Shukra, Śukrā, Śukra: 41 definitions


Shukra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śukrā and Śukra can be transliterated into English as Sukra or Shukra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Nava-graha (Hands that indicate the Nine Planets).—Śukra: Muṣṭi with both hands, the left raised, the right downwards.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

Śukra (शुक्र, “Venus”):—Son of Śarva (aspect of Śiva, as in, one of the eight names of Rudra) and Suvarchalā, according to the Pādma-purāṇa.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā

Śukrā (शुक्रा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Gola, the sixth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (e.g. Śukrā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Śukra (शुक्र) refers to “semen” and is commonly listed among the “five nectars” (pañcāmṛta), according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra, Tāntrikābhidhānakośa and Prabodhacandrodaya.—The extraction of the five nectars (pañcāmṛta-ākarṣaṇa), as well as other, Kāpālika-type cremation ground practices, also figure in the Brahmayāmala, as Hatley (2007, 143ff.) points out. The five substances are not listed in a systematic way, but they usually seem to include these four: semen (śukra), blood (rakta), fat/marrow (medas) and sneha (see also the entry pañcāmṛta in Tāntrikābhidhānakośa, vol. III).

2) Śukra (शुक्र) (Cf. Vīrya) refers to “semen”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The intercourse (saṃga)]:—[...] He should dry brahmamaṇḍūkī together with its roots in the shade. He should mix it with grape-juice, candied sugar and ghee. He should have it three times [a day] for three months in portions measuring a dice as food and drink and he should drink milk. His semen (śukra) will not deteriorate in millions of years if he practises sex [with Māyā]. His [semen] will never ever wane. It is for the rejuvenation of the body, O Priyā. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to “male genetic prototype”. It is one of the factors in determining the Prakṛti, which is the genetically determined physical and mental constitution of an individual. Also see Śoṇita, which refers to the “female genetic prototype”. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Śukra (शुक्र), minutely pervades the whole body but manifestly is situated in śukrāśaya (‘seminal vesicles’) and during orgasm of the sexual intercourse is discharged through urethra.

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to “sperm”, mentioned in verse 4.20-22 and 5.30, 37 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] from (suppressed) sperm [viz., śukra] (result) its outflow, pubic pain, cutaneous swelling, fever, throbbing of the heart, retention of urine, racking in the limbs, swelling of the testicles, gravel, and impotence. Cock, arrack, rice, enema, inunction, bathing, milk prepared with bladder-cleansing (substances, and) lovely women one shall turn to in this case”.

Note (verse 5.30): Śukra (“sperm”) has been represented by the tautologic khu-chu; cf. 1.13 & 5.61.

Source: Cogprints: Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda

Śukra (शुक्र):—The factor, which is responsible for the formation of ‘Garbha’ (embryo), is known as ‘Śukra’ (Carakasaṃhitā Śārirasthāna 2/4). Śukra is distributed all over the body in the same manner in which the fat in the milk and juice in the sugar cane plant are distributed (Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 2/46). Also, this is present in males and females. All hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis can thus be included under the term ‘Śukra’. In some references, ‘Śukra’ stands for only semen.

Fatty portion of ‘Majjā’ forms ‘Śukra’. This Śukra comes out of bones through the pores created by ‘Vāyu’ and ‘Ākāśa Mahābhūtas’. As if the water oozing out of new mud pot, Śukra also oozes out of these pores and then circulates all over the body through ‘Śukravaha Srotāṃsi’ (Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 15/32-33).

