Prakriti, aka: Prakṛti; 19 Definition(s)

Introduction

Prakriti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Prakṛti can be transliterated into English as Prakrti or Prakriti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana

Prakṛti (matter) and Puruṣa (spirit) are two basic factors essential for production of the Prapañca (the visible world which is the scene of manifold action) as man and woman are for the production of progeny. From Puruṣa (male), Prakṛti (female) originated and then they together created the Prapañca.

Prakṛti (etymological definition): (a) “Pra” means “principal” and “Kṛti” means “creation”. Therefore, the word is meant ot convey the meaning “one that is principal factor for creation”. (b) “Pra” means “sāttvic”, “Kṛ” means “rājasic” and “ta” means “tāmasic” and the word “Prakṛti” thus conveys the power of the three guṇas. (c) “Pra” means “before” and “Kṛti” means creation and so Prakṛti means that which existed before creation.

Before creation Prakṛti lay merged with the Supreme Spirit without separate existence. But when the desire for creation was aroused, this Supreme Spirit divided itself into Prakṛti and Puruṣa. Then the right half becomes 'Puruṣa' and the left half 'Prakṛti'. Even though they are thus two yogīndras ('kings among sages') they see themselves as merged with the eternal One like fire and heat and assert the truth (Sarvaṃ Spirit). It was this basic Prakṛti that took forms as the five goddesses, Durgā, Lakṣmī, Saravatī, Sāvitrī and Rādhā. (9th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata)

(Source): Google Books: Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Purāṇas

1a) Prakṛti (प्रकृति).—Matter as opposed to Puruṣa; could be conquered by one's yogabala;1 has the three guṇas—satva, rajas and tamas.2 Eight kinds of;3 the seven principles leading to pralaya;4 also known as pradhāna and avyakta; makes and unmakes the universe; created by the unborn Iśvara;5 is yoganidrā.6

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 8. 18; III. 5. 46; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 173, 195-7; III. 42. 47; 43. 3.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 1. 7.
  • 3) Ib. VII. 7. 22; XI. 22. 18-24.
  • 4) Ib. XII. 4. 5; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 231; 6. 6; 15. 7; 43. 76.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 3. 14; 154. 356; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 2. 19.
  • 6) Ib. V. 2. 7; VI. 4. 34-5.

1b) The subjects of a king; Pṛthu treated them with respect;1 acquiesed in selecting Pūru and also Dyumatsena.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 17. 2; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 49. 17; Matsya-purāṇa 34. 26; 226. 6; 240. 11.
  • 2) Ib. 36. 5; 214. 16.

1c) Seven kinds, which support the monarch.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 14. 17-18.

1d) Usually eight, the eight places of gods, from Brahmā to Piśāca, eight-fold aiśvarya, the eight rūpas, etc.1 regarded as truth and their opposite as false.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 3. 27 to 73.
  • 2) Ib. IV. 3. 85.

1e) Seven avyakta, waters, tejas, vāyu, ākāśa, bhūtādi and mahat enter gradually and bring about Pratyāhara;1 also eight kinds.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 26; 49. 185.
  • 2) Ib. 102. 95.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Prakrti = Primeval matter, nature. Mula Prakrti = root matter, primal matter; Mula karana = root cause. Prakrti is the undifferentiated matter; it is inert because the latent qualities Sattva, Rajas and Tamas (Virtue, passion, and darkness) are inert or in abeyance. When Prakrti undergoes transformation, the process is Vikrta and the product is Vikrti, which has three qualities: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. In Sankhya system, all Purusas have one Prakrti; in Trika system, each Purusa has its own Prakrti.

(Source): bhagavadgitausa.com: Kashmir Saivism
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Ayurveda (science of life)

Prakṛti (प्रकृति, “constitution”).—The constitution of a person is decided by the doṣa predominant at the combination of sperm and ovum (fertilization) which becomes almos fixed for the whole life.

