Tara, Tārā, Tāra: 38 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Tara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Tārā (तारा):—She is the wife of Bṛhaspati. She was kidnapped by Soma, the moon-god. Soma (the moon-god) and Tārā begat a son called Budha. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.14.3-14)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Tāra (तार).—A monkey who was a devotee of Śrī Rāma. This big monkey was the son of Bṛhaspati. Bṛhaspati made this monkey greater in size and intellect than all other monkeys. This Tāra was the minister of Bāli. (Śloka 10, Sarga 17, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa and Uttara Rāmāyaṇa). In the Rāma-Rāvaṇa battle this monkey fought against the demon Nikharvaṭa. (Śloka 9, Chapter 285, Vana Parva).

2) Tārā (तारा).—Wife of Bāli, best of Vānaras (monkeys). There are two stories different from each other regarding the birth of Tārā. One version is that Tārā was born during the churning of the Milk-Ocean. Airāvata, Uccaiśśravas, Kalpavṛkṣa, Cintāmaṇi, Kaustubha, Candra, Apsarases, Mahālakṣmī Tārā and Rumā rose from the sea of Milk. (Yuddha Kāṇḍa, Kamba Rāmāyaṇa). The second version is that Tārā was the daughter of Suṣeṇa. Bāli at the time of his death is said to have spoken thus of his wife Tārā "Tārā, daughter of Suṣeṇa, is well learned and is capable of assessing a situation and suggesting the correct thing to be done at that time. If she says a thing is good, it is never otherwise." (Chapter 22, Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa). From this it can be understood that Tārā was the daughter of Suṣeṇa and we get an idea of the character of Tārā also from this. (See under Bāli).

3) Tārā (तारा).—Wife of Bṛhaspati. She was extremely beautiful. Once she fell in love with Candra (Moon) and leaving her husband started living with him. Candra was the disciple of Bṛhaspati. The devas were angry when they found the wife of their preceptor staying with a disciple of his. Bṛhaspati sent word to her to return home but she did not heed. At last the Devas decided to fight against Candra. Then they came to a compromise and Tārā was sent back to Bṛhaspati. In due course Tārā delivered a son. He was Budha, father of Purūravas. There arose then a dispute between Candra and Bṛhaspati regarding the fatherhood of the child. Then the Devas called Tārā and asked her to name the child’s father. Tārā said that the child was of Candra and so Budha was looked after at the house of Candra. (9th Skandha, Bhāgavata).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Tāra (तार).—A monkey chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 231.

1b) A God of the Harita gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 85.

2a) Tārā (तारा).—The wife of Bṛhaspati, and abducted by Soma. Of this union was born Budha. Through Brahmā's influence she was restored to her husband; (came back to Bṛhaspati after a battle between the Devas and the Dānavas).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 14. 4-8, 13-14; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 65. 29; Matsya-purāṇa 23. 30-47; 24. 3; Vāyu-purāṇa 90. 28-35, 43. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 6. 10-33.

2b) A Brahmavādinī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 33. 18.

2c) A daughter of Suṣeṇa and queen of Vāli; her son was Aṅgada.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 219.

2d) Also Toraṇeśvari and Tārāmbikā; a Śakti living in the midst of waters that could be crossed only by boats of different sizes.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 12-24, 58; 36. 16; 44. 80.

2e) The goddess enshrined at Kiṣkindhaparvata.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 46.

2f) One of the ten branches of the Harita group of Devas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 89.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Tāra (तार) refers to one of the sons of Bāṇa or Bāṇāsura: the son of Bali, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Prahlāda’s son was Virocana who was killed by Viṣṇu and his son Bali became the king. He was pious and virtuous and was bound to Pātalā by Viṣṇu. Bāṇāsura was the son of Bali, who was a devotee of Śiva. The Lord gave Bāṇāsura the status of the leader of a Gaṇa. The son’s of Bāṇa were [viz., Tāra].

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Tārā (तारा, “star”):—The second of the ten Mahāvidyās. She represents the cosmic power of consumption. The human absolute need for food resembles the cosmic force of hunger. The ten Mahāvidyās are the emanations of Mahākālī, the Goddess of time and death. She is depicted as a fearful laughing goddess with four arms entwined with poisonous snakes in her hair. She has three red eyes, a wagging tongue and feaful teeth. Her left foot is standing on a corpse

Source: Red Zambala: The 10 Great Wisdom Goddesses

The Star (Tārā) is the first force that arises in the Bindu [Golden-Embryo — Hiraṇya-garbha], the cosmic location from which the universe evolves. The nature of the Golden Embryo can well be said to be hunger and its power lies in the ability to devour. The name given to this pure and absolute, hunger is — “the Star” (Tārā).