When the person gets excited because of the sexual urge, determination and romantic mental attitude, ‘Śukra’ comes out through the urethra (with which the bladder is connected) as if the melted ghee. This occurs because of the heat produced by the physical exertion during copulation. The simile given to describe this process is the flow of water from a place of lower altitude to a place of higher altitude (Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 15/34-35).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Śukra (शुक्र, “bright”) refers to the planet venus. The corresponding day of the week is wednesday (śukravāra). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to the planet Venus, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If, during the waxing moon, Mars should be eclipsed by a horn, the border (mleccha) princes as well as wicked rulers will suffer; if Saturn should be so eclipsed there will be fear from weapons and from hunger; if Mercury should be so eclipsed there will be drought and famine in the land; if Jupiter should be so eclipsed eminent princes will suffer; and if Venus [i.e., śukra], the minor princes will suffer. As regards the waning moon the subject has been elsewhere treated”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to the planet Venus, according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[Names of grahas]—The nine grahas are enumerated in the week-day order plus Rāhu and Ketu. This verse is indispensable since in the rest of this section this order is presupposed and the nine grahas are referred to only by this order instead of by their names. The names are standard ones: Sūrya (Sun), Soma (Moon), Mahīputra (the son of the earth, i.e., Mars), Somaputra (the son of the Moon, i.e., Mercury), Bṛhaspati (Jupiter), Śukra (Venus), Śanaiścara (Saturn), Rāhu, and Ketu.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śukra (शुक्र).—(ŚUKRĀCĀRYA) I. Preceptor of the Asuras. Birth. Views differ as to whether Śukra was the son or grandson of Bhṛgu. The Purāṇas state that Pulomā was the wife of Bhṛgu. Śukra has another name, Kāvya. Kāvya means the son of Kavi. Some authorities say that Kavi was Bhṛgu’s son, while others think that Kavi was Bhṛgu himself. Śukra’s mother is referred to as "Kāvyamātā" in many places. Śukra is referred to as the strongest of the seven sons born to Bhṛgu and Pulomā. In the light of these references it is reasonable to consider Śukra as the son of the sage Bhṛgu. "Kavi" must be supposed to be another name of Bhṛgu. Uśanas was another name for Śukra. (See full article at Story of Śukra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Śukra (शुक्र).—A son of Vasiṣṭha. Seven sons were born to Vasiṣṭha by his wife Ūrjjā; they were, Rajas, Gotra, Ūrddhvabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas and Śukra. All these seven persons were the Saptarṣis of the third Manvantaram (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 10).

2) In Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20 the names of the seven sons of Vasiṣṭha and Ūrjjā are given as Rajas. Gātra, Ūrddhvabāhu, Savana, Alaghu, Śukra and Sutapas.