  1. Vātika (vāta-prakṛti),
  2. Pittaka (pitta-prakṛti),
  3. Kaphaja (kapha-prakṛti).

Constitution is also decided on the basis of psychic qualities—sattva, rajas and tamas:

  1. Sāttvika (sattva-prakṛti),
  2. Rājasa (rajas-prakṛti),
  3. Tāmasa (tamas-prakṛti).

Similarly there are also bhūtaprakṛtis (constitution according to predominance of bhūtas) which can be known from their respective features. To know a person, one should examine his constitution properly. The man should fix his routine according to his constitution in mind. Similarly, the physician should keep the constitution in mind while prescribing medicines (and diet) for a patient.

(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

The latent/unmanifest supreme nature (Prakriti) is the progenitor of all created things. She is self- begotten and connotes the three fundamental or primary virtues of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. She is imaged or embodied in the eightfold categories of Avyakta (unmanifest), Mahān (intellection), Ahamkāra (Egoism) and the Five Tanmātras or elementals (proper sensibles of hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell) and is the sole and primary factor in working out the evolution of the universe.

(Source): archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume II
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Prakṛti (प्रकृति) refers to a class of rhythm-type (chandas) containing twenty-one syllables in a pāda (‘foot’ or ‘quarter-verse’), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. There are twenty-six classes of chandas and out of them arise the various syllabic meters (vṛtta), composed of four pādas, defining the pattern of alternating light and heavy syllables.

2) Prakṛti (प्रकृति) refers to the “characters” of songs (dhrūva) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 32.400:—“the characters in a play (prakṛti) are of three kinds, viz. superior, inferior and middling”.

3) Prakṛti (प्रकृति) or Gati or Gata refers to a set of three rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33.

The following are the three prakṛtis:

  1. Tattva,
  2. Ghana (=Anugata),
  3. Ogha.
(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Discover the meaning of prakriti or prakrti in the context of Natyashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Prakṛti (प्रकृति, “material reality”) is a type tuṣṭi (complacence), classified internal (ādhyātmika) according to the Sāṃkhya theory of evolution. Tuṣṭi refers to a category of pratyayasarga (intellectual products), which represents the first of two types of sarga (products) that come into being during tattvapariṇāma (elemental manifestations), which in turn, evolve out of the two types of pariṇāma (change, modification).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Sāṃkhya philosophy

Prakṛti (प्रकृति, “material”) is the first cause of the manifest material universe—of everything except the puruṣa. Prakṛti accounts for whatever is physical, both mind and matter-cum-energy or force. Since it is the first principle (tattva) of the universe, it is called the pradhāna, but, as it is the unconscious and unintelligent principle, it is also called the jaḍa.

It is composed of three essential characteristics (triguṇas). These are:

  1. sattva – poise, fineness, lightness, illumination, and joy; r
  2. rajas – dynamism, activity, excitation, and pain;
  3. tamas – inertia, coarseness, heaviness, obstruction, and sloth.
(Source): Wikipedia: Samkhya
context information

Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Prakṛti (प्रकृति).—Original base of a word which is used in language by the addition of affixes. It has two kinds: 1. Roots 2. Nominal stems.

(Source): Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

1) Prakṛti (प्रकृति).—Material cause: cf.. तदर्थे विकृतेः प्रकृतौ । प्रकृतिरुपादानकारणं तस्यैव उत्तरमवस्थान्तरं विकृतिः (tadarthe vikṛteḥ prakṛtau | prakṛtirupādānakāraṇaṃ tasyaiva uttaramavasthāntaraṃ vikṛtiḥ) Kas.on P.V.1.12;