Although the word Tārā means a star, the Tantras take its etymology to mean “that which leads to the other shore.” “She who brings us to the other shore (Tārāti) is Tārā.”

Just as the nature of hunger is twofold - ravenous, all-consuming, driving, forcing before consumption, and the other pacified, peaceful and contented after consumption —Tārā also is depicted in a dual aspect, the one fierce, fearful, all-devouring, the other pacified and luminous. This is duality is also the nature of the sun and of all beings.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Tārā (तारा).—The wife of Bṛhaspati. She was kidnapped by the moon-god.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Tārā (तारा) refers to the “eyeballs”. It is one of the parts of the human body with which gestures (āṅgika) are performaned, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These nine movements of the eyeballs (tārā) are followed by the corresponding nine gestures of the eyeballs (puṭa). These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

There are nine kinds of gestures defined for the eyeballs (tārā):

  1. bhramaṇa (moving round),
  2. valana (turning),
  3. pāta, pātana (relaxing),
  4. calana (trembling),
  5. saṃpraveśana (drawing inside),
  6. vivartana (turning sideways),
  7. samudvṛtta (raising up),
  8. niṣkrama (going out),
  9. prākṛta (natural).

2) Tāra (तार, “high”) refers to “high pitches” and is one of the ten characteristics (gati) of the jāti (melodic class), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28. It is also known as tāragati or tārasvara. Jāti refers to a recognized melody-type and can be seen as a precursor to rāgas which replaced them.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 28.93-94, “the high pitch movement (tāra-gati) depending on the first five notes, e.g., The raising of the pitch from the any of the aṃśa notes (svara) should be up to the note fourth from it, or it may be to the fifth note even, but not to any beyond it”.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Tāra (तार, “pupils”) refers to one of the twelve “subsidiary limbs” (upāṅga), which represents a division of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Upāṅgas or the subsidiary limbs consist of the eyes, the eye-brows, pupils [viz., Tāra], cheeks, nose, jaws, lips, teeth, tongue, chin, face, and the head.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Tāra (तार, “high”).—Illustration of tāra-grāma (highest group of tones) according to 15th century art.—The colour of the body of tāra-grāma is light-red. He holds a vīṇā (Indian lute) with both hands. The colour of the scarf is blue with a red design and the lower garment is yellow with a black design. He is well-dressed and his ears, throat and the head are well ornamented.

The illustrations (of, for example Tāra) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Tara (तर).—tad. affix तरप् (tarap) added to bases showing excellence (अतिशायन (atiśāyana)) when the excellence shown is between two persons; e. g. अनयोः सुकुमारतरः सुकुमारतरा, पचतितराम् (anayoḥ sukumārataraḥ sukumāratarā, pacatitarām); cf. Kas. on P. V.3.57. The affix तरप् (tarap) is called घ (gha) just like तमप् (tamap); cf P.I. 1.22.

--- OR ---

1) Tāra (तार).—Elevated, high; a place for the production of words; cf. T.Pr. XVII. 11;

2) Tāra.—Recital in a high tone which is recommended in the evening time; cf. तारं तु विद्यात्सवने तृतीये, शिरोगतं तत्र सदा प्रयोज्यम् (tāraṃ tu vidyātsavane tṛtīye, śirogataṃ tatra sadā prayojyam) com. on T. Pr. XXIII. 12.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Tāra (तार) or Tārāgama refers to one of the upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Yogajāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Tāra-āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Yogaja-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Tāra (तार) is another name for Kruṣṭa: a type of tone which is used in chanting hyms.—Another [commentator] distinguishes three high tones, the kruṣṭa (also called tāra or krauñca), the madhyama, and the mandra, and assigns the madhyama to the Sāmidhenī hymns. The mandra notes come from the chest, the madhyama notes from the throat, the uttama notes from the head.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Tāra (तार) refers to “bright”, “radiant”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 7.29. The word means “radiant” in the [passages of] Maṅkhaka 10.11; Haravijaya 23.62; 7.64; 5.149; 5.111; 4.2.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Tārā (तारा) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Tārā has 14 mātrās in each of its four lines, divided into the groups of 4, 4, [ISI] and [S] mātrās.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Tara is the wife of Brihaspati. She bore him seven sons and a daughter. She commited adultery with Chandra and gave birth to his son Budha.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Hinduism, the goddess Tārā (तारा) meaning “star”, is the second of the Dasa (ten) Mahavidyas or “Great Wisdom goddesses”, is a form of Durga or Parvati. Tantric manifestations of Durga or Mahadevi, Kali, or Parvati. As the star is seen as a beautiful but perpetually self-combusting thing, so Tara is perceived at core as the absolute, unquenchable hunger that propels all life.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Tārā (तारा) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Tārā).

