Apsaras, Apsarā, Apsara, Ap-sara: 22 definitions
Apsaras means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Apsaras (अप्सरस्).—* An Apsaras is a nymph (devastrī). These apsarā women were born at the churning of the ocean of Milk. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Chapter 45, Verse 32 and Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 9 and Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 3). There are thousands of Apsaras. (Details given against the names of Apsaras).
*) Ariṣṭhā, a wife of Kaśyapa, delivered thirteen Apsaras. They were: Alambuṣā, Miśrakeśī, Vidyutparṇā, Tilottamā, Rakṣitā, Rambhā, Manoramā, Keśinī, Subāhu, Surajā, Suratā and Supriyā. Ariṣṭhā gave birth also to four Gandharvas, Hāhā, Hūhū, Atibāhu and Tumburu as mentioned in the following verse.
"ariṣṭāsūta subhagādevī devarṣitaḥ purā alambuṣā miśrakeśī vidyutparṇā tilottamā aruṇā rakṣitā caiva rambhā tadvat manoramā keśinī ca subāhuśca vikhyatau ca hahāhuhū tumburuśceti catvāraḥ smṛtāḥ gandharvasattamāḥ."Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Apsaras (अप्सरस्) refers to a group of deities, abounding the top of the Himālaya mountain, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On the top of the mountain near the city of Himālaya (śailarājapura), Śiva sported about for a long time in the company of Satī. [...] Many kinds of semid-ivine beings the Aśvamukhas, the Siddhas, the Apsaras, the Guhyakas, etc. roamed there. Their women-folk, the Vidyādharīs, the Kinnarīs and the mountain lasses played about here and there. The celestial damsels played on their lutes, tabours and drums and danced with enthusiasm.”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Apsara (अप्सर).—Divine dancers born of Muni and Kaśyapa. Joined Gandharvas in milking the cow Earth; worship Barhiṣad pitṛs. Love sports with Gandharvas over the Himalayas.1 A group of celestial women who often go to Mount Kailāsa.2 Thirty-four3 wait on Indra.4 Joined the gods in offering prayers to Hari.5 Take their origin from the sportful motion of Hari.6 Danced at the avatār of Kṛṣṇa.7 Went to Dvāraka with gods and prayed for the return of Hari to Vaikuṇṭha.8 Their association with the wise and the righteous.9 Welcome Kṛṣṇa back to his own region.10 Were asked by Indra to obstruct the completion of Mārkaṇḍeya's tapas.11 Dance in front of the Sun god and move with him by turns.12 Live in Meru: Kāmadeva was their overlord;13 born on earth as 16000 gopis during Kṛṣṇa's avatāra;14 sprung from the churning of the ocean;15 strew fired grain at the conquering tour of Lalitā.16 Fourteen birth spots for them distinguished.17 Once when the Apsaras ladies, all daughters of Agni, were engaged in water sports in Mānasa, there came Nārada. Without saluting him they asked him how to attain the Lord as husband. He gave them a vrata but cursed that they would be separated from the Lord and become slaves of robbers; became the rekhas on the body of Vāmana.18
- 1) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 45; 10. 24; 15. 3; 22. 59; 120. 1.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 36; IV. 6. 9.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 4; 101. 28.
- 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 7. 4.
- 5) Ib. VII. 8. 38.
- 6) Ib. VIII. 5. 40.
- 7) Ib. X. 3. 6; 4. 11.
- 8) Ib. XI. 6. 3.
- 9) Ib. XI. 12. 3.
- 10) Ib. XI. 31. 2.
- 11) Ib. XII. 8. 16.
- 12) Ib. XII. 11. 47; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 27 and 50.
- 13) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 15. 49; III. 8. 15; 7. 25-26.
- 14) Ib. III. 71. 243-4; IV. 2. 26.
- 15) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 8. 7.
- 16) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 18. 9.
- 17) Ib. IV. 33. 18-25.
- 18) Matsya-purāṇa 70. 21-5; 246. 54.
Apsarā (अप्सरा) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.47, I.65, I.59.7, I.65, I.61.93). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Apsarā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Apsara (अप्सर) is a Sanskrit word referring to “celestial nymphs”. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-88, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).
As such, Brahmā assigned the Apsaras to its rooms (gallery, śālā). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)
1) Apsarā (अप्सरा) is the name of an Apabhraṃśa metre classified as Dvipadi (metres with two lines in a stanza) discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Apsarā has 7 mātrās in a line, divided into groups of 5 and 2.