2) Prakṛti.—Original, as opposed to modified' (विकृति (vikṛti)); the original base of a word which is used in language by the addition of affixes. There are mentioned three kinds of such original words in grammar, roots (धातु (dhātu)), noun bases (प्रातिपदिक (prātipadika)) and affixes (प्रत्यय (pratyaya)). प्रकृति (prakṛti) is defined as शास्त्रप्रक्रियक्रियाव्यवहारे प्रकृतिप्रत्ययविभागकल्पनय शब्दार्थभावनायां प्रत्ययात् प्रथममुपादानकारणामिव या उपादीयते तां प्रकृतिरिति व्यापदिशन्ति (śāstraprakriyakriyāvyavahāre prakṛtipratyayavibhāgakalpanaya śabdārthabhāvanāyāṃ pratyayāt prathamamupādānakāraṇāmiva yā upādīyate tāṃ prakṛtiriti vyāpadiśanti)' in the Sringaraprakasa; cf. अपशब्दो ह्यस्य प्रकृतिः । न चापशब्दः प्रकृतिः (apaśabdo hyasya prakṛtiḥ | na cāpaśabdaḥ prakṛtiḥ)न ह्यपशब्दा उपदिश्यन्ते न चानुपदिष्टा प्रकृतिरस्ति । (na hyapaśabdā upadiśyante na cānupadiṣṭā prakṛtirasti |) M.Bh. on Siva Sutra 2; cf. also कृत्प्रकृतिर्धातुः (kṛtprakṛtirdhātuḥ) M.Bh. on P. VI. 2. 139 Vart. 2; पदप्रकृतिः संहिता । पदप्रक्तीनि सर्व-चरणानां पार्षदानि (padaprakṛtiḥ saṃhitā | padapraktīni sarva-caraṇānāṃ pārṣadāni) Nir. I.17.

(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Prakṛti (प्रकृति) is one of the twenty-six varieties of Sanskrit metres (chandas) mentioned in the Chandaśśāstra 1.15-19. There are 26 Vedic metres starting with 1 to 26 letters in each pāda. It is a common belief that the classical metres are developed from these 26 metres. Generally a metre has a specific name according to it’s number of syllables (akṣara). But sometimes the same stanza is called by the name of another metre from the point of view of the pādas.

(Source): Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Prakṛti (प्रकृति, “nature”) is the basic nature of intelligence by which the Universe exists and functions It is described in Bhagavad Gita as the "primal motive force". It is the essential constituent of the universe and is at the basis of all the activity of the creation.

It is composed of the three gunas which are tendencies or modes of operation, known as

  1. sattva (creation),
  2. rajas (preservation),
  3. and tamas, (destruction)

Prakruti also means nature. Nature can be described as environment. It can also be used to denote the 'feminine' in sense of the 'male' being the purusha. Prakriti also means health in Marathi.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In the Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra, Lakṣmī is called Prakṛti (Bhagavat-sandarbha 104). Prakṛti can mean cit-śakti (Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta 1.2.59). Prakṛti can also mean kāraṇa (“cause”).

(Source): Madangopal: Śrī Yugala-sahasra-nāma-stotra

Prakṛti (प्रकृति):—According to Yoga and Saṃkhya doctrine, each physical phenomenon is constituted of “a primal matter, called prakṛti or pradhāna. This primal matter contains three qualities or strands (guṇa): goodness (sattva), energy (rajas), and darkness (tamas)”. According to this worldview, “the three qualities are distributed in different proportions within the various constituents of the universe”.

(Source): Academia.edu: The concept of Prāyaścitta in the Introductory Passages of the Ratnakaraṇḍikā

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Prakṛti (प्रकृति) or prakṛtiśūnyatā refers to “natural emptiness” one of the “twenty emptinesses” (śūnyatā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 41). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., prakṛti). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Prakṛti (प्रकृति, “species”) or Prakṛtibandha refers to one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.—Accordingly, “What is meant by species of bondage (prakṛti-bandha)? The innate nature of the bondage is called species of bondage. Knowledge obscuring etc are the eight kinds of species of bondage”.

According to verse 8.4, how many types of species bondage (prakṛti-bandha) are there? It is of eight types namely:

  1. knowledge obscuring (jñānāvaraṇa),
  2. perception obscuring (darśanāvaraṇa),
  3. feeling producing (vedanīya),
  4. deluding (mohanīya),
  5. lifespan determining (āyu),
  6. physique-making (nāma),
  7. status-determining (gotra),
  8. obstructive (antarāya).

