR ---

Paṭala (ಪಟಲ):—

1) [noun] the roof of a building.

2) [noun] a screen or veil.

3) [noun] an eye disease in which the crystalline lens or its capsule becomes opaque, causing partial or total blindness; cataract.

4) [noun] a multitude, crowd, herd; etc.

5) [noun] a chapter or division of a book.

6) [noun] a celluloid sheet formerly used in photography.

7) [noun] a sheet of paper used to write on.

--- OR ---

Paṭaḷa (ಪಟಳ):—[noun] = ಪಟಲ [patala]2.

--- OR ---

Pataḷa (ಪತಳ):—[noun] that which is not dense, thick.

--- OR ---

Pāṭala (ಪಾಟಲ):—[adjective] of pale red, pink colour.

--- OR ---

Pāṭala (ಪಾಟಲ):—

1) [noun] the pale red or pink colour.

2) [noun] the tree Stereospermum suaveolens ( = Bignonia suaveolens) of Bignoniaceae family.

3) [noun] its flower.

4) [noun] a variety of rice, harvested during rainy season.

--- OR ---

Pāṭalā (ಪಾಟಲಾ):—

1) [noun] the climber Trichosanthes anguina of Cucurbitaceae family.

2) [noun] its gourd, used as a vegetable; snake gourd.

--- OR ---

Pāṭaḷa (ಪಾಟಳ):—[adjective] = ಪಾಟಲ [patala]1.

--- OR ---

Pāṭaḷa (ಪಾಟಳ):—[noun] = ಪಾಟಲ [patala]2.

--- OR ---

Pātāla (ಪಾತಾಲ):—[noun] = ಪಾತಾಳ [patala].

--- OR ---

Pātāḷa (ಪಾತಾಳ):—

1) [noun] (myth.) one of the seven regions under the earth and the abode of serpents and demons.

2) [noun] the submarine fire.

3) [noun] (fig.) anything too deep for measurement; profound depth; an abyss.

4) [noun] (astrol.) the fourth house from the birth house.

5) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number seven.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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