2) Apsarā (अप्सरा) is also the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Apsarā has 16 mātrās in each of its four lines, divided into the groups of 5, 5, [ISI] and [S] mātrās.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
The Apsaras are celestial nymphs, the dancers in the court of Indra, the king of the Devas. All of them are extremely beautiful and skilled in both dance and music. They occur in persian mythology also, but there, they are water nymphs (apam=water), and are closely associated with ApamNapat.
They are many in number, and the most famous are
- and Ghritachi.
Other nymphs who are mentioned in the Puranas are:
- and Adrika.
For Tilottama and Urvashi, the story of their origins is available, but the others are believed to have sprung forth from the ocean-of-milk when it was churned by the Devas and Asuras.
They are closely associated with the Gandharvas, who are the celestial musicians. Some of the Apsaras are paired with a Gandharva, such as Tumburu with Rambha, and Menaka with Vishvavasu. But the relationship is temporary and is not a marriage tie.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
1) Apsarās (अपसरा): Heavenly nymphs, The dancing girls of Indra's court.
2) An Apsara (also spelled as Apsarasa) is a female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu and Buddhist mythology.
3) Apsaras are beautiful, supernatural female beings. They are youthful and elegant, and superb in the art of dancing. They are often the wives of the Gandharvas, the court musicians of Indra. They dance to the music made by the Gandharvas, usually in the palaces of the gods, entertain and sometimes seduce gods and men. As ethereal beings who inhabit the skies, and are often depicted taking flight, or at service of a god, they may be compared to angels.
Apsaras are said to be able to change their shape at will, and rule over the fortunes of gaming and gambling. Urvasi, Menaka, Rambha and Tilottama are the most famous among them. Apsaras are sometimes compared to the muses of ancient Greece, with each of the 26 Apsaras at Indra's court representing a distinct aspect of the performing arts. They are associated with fertility rites.
There are two types of Apsaras; Laukika (worldly), of whom thirty-four are specified, and Daivika (divine), of which there are ten. The Bhagavata Purana also states that the Apsaras were born from Kashyap and Muni.
etymology: An Apsara (Sanskrit: अप्सराः apsarāḥ, plural अप्सरसः apsarasaḥ, stem apsaras-, a feminine consonant stem, អប្សរា), is also known as Vidhya Dhari or Tep Apsar (ទេពអប្សរ) in Khmer, Accharā (Pāli) or A Bố Sa La Tư (Vietnamese), Bidadari (Indonesian & Malay), Biraddali (Tausug), Hapsari or Widodari (Javanese) and Apson (Thai: อัปสร). English translations of the word "Apsara" include "nymph," "celestial nymph," and "celestial maiden."Source: GRETIL e-library: Epic Mythology
Apsara (अप्सर):—The word Apsaras is explained as apsu rasa, the essence of the oceanwater produced at the churning, when Apsarasas and the physician god Dhanvantari first rose from it. There were sixty crores of them, not to speak of their “countless attendants”. In the Mahābhārata this origin is attributed to Dhanvantari but not to the nymphs, and Nārāyaṇa himself in māyā form plays the part of the seductive woman, who induced the Asuras to give up the ambrosia.
According to a late tradition, sundry Apsarasas were born of Brahman’s fancy (‘faculty of imagination’); others, of Dakṣa’s daughters. The first make a group of ten plus one, beginning with Menakā, and are called Vaidikīs, sacrosanct, recognised by revelation, and as such distinguished from those born from Dakṣa’s daughters.
This group may be considered, therefore, as that of the most revered nymphs:
- and Manovatī.
Eighteen are ascribed to Muni (sired by Kaśyapa). Six (names of) nymphs are ascribed to Prādhā (apparently should be eight). Ten unnamed Apsarasas of the North are called Vidyutprabhās “by name” (“lightning-glorious”). Seven times six thousand (South Indian Mahābhārata, thirteen thousand) Apsarasas dance on the point of Dilīpa’s sacrificial post to the music of Viśvāvasu.