Which out of these eight types of [prakṛti-bandha] karmas cause bondage of new karmas? Deluding karma is the only cause of bondage of new karmas. How these eight types of karmas are grouped in two classes? These can be clubbed as obscuring (ghātiā) and non-obscuring (aghātiā) karmas. 

What are the sub divisions of the eight types of karmas? The 148 sub divisions of the eight types of karmas are: five for knowledge obscuring, nine for perception obscuring, two for feeling producing, twenty eight for deluding, four lifespan determining, two for status determining, ninety three for physique-making and five for obstructing karmas.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of prakriti or prakrti in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

prakṛti (प्रकृति).—f (S) Constitution or disposition; temperament or temper (whether of body or mind). Seven particular pra0 are reckoned in vaidyaśāstra; viz. vātaja or vātapra0, pittaja or pittapra0, kaphaja or kapha- pra0, vātapittapra0 vātakaphapra0, kaphapittapra0, samadhātu or samapra0. There are however many other pra0; as uṣṇapra0, sītapra0, ugrapra0, mandapra0, krūrapra0, kōmalapra0, mṛdupra0, svastha-saumya-tīkṣṇa-tāmasa &c. -pra0. 2 Natural or native state or form. 3 Nature--in philosophy; the passive or material cause of the world; as opp. to the active or spiritual cause. 4 Nature--in mythology; a goddess, the personified will of the Supreme in the creation, and identical with māyā and with the śakti or personified energy of a deity. māyā & avidyā are the bhēda or forms of pra0. 5 An uninflected word,--the radical form before the affixes are attached. 6 A radical form or predicament of being. Eight are reckoned; viz. pṛthvī, udaka or ap, agni or tēja, vāyu, ākāśa, mana, buddhi, ahaṅkāra Earth, water, fire, air, ether, the affections or heart, the understanding or mind, the consciousness or sense of personal being. To the first five of these, termed the gross or solid ele- ments are attached, as respectively related to them, the pañcasūkṣmabhūtēṃ (viz. gandha, rasa, rūpa, sparśa, śabda--gandha to pṛthvī, rasa to udaka &c.) the five archetypes or subtil superelementary principles or primordial bases; and the latter three, viz. mana, buddhi, ahaṅkāra are repeated; constituting another enumeration of eight, and also termed aṣṭapra0 See pañcamahābhūtēṃ. 7 A requisite of regal administration. Seven are enumerated; viz. King, minister, ally, treasure, territory, forts, army, or svāmī, amātya, suhṛt, kōṣa, rāṣṭra, durga, bala. To these (very considerately) an eighth is added, viz. Subjects or prajā. The seven collectively are termed saptavidhāprakṛti; the eight, aṣṭavidhāprakṛti; and these again are distinguished into antaḥprakṛti, designating severally svāmī, amātya, & suhṛt, and bahirprakṛti, designating severally the remaining four or five. prakṛtīcā tāḷa bighaḍaṇēṃ-nāsaṇēṃ-sōḍaṇēṃ or prakṛtīnēṃ tāḷa sōḍaṇēṃ-ṭākaṇēṃ- or tāḷāntūna jāṇēṃ To lose its tone, vigor, health, soundness--the constitution. 2 To begin to quarrel or to rage. prakṛtīnēṃ cālaṇēṃ-jāṇēṃ- vāgaṇēṃ-asaṇēṃ g. of o. To walk according to the temper or mind of: also, without g. of o. and with āpalyā, To follow one's own disposition. prakṛtīvara ṭākaṇēṃ-ṭhēvaṇēṃ-asūṃ dēṇēṃ To leave to nature (a disease &c.) prakṛti tāḷāvara yēṇēṃ g. of s. To recover one's healthy tone (from sickness, anger, hatred &c.): also to return to the right way.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prakṛti (प्रकृति).—f Constitution or disposition. Temperament or temper. Nature. In philosophy, the material cause of the world, as opposed to puruṣa. prakṛtīcā tāḷa bighaḍaṇēṃ-nāsaṇēṃ-sōḍaṇēṃ or prakṛtīnēṃ tāḷa sōḍaṇēṃ. ṭākaṇēṃ or tāḷāntūna jāṇēṃ To lose its tone, vigour, the constitution. To begin to quarrel or to rage.prakṛtīnēṃ cālaṇēṃ-jāṇēṃ. vāgaṇēṃ-asaṇēṃ To walk according to the temper or mind of; To follow one's own disposition. prakṛtīvara ṭākaṇēṃ-ṭhēvaṇēṃ-asa dēṇēṃ To leave to nature (a disease &c.) prakṛti tāḷyāvara yēṇēṃ To recover one's healthy tone; to return to the right way.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prakṛti (प्रकृति).—f.