2) Tāra (तार) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

1) Tārā refers to a group of deities according to different colours.—Tārā is the common name applied to a large number of feminine deities in the Buddhist pantheon. In the Sādhanamālā, Jāṅgulī, Parṇaśabarī. Mahācīnatārā, Ekajaṭā and many others are called Tārās, including Khadiravaṇī.

Strictly speaking, only those deities can be called Tārās to whom the mantra: “oṃ tārā tuttāre ture svāhā” is assigned. In the simplest form Tārās carry the night lotus in the left hand and exhibit the varadamudrā in the right. Some of them bear the miniature image of Amoghasiddhi on their crowns, but others may not have any effigy of the Dhyāni Buddha.

From the colour of the different Tārās it will be possible to refer them to their respective Kulas or families presided over by the five Dhyāni Buddhas.

  1. Green Tārā,
  2. White Tārā,
  3. Yellow Tārā,
  4. Blue Tārā,
  5. Red Tārā.

2) Tārā (तारा) or Tāriṇī is the Śakti, or female counterpart (spiritual consort) of Amoghasiddhi: one of the Dhyāni-Buddhas, according to Vajrayāna or Tantric Buddhism.—Her colour is green; and her symbol is utpala.—According to a Dhyāna found in the Pañcākāra section of the Advayavajrasaṃgraha, [Tārā] belongs to the Karma family to which evidently the Dhyāni Buddha Amoghasiddhi is also associated. The green colour of Tārā also suggest that she is the spiritual consort of Amoghasiddhi of green colour.

Tārā’s form and nature are given in the Advayavajrasaṃgraha:—“In the īśāna corner on the orb of the moon there is Tāriṇī originating from the germ syllable Tāṃ of golden green colour. Her recognition symbol is a green night lotus. She is the embodiment of the element of Air. She belongs to the Karma family and is full of jealousy”.

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Tārā (तारा) is the presiding deity of the western lotus of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala, according to the Vārāhyabhyudayatantra (largerly extracted from the 10th century Abhidhānottaratantra). She is the presiding lady (kuleśvarī) of the padma (Amitābha) family. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī, which is modeled upon the twelve-armed Cakrasaṃvara, thus inhibiting many similar iconographical features.

Tārā has three faces of three colors (red, yellow and green) and is to be visualised as naked and wearing only a agarland of heads, dancing upon the four māras. She has six arms and her attributes include the cihnam (family emblem), the vajra, the double vajra, a red lotus and a wheel.

The lotus upon which Tārā presides has 6 petals and corresponding goddesses residing in pīṭhas (sacred site):

  1. Śyāmā in Kaliṅga,
  2. Subhadrā in Lampāka,
  3. Hayakarṇā in Kāñcī,
  4. Khagānanā in Himālaya,
  5. Cakravegā in Pretapurī,
  6. Khaṇḍarohā in Gṛhadevatā.

2) Tārā (तारा) is an alternative name of Narteśvarī: a deity to be contemplated upon by a practicioner purifying his correspondences (viśuddhi), according to the 12th-century Abhisamayamañjarī. Narteśvarī is alternatively known by the name Tārā, one of the traditional consorts of the Buddha and a mother of the yogatantra system. The contemplation is prescribed as a preliminary ritual for a yogin wishing to establish, or reestablish the union with a deity.

Tārā is associated with the element wind and the color green. She is to be visualised as assuming a kāpālika form, naked with loose hair and holding tantric attributes in their four arms.