3) Śukra (शुक्र).—A king who belonged to the dynasty of Emperor Pṛthu. Two sons, Antardhāna and Vādī were born to Pṛthu. Antardhāna had a son named Havirdhāna by wife Śikhaṇḍinī. Havirdhāna married Dhiṣaṇā who was born in Agnikula. Six sons were born to them. They were, Prācīnabarhis, Śukra, Gaya, Kṛṣṇa, Vraja and Ajina. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 14).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to the planet Venus, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.10.—Accordingly, after Śiva spoke to the Earth (Dharaṇī):—“[...] The child acquired the name Bhauma (son of the Earth). He attained youth immedately. For a long time he worshipped lord Śiva at Kāśī. By the grace of lord Śiva, the son of the Earth, acquired the status of a planet. He went to the heavenly sphere beyond the region of Venus [i.e., śukra-loka]. O sage, thus I have told you the story of Śiva and His separation from Satī. Now listen to the story of His performance of penance”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śukra (शुक्र).—(alias Uśanas) a son of Kavi (Havirdhāna and Divyā, hence Kāvya); married Ūrjasvatī, and father of Devayānī through Jayantī.1 The Purohita of Hiraṇyakaśipu. Father of Śaṇḍa and Marka, tutors of Prahlāda. Took part in Prahlāda's coronation. A Brahmaṛṣi: Heard of the insult offered to his daughter by Śarmiṣṭhā, the daughter of the ruler Vṛṣaparvan and left the capital. The Purohita of Vṛṣaparvan, the latter made him stay offering to make his daughter a slave of Devayāṇī. In offering the latter to Yayāti, he asked him not to share his bed with Śarmiṣṭhā, cursed Yayāti to become aged for having shared his bed with Śarmiṣṭhā, and on an appeal mitigated it by saying that he could exchange his old age with youth of another if he found one to accept the exchange;2 joined Soma in Tārakāmaya war: blessed the Asuras in this war: fought with Bṛhaspati in a Devāsura battle.3 Brought back to life the unconscious Bali by Sañjīvinī Vidya. Presented Bali with an unfading garland of flowers; knowing Vāmana to be Hari, warned Bali from agreeing to his request. Bali would not hear, and Śukra cursed him to lose all Śrī. At the bidding of Hari completed the Yajña begun by Bali.4 The third Vedavyāsa. Heard the Purāṇa from Vāyu and told it to Bṛhaspati.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 1. 22; IV. 1. 45; V. 1. 35; VI. 7. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 63. 23; 65. 74; 93. 85; 101. 33; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I, 14. 2.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. Ch. 18 (whole); VII. 5. 1-2 10. 33; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 68. 15; Matsya-purāṇa 25. 4, 16; 27. 26, 37; 30. 30-36; 32. 23, 26; 33. 2 and 26.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 14. 6; VIII. 10. 33.
  • 4) Ib. VIII. 11. 47-8; 15. 6; 19. 30-43; 20. 1-15; 23. 18; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 30. 54; 65. 31; Matsya-purāṇa 192. 10; 246. 1.
  • 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 76 and 86; 10. 18; II. 35. 117; IV. 4. 59.

1b) Goes round Dhruva, and is believed to cause rain by his rapid marches, before or after or along with the sun;1 the planet above Budha;2 fed by the viśvaśrava ray of the sun: of 16 rays of white watery region: 1/16 in size to the moon;3 to be worshipped when it begins to rise or is opposite or at the commencement or end of a journey;4 gifts to be given to a sāmaga;5 on the left, a bad omen; an auspicious planet.6 car of, drawn by earth-born horses armed with arrows and adorned with pennon.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 9. 21; V. 22. 12.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 132; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 132.
  • 3) Ib. II. 24. 69. 95 and 104.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 73. 1.
  • 5) Ib. 163. 39.
  • 6) Ib. 164. 8.
  • 7) Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 74-5; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 12. 17.

1c) The month sacred to Mītra.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 35; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 8.

1d) The Nāga presiding over the month of Śuci.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 36.

1e) A son of Ūru and Āgneyī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 108.

1f) A name of Śiva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 72. 183.

1g) One of the twenty Sutapa gaṇas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 14; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 14.

1h) A son of Ūrjā and Vasiṣṭha: a sage of the epoch of Bhautya Manu; of the XIV epoch of Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 113; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 10. 13; III. 2. 44.

1i) A son of Havirdhāna.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 46.

1j) A son of Auttama Manu; married Gauṭ the mind-born daughter of the Mānasa Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 20; 15. 15.

1k) A son of Sāvarṇi Manu; the hero.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 33.

1l) A son of Prajāpati and overlord of Daityas;1 mother of, brought back to life by Bhṛgu.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 72; 38. 62; 53. 33.
  • 2) Ib. 1. 150.

1m) The Śukla Pakṣa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 37.

1n) A son of Jala or waters.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 11.

1o) A son of Nandana.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 56.

1p) The mind-born sons of Svāyambhuva Manu; 12 in number, all Somapāyins—a gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 46; 12. 47; Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 4. 8-9.

2) Śukrā (शुक्रा).—A river in Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 46; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 42.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Śukra (शुक्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.35, I.65, I.60.40) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śukra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Śukra (शुक्र) or Śukla refers to one of the seven sons of Vasiṣṭha and Ūrjā: one of the twenty-four daughters of Dakṣa and Prasūti, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Ākūti was married to Ruci and Prasūti to Dakṣa. Dakṣa produced in Prasūti twenty-four daughters. [...] [Ūrjā was given to Vasiṣṭha.] From Vasiṣṭha and Ūrjā, seven sons—Raja, Gotra, Ūrdhvabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapā and Śukla (Śukra) and a daughter Puṇḍarikā were born.

