Kshaya, Kṣaya: 17 definitions

Introduction

Kshaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kṣaya can be transliterated into English as Ksaya or Kshaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Kṣaya (क्षय) is a Sanskrit technical term denoting a “residence” in general, according to the lists of synonyms given in the Mayamata XIX.10-12, the Mānasāra XIX.108-12 and the Samarāṅgaṇa-sūtradhāra XVIII.8-9, all populair treatises on Vāstuśāstra literature.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Kṣaya (क्षय) is a Sanskrit technical term, used in warfare, referring to the “fall” (of the king). The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Nītiprakāśikā 8.86)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kṣaya (क्षय).—A son of Bṛhadkṣaya.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 281.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kṣaya (क्षय) refers to “consumption”, and is mentioned in verse 2.12 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Kṣaya (“consumption”) has been reproduced by gcon-can, lit. “consumptive”, which makes no sense in this connection. The suffix can is likely to be corrupt for daṅ.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Kṣaya (क्षय) is mentioned as a disease that can be treated with metallic drugs including ingredients such as Tāmrabhasma (calcified copper), as mentioned in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha (chapter 3) written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha (mentioning kṣaya) has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kṣaya (क्षय) refers to “tuberculosis” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kṣaya] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: India National Science Academy: Diseases due to deficiencies of Vital Principles in the Body

Kṣaya (क्षय, “deficiency”).—In the medieval period, Vāgbhaṭa has described the following 18 types of kṣaya or deficiency:

  1. Vātakṣaya (general depression),
  2. Pittakṣaya (sensation of cold),
  3. Kaphakṣaya (looseness of the joints),
  4. Rasakṣaya (dryness in the body),
  5. Raktakṣaya (dryness of the skin),
  6. Māṃsakṣaya (pain in joints),
  7. Medakṣaya (spleenomegaly),
  8. Asthikṣaya (pain in bones),
  9. Majjākṣaya (dizziness and darkness),
  10. Śukrakṣaya (pain in testicles),
  11. Puriṣakṣaya (pain in chest),
  12. Mūtrakṣaya (burning micturition),
  13. Svedakṣaya (falling of hair follicles),
  14. Netrakṣaya (mala of the eyes),
  15. Nāsikākṣaya (mala of the nose),
  16. Karṇakṣaya (mala of the ears),
  17. Mukhakṣaya, (mala of the mouth)
  18. and Ojakṣaya (emotional disturbances).

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Kṣaya (क्षय) or Kṣayajñāna refers to the “knowledge of destruction” and represents one of the “ten knowledges” (jñāna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 93). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., kṣaya). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kṣaya (क्षय) refers to the “destruction (of karma)”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly,

“[...] Vajranābha instantly became completely acquainted with the ocean of scriptures, just as if the twelve aṅgas visible to the eye had become combined in one living body. Bāhu and the others were learned in eleven aṅgas. For the wealth of merit is varied in accordance with the variation in destruction (kṣaya) and subsidence (upaśama) of karma”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣaya (क्षय).—m (S) Waste, decline, decay, consumption. Pr. sukhānēṃ puṇyācā kṣaya duḥkhānēṃ pāpācā kṣaya. 2 Destruction, extinction, annihilation, loss, cessation of being or of present good quality. Ex. of comp. pāpakṣaya, puṇyakṣaya, kulakṣaya, dharmakṣaya, rājyakṣaya. 3 Consumption, Phthisis pulmonalis. 4 Decrease of the digits of the sun or moon. 5 A destruction of the universe. 6 In algebra. Negative quantity, minus: opp. to vṛddhi.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṣaya (क्षय).—m Consumption. Destruction. Minus in algebra.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṣaya (क्षय).—See under [kṣi].

--- OR ---

Kṣaya (क्षय).—[kṣi-ac]

1) A house, residence, abode; यातनाश्च यमक्षये (yātanāśca yamakṣaye) Ms.6.61; निर्जगाम पुनस्तस्मात्क्षयान्नारायणस्य ह (nirjagāma punastasmātkṣayānnārāyaṇasya ha) Mb.

2) Loss, decline, waste, wane, decay, diminution; आयुषः क्षयः (āyuṣaḥ kṣayaḥ) R.3.69; धनक्षये वर्धति जाठराग्निः (dhanakṣaye vardhati jāṭharāgniḥ) Pt.2.186; so चन्द्रक्षयः, क्षयपक्षः (candrakṣayaḥ, kṣayapakṣaḥ) &c.

3) Destruction, end, termination; निशाक्षये याति ह्रियैव पाण्डुताम् (niśākṣaye yāti hriyaiva pāṇḍutām) Ṛs.1.9; Amaru.6.

4) Pecuniary loss; Ms.8.41.

5) Fall (as of prices.)

6) Removal.

7) Universal destruction (pralaya).

8) Consumption.

9) A disease in general.

1) The negative sign or quantity, minus (in algebra).

11) Family, race.

12) The house of Yama.

13) A part of the elephant's knee (gajajānubhāgaviśeṣaḥ); Mātaṅga L.5.15.

14) Power (kṣī kṣayaiśvaryayorityaiśvaryārthasya kṣidhāto rūpam -Com. on Mb.12.33.2); उपपद्यति संयोगाद् गुणैः सह गुणक्षयात् (upapadyati saṃyogād guṇaiḥ saha guṇakṣayāt) ibid.