1) The natural condition or state of anything, nature, natural form (opp. vikṛti which is a change or effect); तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया (taṃ taṃ niyamamāsthāya prakṛtyā niyatāḥ svayā) Bg. 7.2. प्रकृत्या यद्वक्रम् (prakṛtyā yadvakram) Ś1.9; उष्णत्वमग्न्यातपसंप्रयोगात् शैत्यं हि यत् सा प्रकृतिर्जलस्य (uṣṇatvamagnyātapasaṃprayogāt śaityaṃ hi yat sā prakṛtirjalasya) R.5.54; मरणं प्रकृतिः शरीरिणां विकृति- र्जीवितमुच्यते बुधैः (maraṇaṃ prakṛtiḥ śarīriṇāṃ vikṛti- rjīvitamucyate budhaiḥ) R.8.87; U.7.19; अपेहि रे अत्रभवान् प्रकृतिमापन्नः (apehi re atrabhavān prakṛtimāpannaḥ) Ś.2. 'has resumed his wonted nature'; प्रकृतिम् आपद् (prakṛtim āpad) or प्रतिपद् (pratipad) or प्रकृतौ स्था (prakṛtau sthā) 'to come to one's senses', 'regain one's consciousness.'

2) Natural disposition, temper, temperament, nature, constitution; प्रकृतिः खलु सा महीयसः सहते नान्यसमुन्नतिं यया (prakṛtiḥ khalu sā mahīyasaḥ sahate nānyasamunnatiṃ yayā) Ki.2.21; कथं गत एव आत्मनः प्रकृतिम् (kathaṃ gata eva ātmanaḥ prakṛtim) Ś.7. 'natural character'; अपश्यत् पाण्डवश्रेष्ठो हर्षेण प्रकृतिं गतः (apaśyat pāṇḍavaśreṣṭho harṣeṇa prakṛtiṃ gataḥ) Mb.39.66 (com. prakṛtiṃ svāsthyam); so प्रकृतिकृपण, प्रकृतिसिद्ध (prakṛtikṛpaṇa, prakṛtisiddha); see below.

3) Make, form, figure; महानुभावप्रकृतिः (mahānubhāvaprakṛtiḥ) Māl.1.

4) Extraction, descent; गोपालप्रकृतिरार्यकोऽस्मि (gopālaprakṛtirāryako'smi) Mk.7.

5) Origin, source, original or material cause, the material of which anything is made; नार्थानां प्रकृतिं वेत्सि (nārthānāṃ prakṛtiṃ vetsi) Mb.4.49.1; प्रकृतिश्चोपादानकारणं च ब्रह्माभ्युपगन्तव्यम् (prakṛtiścopādānakāraṇaṃ ca brahmābhyupagantavyam) Ś. B. (see the full discussion on Br. Sūt.1.4.23); यामाहुः सर्वभूतप्रकृतिरिति (yāmāhuḥ sarvabhūtaprakṛtiriti) Ś.1.1; Bhāg.4.28.24.