2) Śukra (शुक्र) is the son of Bhṛgu, according to another account of Vaṃśa in the Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Śukra (the preceptor of the Daityas) was born from Bhṛgu. Śukra achieved the knowledge of Saṃjīvanī by worshipping Mahādeva and by the grace of the Lord he was famous as Yogācārya.

3)Śukra (शुक्र) is the name of one of the seven sages (saptarṣi) in the Uttama-Manvantara: one of the fourteen Manvantaras.—Accordingly, “In the Uttama Manvantara the Sudhāmās are the Gods having twelve groups like Pratardana, Śiva, Satya, Vaśavarti etc. Sudānti was the Indra. Raja, Gotra, Ardhabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapā and Śukra are the Seven sages.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Śukra (शुक्र, “friday”) corresponds with venus and refers to the sixth of seven vāra (days), according to the Mānasāra. Vāra is the fifth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular day, or vāra (e.g., śukra) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among these vāras, Guru (Thursday), Śukra (Friday), Budha (Wednesday) and Śaśi or Candra (Monday), are considered auspicious and therefore, to be preferred. The text states, however, that the inauspiciousness of the other three days are nullified if there occurs a śubhayoga, “auspicious conjunction (of planets)” on those days.

Source: Bharatiya vastu-sastra

Śukra (शुक्र) is the name of an ancient teacher (ācārya) of Vāstuśāsta (science of architecture) according to the Matsyapurāṇa.—All these great teachers cannot be said to be legendary. Some used to be propagated in ancient India. No nation can flourish without its care for its material prosperity. All this technique and training and their systematic and successful teaching and transmission were of equal importance. Most of the treatises of Vāstuśāstra carry many of these names [i.e., Śukra], yet a good many of them are quoted as authorities, yet still others are honoured with actual passages being quoted from their works.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Shukra, also know as Shukra, is the son of the great sage Bhrigu and Ushana, daughter of Hirana-Kashipu. He went to the hermitage of Angirasa to learn the scriptures. Angirasa's son Brihaspati was a fellow student of his. Appalled by the favoritism shown by Angirasa towards his son, Shukra left his guru and became the disciple of the sage Gautama instead.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Śukra (शुक्र) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Śukra).

2) Śukra (शुक्र) also refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to the planet Venus and represents one of the nine planets (Navagraha), commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—His colour is white; his Symbols are the rosary and the kamaṇḍalu; he has two arms

Śukra is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“Śukra is white in colour. He sits on a lotus and holds in his two hands the rosary and the kamaṇḍalu”.

[Śukra is not represented in the Chinese collection].

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to “essence”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “The letter E shape, abode of strong essence (sāra-śukra-nilaya), the womb space of the lotus, Therein the midst, a secret Vaṃ, a beautiful bowl, the origin of all one’s self, An abode of perfectly pure awakened omniscience, beautiful divine power, And I, innately pure, praise the highest pleasure, the innate heroic couple”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to “sperm”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[...] By means of the wind (vāta) of deceptive concepts (mṛṣāvikalpa) and wrong thoughts, the father and mother (mātāpitṛ) blow upon the fire (agni) of sexual desire (rāga); blood (rudhira), marrow (majjan) and fat (vasā) escape, get hot and are changed into sperm. The seed-consciousness (vijñānabīja) conditioned by previous actions (pūrvakarman) settles in the blood (śoṇita) and whitish sperm (śukra). That is what is called the seed of the body (kāyabīja). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to a heavenly abode (kalpa) inhabited by Kalpopapanna gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in the Digambara tradition only. The Kalpopapannas (‘those born in the heavens’) represent a sub-species of the Vaimānika gods, which in turn represents the fourth main classification of devas (gods). This kalpa is also known as Śukrakalpa.