-yam Name of the last year in the sixty years cycle.

Derivable forms: kṣayaḥ (क्षयः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kṣaya (क्षय).—m. (as in Sanskrit, and Pali khaya), exhaustion, perishing, decay; (special uses, 1) āyuḥ-kṣayāya Mahāvastu i.52.6, āyuḥkṣayāya ca karmakṣayāya ca i.338.17, (beings fall from heaven to earth) in order to ‘exhaust’ (work out, finish) their (destined) life (and the force of their past deeds); so, I agree with Senart, the text seems to mean; but in the Pali form of the same passage Dīghanikāya (Pali) i.17.27 we find ablatives, āyukkhayā vā puññakkhayā vā, because of the exhaustion of their lives (in heaven) or of their merits (entitling them to live there, they fall to earth); (2) kṣaya- jñāna (= Pali khayañāṇa), knowledge of (the fact of) decay, perishability, in °na-lābhikaṃ kuśalamūlam Mahāvyutpatti 1209; a-śuddha-kṣayajñāna-viṣayiṇāṃ Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 17.6—7, that do not belong to the sphere of pure knowledge of perishability(?) [(3) in Gaṇḍavyūha 106.5 and 18 read akṣaya, q.v., for kṣaya, a high number.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣaya (क्षय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Loss, waste, destruction, removal, &c. 2. A destruction of the universe. 3. Consumption, Phthisis pulmonalis. 4. A house, an abode. 5. Sickness in general. 6. Decay, wasting away. 7. In algebra, negative quantity, minus. E. kṣi to waste or destroy, affix ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣaya (क्षय).—i. e. 1. and 3. kṣi + a, m. 1. An abode, Mahābhārata 1, 2510. 2. Decrease, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 122. 3. Diminution of price, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 258. 4. Loss, [Brāhmaṇavilāpa] 2, 20. 5. End, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 105, 14. 6. Destruction, [Hiḍimbavadha] 4, 84. 7. Consumption, phthisis, [Suśruta] 2, 445, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣaya (क्षय).—1. [adjective] dwelling; [masculine] dwelling-place, abode, seat; tribe, people.

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Kṣaya (क्षय).—2. [masculine] decrease, waste, loss, destruction, consumption (also as a sickness); decay, ruin, fall, end; kṣayaṃ gam, i, or come to an end, perish; kṣayaṃ nī bring to an end, destroy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṣaya (क्षय):—a See √1. 2. and 4. kṣi.

2) [from kṣi] 1. kṣaya m. ‘dominion’ [Sāyaṇa] (on, [Ṛg-veda vii, 46, 2]).

3) [from kṣi] 2. kṣaya mfn. dwelling, residing, [Ṛg-veda iii, 2, 13; viii, 64, 4]

4) [v.s. ...] m. an abode, dwelling-place, seat, house (cf. uruand su-kṣaya, ratha-, divikṣaya), [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā v, 38; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Pāṇini; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] the house of Yama (cf. yama-kṣ, vaivasvata-kṣ)

6) [v.s. ...] abode in Yama’s dominion [commentator or commentary] on [Rāmāyaṇa ([edition] [Bombay edition]) ii, 109, 11]

7) [v.s. ...] (= kṣiti) family, race, [Ṛg-veda i, 123, 1.]

8) [from kṣi] 3. kṣaya m. ([Pāṇini 6-1, 201]) loss, waste, wane, diminution, destruction, decay, wasting or wearing away (often ifc.), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] the accent is on the last syllable in the sense ‘destruction’, accord, to, [Pāṇini iii, 3, 56 ]and vi, 1, 63.

10) [v.s. ...] fall (as of prices, opposed to vṛddhi e.g. kṣayo vṛddhiś ca paṇyānām, ‘the fall and rise in the price of commodities’), [Yājñavalkya ii, 258]

11) [v.s. ...] removal, [Horace H. Wilson]

12) [v.s. ...] end, termination (e.g. nidrā-kṣ, the end of sleep, [Rāmāyaṇa vi, 105, 14]; dina-kṣaye, at the end of day, [Mahābhārata i, 699; Rāmāyaṇa iv, 3, 10]; jīvita-kṣaye, at the end of life, [Daśakumāra-carita]; āyuṣaḥ kṣ idem, [Raghuvaṃśa]; kṣayaṃgam, √, √i, or upa√i, to become less, be diminished, go to destruction, come to an end, perish, [Nalopākhyāna; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Daśakumāra-carita; Amaru-śataka; Hitopadeśa]; kṣayaṃ√nī, to destroy, [Rāmāyaṇa v, 36, 51])

13) [v.s. ...] consumption, phthisis pulmonalis, [Suśruta; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

14) [v.s. ...] sickness in general, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] the destruction of the universe, [Pañcatantra]

16) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) a negative quantity, minus, [Āryabhaṭa]

17) [v.s. ...] = -māsa, [Jyotiṣa]

18) [v.s. ...] = kṣayāha, [Gaṇitādhyāya]

19) [v.s. ...] Name of a prince, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

20) Kṣayā (क्षया):—[from kṣaya > kṣi] f. Name of a Yoginī, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

21) Kṣaya (क्षय):—[from kṣi] n. Name of the last year in the sixty years' Bṛhaspati cycle, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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