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Tārā (तारा) or Tārī is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Tāra forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Hṛdayacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the hṛdayacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Tārā] and Vīras are reddish yellow in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Tārā (तारा) refers to the “shining goddess” and represents one of the “four Goddesses” (caturdevī) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 4). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., caturdevī and Tārā). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Shambala Publications: General

Tārā Skt. (Tib., Dolma), lit., “savior”; an em­anation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, said to arise from his tears in order to help him in his work. She embodies the feminine aspect of compassion and is a very popular deity in Tibetan Buddhism. The cult of Tārā was propa­gated in the 11th century, primarily by Atīsha. Since that time, veneration of Tārā as a yidam has been quite widespread. There are twenty-one forms of Tārā, which are differenti­ated iconographically by color, posture of the body, and differing attributes, and can in addi­tion appear in either a peaceful or a wrathful manifestation. The most frequently en­countered forms are Green Tara and White Tara. The two consorts of the Tibetan king Songtsen Gampo (7th century) are regarded as having been embodiments of these two Tārās.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Tāra (तार) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Tāra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Tārā (तारा) (or Dhāraṇī) is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Aranātha: the eighteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The eighteenth Jina Aranātha carries with him the mystic symbol of either the Nandyāvarta (a kind of Svastika) or a fish. His ministerial staff consists of the Yakṣa named Yakṣendra and Yakṣiṇī named Dhāraṇī Devī. The sacred tree peculiar to him is Cūta or mango tree. Govinda Rāja had the honour of holding his fly-whisk.

The Śvetāmbara texts described Dhāraṇī Yakṣiṇī as seated on a lotus and possessing four hands with a citrus, two lotuses, and a rosary. Tārā, the Yakṣiṇī of the Digambara is to appear, according to them, as riding on a swan and holding a snake, Vajra, deer and Varada-mudrā. In this case, like more cases, the Yakṣiṇī Dhāraṇī bears the Yakṣa symbol of a citrus together with other symbols, which explain her mixed origin. The name Tārā renders her connection with the Brahmanie Tārā almost obvious. The snake symbol in her hand is primarily common to the deity of either sects.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Tara.—(EI 9), same as nilaya; the family aggregate of dwel- lings with some of them meant for servants and artisans; also a strect or a hamlet. (HRS), same as tara-deya, ferry dues, as indicated by the Arthaśāstra. See tārya. Cf. taram (EI 7), revenue. Note: tara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

tara : (adj.) (in cpds.), crossing; passing over. || tārā (f.), star.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Tārā, (f.) (Sk. tārā=Gr. a)stήr, a)ζton (=Lat. astrum, in E. disaster), Lat. stella, Goth. staírnō, Ohg. sterro (: E. star), perhaps loan word from Semitic sources) a star, a planet Sn. 687 (tārāsabha the lord, lit. “the bull” of the stars, i.e. the Moon).

— or —

Tara, (see tarati) (n.) crossing, “transit, ” passing over Sn. 1119 (maccu°).—(adj.) to be crossed, passable, in duttara hard to cross S. IV, 157; Sn. 174, 273 (oghaṃ t. duttaraṃ); Th. 2, 10; It. 57. Also as su-duttara S. I, 35; V, 24.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṭara (टर).—f Ridiculing, jeering, deriding: also ridiculed state. v uḍava, kara, uḍa, hō.

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ṭara (टर).—f (Imit.) The whirr! of a spinning top or whirligig.

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ṭāra (टार).—a Wild, wicked, unruly, full of pranks and mischief--a child.

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ṭāra (टार).—m A term for a horse in mentioning the four things of which the price or value is ever varying, or which carry off money beyond all computation; viz. ṭāra, nāra, gāra, sāra, horses, women, jewelry, draughts (i. e. dice). ṭāra n is A puny or sorry horse, and answers to rip, jade, hack. Hence applied angrily to a little and mischievous child.

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tara (तर).—f (S) A ferry-boat: also a raft or float. 2 A ferry. tarīpāra karaṇēṃ To ferry over; to deport over the seas; to transport.

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tara (तर).—ind An adjunct to Sanskrit adjectives, denoting the comparative degree; as duṣṭa, duṣṭatara, Bad, worse.

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tara (तर).—ad Then, in that case; correlative with jara If &c. 2 tara occurs variously as an expletive, and often with great significance and force. Ex. hō ātāṃ mī jātōṃ tara I will not budge a peg; tumhī tara lākha rūpayē māgatāṃ āṇi mī tara kēvaḷa garība paḍalōṃ. madhyēṃ tara disatēṃ or āhē Expresses contingency or conditionality. See parantu.