Source: The Jaina Iconography

Śukra (शुक्र) is the name of a deity from the Jyotiṣka-Devas or Navagraha group of deities commonly depicted as in Jaina iconography.—Śukra is described in the Śvetāmbara texts as having the vehicle of a snake and bearing the symbol of an urn. He is known as the teacher of the demons and ruler of the South-east regions. The Digambara canon makes him hold a three-fold thread, snake, noose and rosary.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to one of the sixteen heavens (kalpa) hosting the sixteen classes of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

What is the number of layers in Śukra and Mahāśukra heaven pairs? There is one layer there. Which thought-colourations are there in Śukra-Mahāśukra and Śatāra-Sahasrāra gods? They have pink and white thought-colouration. What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Śukra-Mahāśukra kalpas? It is slightly more than sixteen ocean-measured-periods (sāgara) for both.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to “semen”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “This body is filthy in nature, reprehensible, filled with much that is impure, produced from semen and other seeds (śukra-ādi-bīja-saṃbhūta), [and] is the abode of contempt. Where is the body, which is filled with blood, flesh and fat, has a skeleton of slender bones, is bound with tendons and is of bad odour, praised?”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śukra (शुक्र).—m (S) The planet Venus, or the regent of it, the preceptor of the Dytyas or Titans.

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śukra (शुक्र).—n S Semen virile.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śukra (शुक्र).—m The planet Venus.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śukra (शुक्र).—a. [śuc-rak ni° kutvam Uṇādi-sūtra 2.28] Ved.

1) Bright, radiant; स पर्यगाच्छुक्रम् (sa paryagācchukram) Īśop.8; shining.

2) White, pure; रोचिष्णु जायते शुक्रं तद्रूपगुणमुच्यते (rociṣṇu jāyate śukraṃ tadrūpaguṇamucyate) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.232.6.

-kraḥ 1 The planet Venus.

2) Name of the preceptor of the Asuras, who, by means of his magical charm, restored to life the demons killed in battle; see कच, देवयानी (kaca, devayānī) and ययाति (yayāti).

3) The month of Jyeṣṭha; रथस्वन इति ह्येते शुक्र- मासं नयन्त्यमी (rathasvana iti hyete śukra- māsaṃ nayantyamī) Bhāgavata 12.11.35.

4) Name of Agni or fire.

5) Name of the plant Chitraka.

-kram 1 Semen virile; पुमान् पुंसोऽधिके शुक्रे स्त्री भवत्यधिके स्त्रियाः (pumān puṃso'dhike śukre strī bhavatyadhike striyāḥ) Manusmṛti 3.49;5.63.

2) The essence of anything.

3) Male and female energy.

4) Ved. Water.

5) Brightness, clearness, light; यथा पुरस्तात् सविता दृश्यते शुक्रमुच्चरन् (yathā purastāt savitā dṛśyate śukramuccaran) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.75.12.

6) Morbid affection of the iris.

7) Gold, wealth.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śukrā (शुक्रा).—see Śuklā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śukra (शुक्र).—m.

(-kraḥ) 1. The planet Venus or its regent, the son of Bhrigu, and preceptor of the Daityas or Titans. 2. A name of fire. 3. The month Jyesht'ha, (April-May.) n.

(-kraṃ) 1. Semen virile. 2. The essence of anything. 3. A morbid affection of the iris, change of colour, ulceration, &c. accompanied by imperfect vision. E. śuc to grieve, &c., Unadi aff. rak, deriv. irr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śukra (शुक्र).—i. e. 2. śuc + ra, I. adj. 1. Resplendent, Chr. 288, 14 = [Rigveda.] i. 48, 14. 2. Pure, Windischmaun, Sankara, 68. Ii. m. 1. A name of Agni. 2. The planet Venus, [Pañcatantra] pr. [distich] 3. 3. The month Jyeṣṭhā (May

— June), [Hiḍimbavadha] 1, 10. Iii. n. 1. Semen virile, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 13; Mahābhārata 1, 2434; male and female strength, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 49. 2. A morbid affection of the iris.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śukra (शुक्र).—[adjective] clear, bright, pure, white.