The list of epic Apsarasas is as follows (H = Harivaṃśa, R = Rāmāyaṇa):
- Anugā (H),
- Anūnā (H),
- Anumlocā (H),
- Aruṇapriyā (H),
- Ghṛtasthalā (H),
- Cārumadhyā (H),
- Citrā (Mitrā)‚
- Jāmī (see Yāmī),
- Nāgadantā (-dattā),
- Parṇikā (H),
- Priyamnkhyā (H),
- Budbudā (Vudvudā),
- Madhurasvarā (-nā),
- Mālinī (?),
- Lakṣmaṇā (H),
- Varananā (H),
- Śraviṣṭhā (H),
- Sugrīvī (H),
- Sumadhyā (H),
- Surathā (H),
- Suramā (H),
- Surūpā (H),
- Sulocanā (H),
- Suvṛttā (H),
- Sanrabheyī (-seyī),
- Hemadantā (H),
- Hemā (R and H).
All come from Brahman’s eye.
These nymphs dance and sing. They are called “gods’ girls”. Their female companions are the Devapatnīs, proper wives of the gods. Like all Hindu celestials they are depicted as overloaded with gems and garlands, They also wear necklaces, golden girdles, and anklets, which tinkle as they welcome saints to heaven.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Apsaras (अप्सरस्) refers to one of the 32 mountains between the lotus-lakes situated near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“In the four directions from each of the Añjana Mountains there are lotus-lakes, 100,000 yojanas square: [...]. Between each two lotus-lakes there are 2 Ratikara Mountains so there are 32 Ratikara Mountains (e.g., Apsaras). On the Dadhimukha Mountains and on the Ratikara Mountains, there are eternal shrines of the Arhats, just as on the Añjana Mountains likewise at the intermediate points of the continent there are 4 Ratikara Mountains, having a length and width of 10,000 yojanas, and a height of 1,000 yojanas, made of all kinds of jewels, divine, the shape of a jhallarī. [...] In them (i.e., the 32 Ratikara Mountains, e.g., Apsaras) the gods with all their splendor together with their retinues make eight-day festivals in the shrines on the holy days of the holy Arhats”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
apsarā (अप्सरा).—f (S) A courtesan of svarga, Indra's heaven.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
apsarā (अप्सरा).—f A courtesan of svarga. Not fully grown or developed. Timid, gentle.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Apsara (अप्सर).—[ap-sṛ-ac] Any aquatic animal (moving in water).
Derivable forms: apsaraḥ (अप्सरः).
--- OR ---
1) (-rāḥ, rā). [अद्भ्यः सरन्ति उद्गच्छन्ति, सृ-असुन् (adbhyaḥ saranti udgacchanti, sṛ-asun) Uṇ.4.236; cf. Rām. अप्सु निर्मथनादेव रसात्तस्माद्वर- स्त्रियः । उत्पेतुर्मनुजश्रेष्ठ तस्मादप्सरसोऽभवन् (apsu nirmathanādeva rasāttasmādvara- striyaḥ | utpeturmanujaśreṣṭha tasmādapsaraso'bhavan) || A class of female divinities or celestial damsels who reside in the sky and are regarded as the wives of the Gandharvas. They are very fond of bathing, can change their shapes, and are endowed with superhuman power (prabhāva). They are called स्वर्वेश्याः (svarveśyāḥ) and are usually described as the servants of Indra, who, when alarmed by the rigorous austerities of some mighty sage, sends down one of them to disturb his penance, and her mission is generally successful; मेनकाऽप्सरसां श्रेष्ठा महर्षिणां पिता च ते (menakā'psarasāṃ śreṣṭhā maharṣiṇāṃ pitā ca te) Mb.1.74.75. cf. या तपोविशेषपरिशङ्कितस्य सुकुमारं प्रहरणं महेन्द्रस्य (yā tapoviśeṣapariśaṅkitasya sukumāraṃ praharaṇaṃ mahendrasya) V. 1. They are also said to covet heroes who die gloriously on the battle-field; cf. परस्परेण क्षतयोः प्रहर्त्रोरुत्क्रान्तवाय्वोः समकालमेव । अमर्त्यभावेऽपि कयोश्चिदासीदेकाप्सरः प्रार्थितयोर्विवादः (paraspareṇa kṣatayoḥ prahartrorutkrāntavāyvoḥ samakālameva | amartyabhāve'pi kayościdāsīdekāpsaraḥ prārthitayorvivādaḥ) || R.7.53. Bāṇa mentions 14 different families of these nymphs (see K.136) The word is usually said to be in pl. (striyāṃ bahuṣvapsarasaḥ) but the singular, as also the form अप्सराः (apsarāḥ), sometimes occurs; नियमविघ्नकारिणी मेनका नाम अप्सराः प्रेषिता (niyamavighnakāriṇī menakā nāma apsarāḥ preṣitā) Ś.1; एकाप्सरः (ekāpsaraḥ) &c. R.7.53 and see Malli. thereon; अनप्सरेव प्रतिभासि (anapsareva pratibhāsi) V.1.