6) (In Sāṅ. phil.) Nature (as distinguished from puruṣa,) the original source of the material world, consisting of the three essential qualities सत्त्व, रजस् (sattva, rajas) and तमस् (tamas). It is also mentioned as one of the four contentments; प्रकृत्युपादानकालभागाख्याः (prakṛtyupādānakālabhāgākhyāḥ) Sāṅ. K.5.

7) (In gram.) The radical or crude form of a word to which case-terminations and other affixes are applied; प्रकृतिप्रत्यययोरिवानुबन्धः (prakṛtipratyayayorivānubandhaḥ) Ki.13.19.

8) A model, pattern, standard, (especially in ritualistic works); Bhāg.5.7.5.

9) A woman.

1) The personified will of the Supreme Spirit in the creation (identified with māyā or illusion); मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् (mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sacarācaram) Bg.9.1.

11) The male or female organ of generation.

12) A mother.

13) (In arith.) A coefficient, or multiplier.

14) (In anatomy) Temperament of the humours; प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति (prakṛtiṃ yānti bhūtāni nigrahaḥ kiṃ kariṣyati) Bg.3.33.

15) An animal.

16) An artisan.

17) The Supreme Being; न ह्यस्ति सर्वभूतेषु दुःख- मस्मिन् कुतः सुखम् । एवं प्रकृतिभूतानां सर्वसंसर्गयायिनाम् (na hyasti sarvabhūteṣu duḥkha- masmin kutaḥ sukham | evaṃ prakṛtibhūtānāṃ sarvasaṃsargayāyinām) || Mb.12. 152.16.

18) Eight forms of the Supreme Being; भूमि- रापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च । अहंकार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृति- रष्टधा (bhūmi- rāpo'nalo vāyuḥ khaṃ mano buddhireva ca | ahaṃkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛti- raṣṭadhā) || Bg.7.4.

19) The way of life (jīvana); सतां वै ददतोऽन्नं च लोकेऽस्मिन् प्रकृतिर्ध्रुवा (satāṃ vai dadato'nnaṃ ca loke'smin prakṛtirdhruvā) Mb.12.18.27. (pl.)

1) A king's ministers, the body of ministers or counsellors, ministry; अथानाथाः प्रकृतयो मातृबन्धुनिवासिनम् (athānāthāḥ prakṛtayo mātṛbandhunivāsinam) R.12.12; Pt.1.48; अशुद्धप्रकृतौ राज्ञि जनता नानुरज्यते (aśuddhaprakṛtau rājñi janatā nānurajyate) 31.

2) The subjects (of a king); प्रवर्ततां प्रकृतिहिताय पार्थिवः (pravartatāṃ prakṛtihitāya pārthivaḥ) Ś.7.35; नृपतिः प्रकृतीरवेक्षितुम् (nṛpatiḥ prakṛtīravekṣitum) R.8.18,1.

3) The constituent elements of the state (saptāṅgāni), i. e. 1 the king; -2 the minister; -3 the allies; -4 treasure; -5 army; -6 territory; -7 fortresses &c.; and the corporations of citizens (which is sometimes added to the 7); स्वाम्यमात्य- सुहृत्कोशराष्ट्रदुर्गबलानि च (svāmyamātya- suhṛtkośarāṣṭradurgabalāni ca) Ak.

4) The various sovereigns to be considered in case of war; (for full explanation see Kull. on Ms.7.155 and 157).

5) The eight primary elements out of which everything else is evolved according to the Sāṅkhyas; see Sāṅ. K.3.

6) The five primary elements of creations (pañcamahābhūtāni) i. e. पृथ्वी, अप्, तेजस्, वायु (pṛthvī, ap, tejas, vāyu) and आकाश (ākāśa); प्रकृतिं ते भजिष्यन्ति नष्टप्रकृतयो मयि (prakṛtiṃ te bhajiṣyanti naṣṭaprakṛtayo mayi) Mb.5.73.17.

Derivable forms: prakṛtiḥ (प्रकृतिः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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