Shukra, aka: Śukrā, Śukra; 17 Definition(s)

Introduction

Shukra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śukrā and Śukra can be transliterated into English as Sukra or Shukra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

One of the Nava-graha (Hands that indicate the Nine Planets).—Śukra: Muṣṭi with both hands, the left raised, the right downwards.

(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Śukra (शुक्र, “Venus”):—Son of Śarva (aspect of Śiva, as in, one of the eight names of Rudra) and Suvarchalā, according to the Pādma-purāṇa.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Śukrā (शुक्रा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Gola, the sixth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Śukrā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Ayurveda (science of life)

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to “male genetic prototype”. It is one of the factors in determining the Prakṛti, which is the genetically determined physical and mental constitution of an individual. Also see Śoṇita, which refers to the “female genetic prototype”. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śukra (शुक्र), minutely pervades the whole body but manifestly is situated in śukrāśaya (‘seminal vesicles’) and during orgasm of the sexual intercourse is discharged through urethra.

(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Śukra (शुक्र):—The factor, which is responsible for the formation of ‘Garbha’ (embryo), is known as ‘Śukra’ (Carakasaṃhitā Śārirasthāna 2/4). Śukra is distributed all over the body in the same manner in which the fat in the milk and juice in the sugar cane plant are distributed (Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 2/46). Also, this is present in males and females. All hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis can thus be included under the term ‘Śukra’. In some references, ‘Śukra’ stands for only semen.

Fatty portion of ‘Majjā’ forms ‘Śukra’. This Śukra comes out of bones through the pores created by ‘Vāyu’ and ‘Ākāśa Mahābhūtas’. As if the water oozing out of new mud pot, Śukra also oozes out of these pores and then circulates all over the body through ‘Śukravaha Srotāṃsi’ (Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 15/32-33).

When the person gets excited because of the sexual urge, determination and romantic mental attitude, ‘Śukra’ comes out through the urethra (with which the bladder is connected) as if the melted ghee. This occurs because of the heat produced by the physical exertion during copulation. The simile given to describe this process is the flow of water from a place of lower altitude to a place of higher altitude (Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 15/34-35).

(Source): Cogprints: Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Śukra (शुक्र, “bright”) refers to the planet venus. The corresponding day of the week is wednesday (śukravāra). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Purana

1) Śukra (शुक्र).—(ŚUKRĀCĀRYA) I. Preceptor of the Asuras. Birth. Views differ as to whether Śukra was the son or grandson of Bhṛgu. The Purāṇas state that Pulomā was the wife of Bhṛgu. Śukra has another name, Kāvya. Kāvya means the son of Kavi. Some authorities say that Kavi was Bhṛgu’s son, while others think that Kavi was Bhṛgu himself. Śukra’s mother is referred to as "Kāvyamātā" in many places. Śukra is referred to as the strongest of the seven sons born to Bhṛgu and Pulomā. In the light of these references it is reasonable to consider Śukra as the son of the sage Bhṛgu. "Kavi" must be supposed to be another name of Bhṛgu. Uśanas was another name for Śukra. (See full article at Story of Śukra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Śukra (शुक्र).—A son of Vasiṣṭha. Seven sons were born to Vasiṣṭha by his wife Ūrjjā; they were, Rajas, Gotra, Ūrddhvabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas and Śukra. All these seven persons were the Saptarṣis of the third Manvantaram (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 10).

2) In Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 20 the names of the seven sons of Vasiṣṭha and Ūrjjā are given as Rajas. Gātra, Ūrddhvabāhu, Savana, Alaghu, Śukra and Sutapas.

3) Śukra (शुक्र).—A king who belonged to the dynasty of Emperor Pṛthu. Two sons, Antardhāna and Vādī were born to Pṛthu. Antardhāna had a son named Havirdhāna by wife Śikhaṇḍinī. Havirdhāna married Dhiṣaṇā who was born in Agnikula. Six sons were born to them. They were, Prācīnabarhis, Śukra, Gaya, Kṛṣṇa, Vraja and Ajina. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 14).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Śukra (शुक्र).—(alias Uśanas) a son of Kavi (Havirdhāna and Divyā, hence Kāvya); married Ūrjasvatī, and father of Devayānī through Jayantī.1 The Purohita of Hiraṇyakaśipu. Father of Śaṇḍa and Marka, tutors of Prahlāda. Took part in Prahlāda's coronation. A Brahmaṛṣi: Heard of the insult offered to his daughter by Śarmiṣṭhā, the daughter of the ruler Vṛṣaparvan and left the capital. The Purohita of Vṛṣaparvan, the latter made him stay offering to make his daughter a slave of Devayāṇī. In offering the latter to Yayāti, he asked him not to share his bed with Śarmiṣṭhā, cursed Yayāti to become aged for having shared his bed with Śarmiṣṭhā, and on an appeal mitigated it by saying that he could exchange his old age with youth of another if he found one to accept the exchange;2 joined Soma in Tārakāmaya war: blessed the Asuras in this war: fought with Bṛhaspati in a Devāsura battle.3 Brought back to life the unconscious Bali by Sañjīvinī Vidya. Presented Bali with an unfading garland of flowers; knowing Vāmana to be Hari, warned Bali from agreeing to his request. Bali would not hear, and Śukra cursed him to lose all Śrī. At the bidding of Hari completed the Yajña begun by Bali.4 The third Vedavyāsa. Heard the Purāṇa from Vāyu and told it to Bṛhaspati.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 1. 22; IV. 1. 45; V. 1. 35; VI. 7. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 63. 23; 65. 74; 93. 85; 101. 33; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I, 14. 2.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. Ch. 18 (whole); VII. 5. 1-2 10. 33; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 68. 15; Matsya-purāṇa 25. 4, 16; 27. 26, 37; 30. 30-36; 32. 23, 26; 33. 2 and 26.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 14. 6; VIII. 10. 33.
  • 4) Ib. VIII. 11. 47-8; 15. 6; 19. 30-43; 20. 1-15; 23. 18; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 30. 54; 65. 31; Matsya-purāṇa 192. 10; 246. 1.
  • 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 76 and 86; 10. 18; II. 35. 117; IV. 4. 59.