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tāra (तार).—f ( P) A wire; a piece of catgut; a string of silk &c. 2 A filament or thread of any viscous or inspissated substance. 3 Intoxication: also dullness from watching; dimness of vision from bile &c. v caḍha, yē, lāga. 4 fig. Habitual mind or bearing: also fixed attention; earnest engagedness. v lāga. 5 (Esp. in pl tārā) A low and allusive term for a hair of the pubes. Hence tārā upaṭaṇēṃ, tārā upaṭaṇārā &c. in the vulgar tongue. 6 fig. Thread, train, tenor, connection (as of a discourse). v lāva, lāga, dhara, sōḍa, suṭa. 7 Long-continuing train, proceeding, or subsisting (of a work, as of ploughing, writing, singing, or of any state, as of raining, shining, blowing); a consecution or course gen. v lāva, lāga. tāra ōḷakhaṇēṃ or jāṇaṇēṃ g. of o. To understand the mind, leaning, inclining of. tāra rākhaṇēṃ-sambhāḷaṇēṃ &c. To preserve the good will of. tārēsa ubhā rāhaṇēṃ or tārēnēṃ vāgaṇēṃ or cālaṇēṃ g. of o. To walk in the ways of: also tārēsa ubhā karaṇēṃ, tārēsa utaraṇēṃ g. of o. To meet the pleasure or mind of. tārēsa lāgaṇēṃ or asaṇēṃ To be engrossed by the desire or contemplation of. tārā tōḍaṇēṃ (To snap the chords.) To roar or bellow (overbearingly). gaḷā tāra āhē g. of s. (His &c.) throat is a musical chord. Said of a vocalist.

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tārā (तारा).—m (S) A star. 2 The pupil of the eye. 3 A meteor; a falling star. v tuṭa. 4 A firework,--a kind of rocket. 5 In astrology. The quotient resulting from dividing by nine the number obtained by counting from janmanakṣatra to any candranakṣatra. 6 A term for a smart, expert, clever fellow; an adept, a dabster: also for a beautiful or handsome person. tārē tuṭaṇēṃ To shoot--stars. 2 fig. To shine (in singing); to warble divinely. Said ironically of wretched screaming. Ex. kāya gāṇyācē tārē tuṭa- tāta hō! Said also of foolish talking. Used also, in praise, both of singing and of talking.

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tārā (तारा).—m (tāraṇēṃ or taraṇēṃ) Fordableness or a ford (esp. of creeks and inlets at low water). 2 Floating (upon water or in the air); as jahājācā- mahāgirīcā-vāvaḍīcā-ghārīcā-tārā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ṭara (टर).—f Ridiculing, jeering, deriding also ridiculed state.

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ṭara (टर) [-kan-kara-dinī-diśī, -कन्-कर-दिनी-दिशी].—ad Imit. of the sound in rending.

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tara (तर).—ad Then. f A ferry-boat; a raft. A ferry. tarīpāra karaṇēṃ Ferry over; transport.

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tāra (तार).—f A wire. A filament of any viscous substance. Intoxication. Habitual mind. Long-continuing train. tāra sambhā- ḷaṇēṃ To preserve the good-will of. tārēnēṃ vāgaṇēṃ To walk in the ways of. tārēsa lāgaṇēṃ To be engrossed. tāra tōḍaṇēṃ To roar or bellow.

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tārā (तारा).—m A star. The pupil of the eye. A meteor. A firework. A clever or hand- some fellow. tārē tuṭaṇēṃ To shoot-stars To warble divinely, said ironically of bad singing, also of foolish talking. Used also in praise of good singing or talking.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ṭāra (टार).—

1) A horse.

2) A catamite.

Derivable forms: ṭāraḥ (टारः).

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Tara (तर).—A Taddihita affix of the comparative degree, added to adjectives, nouns, and also to verbs and indeclinables in which latter case it is changed to तराम् (tarām). It is added, like तम (tama), to pronouns in the sense of 'one of two' e. g. कतर, ततर, यतर (katara, tatara, yatara) &c.

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Tara (तर).—&c. See under तॄ (tṝ).

See also (synonyms): taraṇa, taraṇi, taraṇḍa, tari, tarīṣa.

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Tāra (तार).—a. [tṝ-ṇic bhāve ac]

1) High (as a note.)

2) Loud, shrill (as a sound); नादस्तावद्विकलकुररीकूजितस्निग्ध- तारः (nādastāvadvikalakurarīkūjitasnigdha- tāraḥ) Māl.5.2.

3) Shining, radiant, clear; हारांस्तारां- स्तरलगुटिकान् (hārāṃstārāṃ- staralaguṭikān) (regarded as an interpolation in Me. by Malli.); उरसि निहितस्तारो हारः (urasi nihitastāro hāraḥ) Amaru.31; R.5.52.