2) Direction or the intermediate point of the compass (dik ca upadik ca).
--- OR ---
Apsara (अप्सर).—an aquatic animal. त्रीण्याद्यान्याश्रितास्त्वेषां मृगगर्ताश्रयाऽप्सराः (trīṇyādyānyāśritāstveṣāṃ mṛgagartāśrayā'psarāḥ) Ms. 7.72. See [apsaraḥ. -patiḥ 1] 'Lord of waters', Name of Varuṇa.
2) the ocean.
Derivable forms: apsaraḥ (अप्सरः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Apsaras (अप्सरस्).—f. plur. always
(-rāḥ) The nymphs of Swerga, attendants on Indra. E. ap water, sṛ to go, and asi Unadi affix: or apsa in the waters, and rasa flavour: from their foudness for bathing, or from their being produced at the churning of the ocean.
--- OR ---
(-rā) an Apsara or heavenly nymph. E. ap and sṛ as before, with ac aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Apsaras (अप्सरस्).—i. e. ap-sṛ + as, f. The name of female divinities; in the classical poetry the courtesans of paradise.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Apsaras (अप्सरस्).—[feminine] Apsaras (a cert. class of fem. deities).
--- OR ---
Apsarā (अप्सरा).—[feminine] Apsaras (a cert. class of fem. deities).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Apsaras (अप्सरस्):—[=ap-saras] [from ap] a See sub voce
2) [=ap-saras] b ās ([Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.), or ap-sarā ([Av. etc.]), f. ([from] 2. ap + √sṛ), ‘going in the waters or between the waters of the clouds’, a class of female divinities (sometimes called ‘nymphs’; they inhabit the sky, but often visit the earth; they are the wives of the Gandharvas (q.v.) and have the faculty of changing their shapes at will; they are fond of the water; one of their number, Rambhā, is said to have been produced at the churning of the ocean).
3) Āpsara (आप्सर):—mfn. ([from] apsaras), belonging to the Apsaras.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Apsaras (अप्सरस्):—plu. (rāḥ) 5. f. Courtezans of paradise, nymphs.
2) Apsarā (अप्सरा):—[apsa+rā] (rā) 1. f. An Apsarā.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Apsara (अप्सर):—m. Wasserthier [Mānavadharmaśāstra. 7,72] v.l.
--- OR ---
Apsaras (अप्सरस्):—und apsarā f. Bez. weiblicher Wesen geisterhafter Art , die als Weiber der Gandharva erscheinen. In der epischen Poesie werden sie auf Bitten der Götter von Indra auf die Erde gesandt , um Büsser in ihren Kasteiungen zu stören.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Apsarā (अप्सरा):—(nf) a celestial damsel, fairy; nymph.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+605): Ghritaci, Menaka, Tilottama, Urvashi, Apsarastirtha, Apsarapati, Dyuyoshit, Shakuntala, Apsarayita, Vishvaci, Ghritasthala, Amarastri, Divyanari, Apsaraya, Rambha, Anumloca, Pramandani, Dharmabhimukha, Apsarahpati, Surabhidatta.
Search found 66 books and stories containing Apsaras, Apsarā, Apsara, Ap-sara, Ap-saras, Āpsara; (plurals include: Apsarases, Apsarās, Apsaras, saras, sarases, Āpsaras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Harivamsha Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter 118 - Bhava’s Sport and Vana’s Daughter Obtains a boon < [Book 2 - Vishnu Parva]
Chapter 26 - An Account of Pururava < [Book 1 - Harivamsa Parva]
Chapter 131 - Aniruddha’s Wedding and Reception < [Book 2 - Vishnu Parva]
The Markandeya Purana (by Frederick Eden Pargiter)
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section XLVI < [Indralokagamana Parva]
Section LXV < [Sambhava Parva]
Section XLV < [Indralokagamana Parva]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa IX, adhyāya 4, brāhmaṇa 1 < [Ninth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa X, adhyāya 5, brāhmaṇa 2 < [Tenth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa IV, adhyāya 4, brāhmaṇa 1 < [Fourth Kāṇḍa]
Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story) (by Somadeva)