The Agni Purana

by N. Gangadharan | 1954 | 360,691 words | ISBN-10: 8120803590 | ISBN-13: 9788120803596

This page describes The indeclinables (avyaya-varga) which is chapter 361 of the English translation of the Agni Purana, one of the eighteen major puranas dealing with all topics concerning ancient Indian culture, tradition and sciences. Containing roughly 15,000 Sanskrit metrical verses, subjects contained in the Agni-Purana include cosmology, philosophy, architecture, iconography, economics, diplomacy, pilgrimage guides, ancient geography, gemology, ayurveda, etc.

Chapter 361 - The indeclinables (avyaya-varga)

[Note: The Purāṇa summarises in this chapter, from Amara III. paṅkti 2814. ]

Fire-god said:

1. (The indeclinable) āṅ is used in the (following) in the sense of a little, pervading, limit and in combination with verbs. (The particle) ā known as pragṛhya is used in sentences to denote remembrance. (The same with a visarga) (denotes) anger and affliction.

2. (The particle) ku (is used) in the sense of sin, condemnation and little. Dhik (is used in the sense of) disgust and censure. Ca (is used) to connect with another, as a collection, union with one another, for connecting mutually independent words with a common word.

3. Svasti (is used in the sense of) benediction, well-being and meritorious act. Ati (has the sense of) excess and crossing. Svit (is used in the sense of) interrogation and doubt. Tu (is used to denote) division and limitation.

4. Sakṛt (is used in the sense of) together with and once. Ārāt (has the sense of) near and far off. (The word) paścāt (is used in the sense of) western direction and the end. Api (has the sense of collection). Uta has the sense of option.

5. Śaśvat (is used in the sense of) repetition and together with. Sākṣāt (denotes) perception and identity. Bata (is used in the following senses): grief, pity, pleasure, surprise and invitation.

6. Hanta (is used to express) rejoice; pity, beginning of a sentence and grief. Prati is used according to tradition in (the sense) of a representative both as repetition and as indicative etc.

7. Iti (is used in the sense of) cause, context, making explicit etc. and conclusion. Purastāt (is used to denote) in the east, at first, before and in front of. Api is also (used in the same sense).

8. Yāvat and tāvat (are used in the sense of) whole, end, measure and determination. Atha (is used to express) auspiciousness, continuity, beginning, query and whole.

9. Vṛthā (is used to convey) uselessness and devoid of injunction. Nānā (conveys) many and both. Nu (expresses) query and option. Anu (expresses) succession and resemblance.

10. Nanu (is used to indicate) query, determination, permission, pacification and invitation. Api (is used to denote) censure, collection, query, doubt and conjecture.

11. (expresses) comparison and option. Sāmi (conveys) half and disgust. Amā (denote) togetherness and proximity. Kam (means) water and head.

12. Evam (is used to convey) similarity and such and such a manner. Nūnam (is used) in logic and determination. Joṣam [from joṣa] (is used to mean) silence and happiness. Kim (is used to convey) query and disgust.

13. Nāma (is used to mean) making explicit, conjecture, anger, approximation and censure. Alam conveys (the sense of) ornament, satiety, ability and prevention.

14. Hūm (is used to convey) doubt and inquiry. Samayā (denotes) proximity and middle. Punaḥ (conveys) not being the first and difference. Niḥ (expresses) certainty and prohibition.

15. Purā would (be used to indicate) continuity, long past, nearness and the future. The three (words) ūrarī, ūrī and urarī (are used in the sense of) expansion and that which is agreed upon.

16. Svaḥ (is used in the sense of) heaven and other world. Kila (is used in the sense of) tidings and conjecture. (The word) khalu (is used to denote) prohibition, verbal embellishment, desire to know and pacification.[1]

17. (The word) abhitaḥ (is used in the sense of) proximity, both ways, quickness, whole and facing. Prāduḥ (is used to convey) name and explicitness. Mithaḥ (denotes) between one another and in secrecy.

18. (The word) tiraḥ (is used to denote) disappearance and horizontal. (The particle) (is used to express) pain, anger and grief. Ahaha (is used to denote) surprise and grief. (The particle) hi (is used to denote) cause and determination.

19. (The words) cirāya, cirārātrāya, cirasya and others (are used) in the sense of long time. Muhuḥ, punaḥ punaḥ, śaśvat, abhīkṣṇam and asakṛt (again and again) have the same (sense).

20. (The words) śrāk, jhaṭiti, anjasā, ahnāiya, sapadi, drāk and maṅkṣu are (used in the sense of) quickness. (The words) balavat, Suṣṭhu and kimuta (denote) excessive. Kim, kimu and uta (are used in the sense of) option.