4) Good, excellent, well-flavoured.

5) Clear, clean; 'तारो मुक्तादिसंशुद्धौ (tāro muktādisaṃśuddhau)' इति विश्वः (iti viśvaḥ); Śi.18.44.

-raḥ 1 The bank of a river.

2) The clearness of a pearl.

3) A beautiful or big pearl; हारममलतरतारमुरसि दधतम् (hāramamalataratāramurasi dadhatam) Gīt.11.

4) An epithet of (1) Visnu, (2) Śiva.

5) The mystical syllable ओम् (om) (praṇava).

6) Protection.

7) A high tone or note; दध्मौ शङ्खं च तारेण सिंहनादं ननाद च (dadhmau śaṅkhaṃ ca tāreṇa siṃhanādaṃ nanāda ca) Mb.7.156.9.

8) Crossing, passing over.

9) A thread, wire (tantu); यदा गतोद्वाहमकूजनाक्षं सुवर्णतारं रथमाततायी (yadā gatodvāhamakūjanākṣaṃ suvarṇatāraṃ rathamātatāyī) Mb.5.48.28.

-raḥ, -ram 1 A star or planet; (said to be f. also).

2) The pupil of the eye; (said to be -m. also).

3) A pearl (said to be f. also).

-ram 1 Silver; तारहेममहारत्नविमानशतसङ्- कुलम् (tārahemamahāratnavimānaśatasaṅ- kulam) Bhāg.4.6.27.

2) A seed-vessel (esp. of the lotus); शुक्लैः सतारैर्मुकुलीकृतैः स्थुलैः कुमुद्वतीनां कुमुदाकरैरिव (śuklaiḥ satārairmukulīkṛtaiḥ sthulaiḥ kumudvatīnāṃ kumudākarairiva) Śi.12.4.

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Tārā (तारा).—

1) A star or planet in general; हंसश्रेणीषु तारासु (haṃsaśreṇīṣu tārāsu) R.4.19; Bh.1 15.

2) A fixed star; Y.3.172; R. 6.22.

3) The pupil of the eye, the eye-ball; कान्तामन्तः- प्रमोदादभिसरति मदभ्रान्ततारश्चकोरः (kāntāmantaḥ- pramodādabhisarati madabhrāntatāraścakoraḥ) Māl.9.3; विस्मयस्मेरतारैः (vismayasmeratāraiḥ) 1.28; Ku.3.47.

4) A pearl.

5) (in Sāṅkhya Phil.) One of the 8 Siddhis.

6) (in music) Name of a Rāga of six notes.

7) A kind of perfume.

8) (a) Name of the wife of Vāli, king of the monkeys, and mother of Aṅgada. She in vain tried to dissuade her husband Vāli from fighting with Rāma and Sugrīva, and married Sugrīva after Vāli had been killed by Rāma. (b) Name of the wife of Bṛhaspati, the preceptor of the gods. She was on one occasion carried off by Soma (the moon) who refused to deliver her up to her husband when demanded. A fierce contest then ensued, and Brahmā had at last to compel Soma to restore her to her husband. Tārā gave birth to a son named Budha who became the ancestor of the Lunar race of kings (see Bhāg.9.14). (c) Name of the wife of Hariśchandra and mother of Rohidāsa (also called Tārāmatī). (d) Name of a Buddha goddess. (e) Name of a Śakti; Jaina.

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Tara (तर).—a. [tṝ-bhāve-ap]

1) Crossing.

2) Surpassing, excelling.

3) Conquering, overpowering; cf. दुस्तर (dustara).

-raḥ 1 Passing over, crossing, passage; उत्तेऊरतरान् नदान् (utteūratarān nadān) Bk.7.55.

2) Freight; दीर्घाध्वनि यथादेशं यथाकालं तरो भवेत् (dīrghādhvani yathādeśaṃ yathākālaṃ taro bhavet) Ms.8.46.

3) A road.

4) A ferry-boat.

5) Fire.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Tārā (तारा).—name of a Buddhistic goddess: Mahāvyutpatti 4280; Dhar-mas 4; Sādhanamālā 18.16 etc.; (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 10.16, at the head of a list of vidyārājñī; 40.10; 65.9, called ‘compassion of Avalo- kiteśvara’, Āryāvalokiteśvara-karuṇā; 69.16; 312.6; 576.11 etc.; 647.12 ff.