— [masculine] fire or the god of fire, the planet Venus, a cert. cup of Soma (±graha), [Name] of [several] men. [neuter] brightness, purity; water, Soma, juice i.[grammar], semen virile.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Śukra (शुक्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[+śukra] Nītisāra. See Śukranīti.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śukra (शुक्र):—mf(ā)n. ([from] √1. śuc cf. śukla) bright, resplendent, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata]

2) clear, pure, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

3) light-coloured, white, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa]

4) pure, spotless, [Ṛg-veda; Brāhmaṇa]

5) m. Name of Agni or fire, [Rāmāyaṇa]

6) of a month (Jyeṣṭha = May-June, personified as the guardian of Kubera’s treasure), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

7) the planet Venus or its regent (regarded as the son of Bhṛgu and preceptor of the Daityas), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

8) clear or pure Soma, [Ṛg-veda]

9) (with or [scilicet] graha) a [particular] Graha or receptacle for Soma, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

10) a [particular] [astrology] Yoga, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) a Name of the Vyāhṛtis (bhūr, bhuvaḥ, svar), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

12) a kind of plant (= citraka), [ib.]

13) Name of a Marutvat, [Harivaṃśa]

14) of a son of Vasiṣṭha, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

15) of the third Manu, [Harivaṃśa]

16) of one of the seven sages under Manu Bhautya, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

17) of a son of Bhava, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

18) of a son of Havir-dhāna (cf. śukla), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

19) (with Jainas) of a [particular] Kalpa (q.v.)

20) n. brightness, clearness, light, [Ṛg-veda; Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

21) (also [plural]) any clear liquid (as water, Soma etc.), [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]

22) juice, the essence of anything, [Brāhmaṇa; ???] (also [plural])

23) semen virile, seed of animals (male and female), sperm, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

24) a morbid affection of the iris (change of colour etc. accompanied by imperfect vision; cf. śukla), [Suśruta; Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā]

25) a good action, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) gold, wealth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

27) Name of a Sāman, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

28) of a Vedic metre, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śukra (शुक्र):—(kraḥ) 1. m. The planet Venus or its regent; fire; name of a month, April-May. n. Semen virile; disease of the iris.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śukra (शुक्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sukka.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shukra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śukra (शुक्र):—(nm) semen; (the planet) Venus; Friday; thanks, (an expression of gratitude); see [śukrācārya; ~gujāra] grateful, thankful; thanksgiver; ~[gujārī] gratefulness, thanks-giving; ~[vāra] Friday; —[karanā] to thank God; —[hai] thanks, it is God's kindness, thank God !

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śukra (ಶುಕ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] shining brightly; resplendent; splendid.

2) [adjective] of the colour of pure snow; white.

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Śukra (ಶುಕ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the white colour.

2) [noun] a star, a self-luminous celestial body.

3) [noun] Agni, the Fire-God.

4) [noun] the preceptor of demons.

5) [noun] the thick, whitish fluid secreted by the male reproductive organs containing the spermatozoa; the semen.

6) [noun] Jyēṣṭha, the third month of Hindu lunar calendar.

7) [noun] the planet Venus (reckoned as a planet in astrology also).

8) [noun] the ninth of the sixteen heavens of Jainas.

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Sukra (ಸುಕ್ರ):—

1) [noun] (correctly, ಶುಕ್ರ [shukra]) 1. the preceptor of demons.

2) [noun] the planet Venus (reckoned as a planet in astrology also).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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