21. (The particles) tu, hi, ca, sma, ha and vai (are used) for completing a quarter of a verse. Su and ati (are used to denote) worship (reverence). Divā (is used to denote) at day. Doṣā and naktam (are used in the sense of) night.

22. Sāci and tiraḥ (are used) in the sense of horizontally. (The words) pyāṭ, pāṭ, anga, he, hai and bhoḥ (are used) in the sense of calling a person. Samayā, nikaṣā and hiruk (have the sense of proximity).

23. Sahasā (is used in the sense of) unexpected. Puraḥ, purataḥ and agrataḥ (mean) in front of. Svāhā, śrauṣat, vauṣaṭ, vaṣaṭ and svadhā (are used) in offering made to the gods.

24. (The words) kiñcit, īṣat and manāk (are used in the sense of) a little. Pretya and amutra (are used in the sense of) the otherworld. Yathā and tathā (convey) similarity. Aho and ho (indicate) surprise.

25-26. (The words) tūṣṇīm and tūṣṇikam (are used in the sense of) silence. Sadyaḥ and sapadi (denote) the present moment. Diṣṭyā and samupajoṣam (convey) rejoice. (The words) antare, antarā and antareṇa (denote) ‘in the middle’. Prasahya means ‘by force’. The two (words) Sāmpratam and sthāne (convey the sense) appropriate. Abhīkṣṇam and śaśvat (mean) eternally.

27. (The words) nahi, a, no and na (indicate) non-existence. (The words) māsma, and alaṃ (are used in the sense of) restraining. Cet and yadi (are used to denote) alternative. The two (words) addhā and añjasā (are employed to convey) truth.

28. Prāduḥ and āviḥ indicate explicitness. Oṃ, evaṃ and paramaṃ (convey) opinion. (The words) samantataḥ, paritaḥ, sarvataḥ and viśvak (convey) all around.

29. Kāmam (is used to convey) permission unwillingly granted. An acceptance preceded by jealousy (is indicated by the word) astu. (The word kāmam is) also (used in the same sense). Nanu (indicates) a contrary opinion. Kaccit (indicates) affectionate enquiry.

30. (The words) niḥ samam and duḥ samam (are used to convey) condemned. Yathāsvaṃ and yathāyatham (convey the sense) of appropriate or befitting. Mṛṣā and mithyā (indicate) false. Yathārtham and yathātatham denote truth.

31. (The words) evaṃ, tu, punaḥ, vai and are expressions (indicating) conclusion. Prāk (conveys) the thing that has taken place already. The two (words) nūnam and avaśyam (are used to indicate) certainty.

32. Saṃvat (is used to mean) the year. Arvāk (means) below. Ām and evaṃ (convey) approval. Svayam (means) by the self Nīcaiḥ (means) low. Uccaiḥ (means) great. Prāyaḥ (denotes) a great quantity. Śanaiḥ (is used in the sense of) slowly.

33. The word sanā (denotes) eternal. Bahiḥ (conveys the meaning) outside. Sma (indicates) the past. Astam (denotes) invisible. Asti (conveys the sense) of reality. U is an expression of anger. Ūm (indicates) a query. Ayi (is an expression of) pacification.

34. Hūm (is used in) discussion. (The word) uṣā (has the sense of) end of the night. Namaḥ (conveys) obeisance. Aṅga (is used) in the sense of again. Duṣṭu (is an expression of) censure and suṣṭu, of praise.

35. Sāyam (conveys the sense) in the evening. (The words) prage and prātaḥ (convey the sense) ‘in the morning’. Nikaṣā (conveys the meaning) nearby. (The word) parut (denotes) the last year and parāri, the year before the last. Yati (denotes the current year).

36. Adya (denotes) the present day. (The words) pūrvedyuḥ etc. (convey the sense of) the previous day etc. Similarly one should know that (the words uttaredyuḥ, aparedyuḥ, adharedyuḥ, anyedyuḥ, anyataredyuḥ and itaredyuḥ are formed) from uttara (tomorrow), apara (some other), adhara (the previous), anya (some other), anyatara (some other next) and itara (some other).

37. Ubhayadyuḥ and ubhayedyuḥ (convey the sense of) both the days. Paredyavi (means) on the next day. Hyaḥ (denotes) yesterday and śvaḥ, the day yet to come next. Paraśvaḥ (denotes) the day after tomorrow.

38. (The words) tadā and tadānīm (denote at that time). Yugapat (means) once. Sarvadā and sadā (mean) always. Etarhi, samprati, idānīm, adhunā and sāmpratam (mean) the present moment.

Footnotes and references:


The Purāṇa reads wrongly avasara.

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