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Tārā (तारा) or Tāriṇī.—: Sādhanamālā 208.2 (prose), etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṭāra (टार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. horse. 2. A catamite. E. ṭāṃ pṛthvīmṛcchati ṛ-aṇ .

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Tara (तर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-rī-raṃ) Who or what passes over or beyond. m.

(-raḥ) 1. Passing over, crossing. 2. A float, a raft. 3. A road. 4. A tree. f. (-rī) 1. A boat. 2. A club. 3. A clothes basket, a Pitara. 4. Smoke. 5. A small wooden baling vessel. 6. The end of a garment. E. tṝ to cross, affix bhāve ap, fem. affix ṅīṣ; also with in affix tari, q. v. karttari ac . kṛśānau pu0 tarati anena karaṇe ap . ātare paṇādau .

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Tāra (तार).—mfn. adj.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. High, as a note in music. 2. Radiant, shining, radiating. 3. Clean, clear. 4. Good, excellent, well flavoured, &c. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A high note or tone in music. 2. Elegance of a pearl. 3. A clear or beautiful pearl. 4. Crossing, passing over, &c. 5. A wire, a cord. 6. The mystic monosyllable Om. 7. A mystical monosyllable in the Tantras. 7. The name of a monkey chief, the son Bali. N.

(-raṃ) 1. Silver. 2. A pearl. mfn. subst.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. The pupil of the eye. 2. A star in general, a planet, as asterism, &c. f.

(-rā) A female deity peculiar to the Baud'dha sect. 2. The wife of Vrihaspati. 3. The wife of the monkey king Bali. 4. A name of the goddes Durga. E. tṝ to pass or proceed; also in the causal, to cause to pass, and ṇic, ac or ghañ aff. saṃsārārṇavāt tārayati svajāpakān .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tara (तर).—i. e. tṛ10 + a, I. adj. Conquering, Mahābhārata 12, 10380. Ii. m. 1. Passage, crossing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 407. 2. Freight, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 406. 3. A certain spell for banishing demons, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 30, 4.

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Tāra (तार).—A. i. e. tṛ10 + a, I. adj. 1. Saving, Mahābhārata 13, 6986. 2. Piercing, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 44, 10; ºra + m, adv. Sounding loud, 92, 13. Ii. m. and n. A shrill loud sound, Mahābhārata 7, 6737. Iii. m. 1. A pearl, [Gītagovinda. ed. Lassen.] 11, 25. 2. A proper name, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 3, 24. B. (for original stāra, cf. 3. stṛ), I. (m.), f. (and n.), 1. A star, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 35, 16. 2. The pupil of the eye, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 31. Ii. f. , 1. A certain meteor, perhaps a shootingstar, [Varāhamihira's Bṛhajjātaka.] S. 32, 1. C. f. . 1. The knowledge which arises from reasoning in regard to the principles, the conditions of intellect, the elemental creation, Tattvas. 41 Ball. 2. The name of deities, Mahābhārata 5, 3972; of a monkey, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 67. D. n. Silver, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 6, 27.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tara (तर).—[adjective] crossing, surpassing, overcoming (—°); [masculine] passage, ferry, freight.

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Tāra (तार).—[adjective] all-pervading, [especially] of a sound, i.e. loud, high, shrill; or of light, i.e. shining, radiant.

— [masculine] passing over, crossing (only —°); saver, deliverer ([Epithet] of [several] gods), a clear or beautiful pearl, a man’s name. [feminine] ā a star or meteor, the pupil of the eye; [Name] of [several] goddesses & women. [neuter] descent to a river, bank; a loud or shrill sound (also [masculine]); tāram as [adverb] aloud; [comparative] tārataram, [superlative] tāratamam.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ṭāra (टार):—m. a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) a catamite, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Tara (तर):—1. tara an affix forming the [Comparative degree] degree of adjectives and rarely (cf. vṛtra-tara) of substantives, [Suśruta i, 20, 11]

4) (ām), added (in older language) to adverbs (See ati-tarām etc.) and (in later language) to verbs ([Pañcatantra i, 14, 7; Ratnāvalī iii, 9; Kathāsaritsāgara]), intensifying their meaning

5) ind. with na, not at all, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 46, 43.]

6) 2. tara mfn. (√tṝ; [gana] pacādi) carrying across or beyond, saving (?, said of Śiva), [Mahābhārata xii, 10380]

7) ifc. passing over or beyond, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) ‘surpassing, conquering’ See śoka-tara cf. rathaṃtara

9) excelling, w.