1b) Goes round Dhruva, and is believed to cause rain by his rapid marches, before or after or along with the sun;1 the planet above Budha;2 fed by the viśvaśrava ray of the sun: of 16 rays of white watery region: 1/16 in size to the moon;3 to be worshipped when it begins to rise or is opposite or at the commencement or end of a journey;4 gifts to be given to a sāmaga;5 on the left, a bad omen; an auspicious planet.6 car of, drawn by earth-born horses armed with arrows and adorned with pennon.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 9. 21; V. 22. 12.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 132; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 132.
  • 3) Ib. II. 24. 69. 95 and 104.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 73. 1.
  • 5) Ib. 163. 39.
  • 6) Ib. 164. 8.
  • 7) Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 74-5; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 12. 17.

1c) The month sacred to Mītra.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 35; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 8.

1d) The Nāga presiding over the month of Śuci.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 36.

1e) A son of Ūru and Āgneyī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 108.

1f) A name of Śiva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 72. 183.

1g) One of the twenty Sutapa gaṇas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 14; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 14.

1h) A son of Ūrjā and Vasiṣṭha: a sage of the epoch of Bhautya Manu; of the XIV epoch of Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 113; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 10. 13; III. 2. 44.

1i) A son of Havirdhāna.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 46.

1j) A son of Auttama Manu; married Gauṭ the mind-born daughter of the Mānasa Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 20; 15. 15.

1k) A son of Sāvarṇi Manu; the hero.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 33.

1l) A son of Prajāpati and overlord of Daityas;1 mother of, brought back to life by Bhṛgu.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 72; 38. 62; 53. 33.
  • 2) Ib. 1. 150.

1m) The Śukla Pakṣa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 37.

1n) A son of Jala or waters.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 11.

1o) A son of Nandana.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 56.

1p) The mind-born sons of Svāyambhuva Manu; 12 in number, all Somapāyins—a gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 46; 12. 47; Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 4. 8-9.

2) Śukrā (शुक्रा).—A river in Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 46; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 42.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Vastushastra (architecture)

Śukra (शुक्र, “friday”) corresponds with venus and refers to the sixth of seven vāra (days), according to the Mānasāra. Vāra is the fifth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular day, or vāra (eg., śukra) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among these vāras, Guru (Thursday), Śukra (Friday), Budha (Wednesday) and Śaśi or Candra (Monday), are considered auspicious and therefore, to be preferred. The text states, however, that the inauspiciousness of the other three days are nullified if there occurs a śubhayoga, “auspicious conjunction (of planets)” on those days.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

Itihasa (narrative history)

Śukra (शुक्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.35, I.65, I.60.40) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śukra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

General definition (in Hinduism)

Shukra, also know as Shukra, is the son of the great sage Bhrigu and Ushana, daughter of Hirana-Kashipu. He went to the hermitage of Angirasa to learn the scriptures. Angirasa's son Brihaspati was a fellow student of his. Appalled by the favoritism shown by Angirasa towards his son, Shukra left his guru and became the disciple of the sage Gautama instead.

(Source): Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to a heavenly abode (kalpa) inhabited by Kalpopapanna gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in the Digambara tradition only. The Kalpopapannas (‘those born in the heavens’) represent a sub-species of the Vaimānika gods, which in turn represents the fourth main classification of devas (gods). This kalpa is also known as Śukrakalpa.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

Śukra (शुक्र) refers to one of the sixteen heavens (kalpa) hosting the sixteen classes of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

What is the number of layers in Śukra and Mahāśukra heaven pairs? There is one layer there. Which thought-colourations are there in Śukra-Mahāśukra and Śatāra-Sahasrāra gods? They have pink and white thought-colouration. What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Śukra-Mahāśukra kalpas? It is slightly more than sixteen ocean-measured-periods (sāgara) for both.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Marathi-English dictionary

śukra (शुक्र).—m (S) The planet Venus, or the regent of it, the preceptor of the Dytyas or Titans.

--- OR ---

śukra (शुक्र).—n S Semen virile.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śukra (शुक्र).—m The planet Venus.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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