10) m. crossing, passage, [Ṛg-veda ii, 13, 12; viii, 96, 1; Manu-smṛti viii, 404 and 407; Yājñavalkya] (ifc.), [Mahābhārata xii]

11) m. (a-tara mfn. ‘impassable’), [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya vii, 55] (cf. dus-)

12) m. ‘excelling, conquering’ See duṣ-ṭara, su-tara, dus-

13) = -paṇya, [Manu-smṛti viii, 406]

14) a raft, [Horace H. Wilson]

15) a road, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) Name of a magical spell (against evil spirits supposed to possess certain weapons), [Rāmāyaṇa i, 30, 4]

17) fire, [Horace H. Wilson]

18) Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī vii, 809]

19) Tāra (तार):—mfn. (√tṝ) carrying across, a saviour, protector (Rudra), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xvi, 40; Śira-upaniṣad]

20) (Viṣṇu), [Mahābhārata xiii, 6986]

21) high (a note), loud, shrill (mn.) a high tone, loud or shrill note, [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa vii, 1, 7] ([Comparative degree] -tara and [superlative degree] -tama), [Taittirīya-prātiśākhya]

22) Śikṣā, [Mahābhārata vii; Mṛcchakaṭikā] etc.

23) ([from] stṛ?) shining, radiant, [Meghadūta; Amaru-śataka; Kathāsaritsāgara lxxiii; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

24) clean, clear, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) good, excellent, well flavoured, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]

26) m. ‘crossing’ See dus-, su-

27) ‘saving’, a mystical monosyllable (as om), [Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad; Yogaśikhā-upaniṣad; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha; Tantr.]

28) Andropogon bicolor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

29) Name of Maṇi-rāma (author of a [commentator or commentary] on [Bhāminī-vilāsa])

30) of a Daitya (slain by Viṣṇu), [Harivaṃśa]

31) of one of Rāma’s monkey generals (son of Bṛhas-pati, husband of Tārā), [Mahābhārata iii, 16372; Rāmāyaṇa i, iv, vi]

32) [plural] a class of gods in the 12th Manv-antara, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa iii, 2, 33]

33) m. [n. and f(ā). , [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]] the clearness or transparency of a pearl, clear pearl, [Suśruta v, 3, 19; Gīta-govinda xi, 25]

34) (m. n., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) = rābhra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

35) m. n. a star, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

36) the pupil of the eye, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

37) n. descent to a river, bank (cf. tīra, tīrtha), [Atharva-veda iv, 37, 3; Pāṇini 6-3, 109], [vArttika] 1

38) silver, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 6, 27; Bhāvaprakāśa v, 26, 43]

39) Tārā (तारा):—[from tāra] a f. ([gana] bhidādi) a fixed star, asterism (cf. stṛ), [Yājñavalkya iii, 172; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Mṛcchakaṭikā iii, 10])

40) [v.s. ...] the pupil of the eye (chiefly ifc.), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā lviii, 11 etc.]

41) [v.s. ...] a kind of meteor, [vli, 86 and 94]

42) [v.s. ...] (in Sāṃkhya [philosophy]) one of the 8 Siddhis, [Tattvasamāsa]

43) [v.s. ...] (in music) Name of a Rāga of six notes

44) [v.s. ...] a kind of perfume, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

45) [v.s. ...] a form of Dākṣāyaṇī (worshipped on the mountain Kiṣkindha, [Matsya-purāṇa xiii, 46]; protectress of the Gṛtsa-madas, [Brahma-purāṇa ii, 18, 8;] cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India] p.187)

46) [v.s. ...] Name of a, [Buddhist literature] goddess, [Vāsavadattā], 433

47) [v.s. ...] of Bṛhaspati’s wife (carried off by Soma), [Mahābhārata v, 3972; Harivaṃśa 1340 ff.; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc.

48) [v.s. ...] of the wife of Buddha Amoghasiddha, [Buddhist literature]

49) [v.s. ...] of a Śakti, [Jaina literature]

50) [v.s. ...] of a Yoginī, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi ii, 1, 710]

51) [v.s. ...] of a female monkey (daughter of Suṣeṇa, wife of Bālin and mother of Aṅgada), [Mahābhārata iii, 16110 ff.; Rāmāyaṇa i, iv, vi.]

52) [from tāra] b f. of ra q.v.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of tara in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

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