Kalpa, aka: Kalpā; 13 Definition(s)
The ancient Indian tradition holds Eternity, to be a never-ending cycle of transient and finite periods of Time, called the Kalpa. The Kalpa was subdivided into units measured on two scales, one cosmic and the other human. The Kalpa itself was but a cosmic day in the life of Brahma the Creator, who himself had a finite life span of 100 cosmic years. Each cosmic year was comprised of 300 cosmic days and 300 cosmic nights. The Universe was created by Brahma at the beginning of each cosmic day and dissolved at the beginning of each cosmic night. How does the cosmic day relate to the human day ? The cosmic day, or Kalpa, is equal to 4.32 billion years on the human scale as explained below.
The Kalpa is divided into 14 Manvantaras, each ruled on behalf of Brahma, by a Manu.The following is the sequence of the Manvantaras :
- Daksha savarni
- Brahma savarni
- Dharma savarni
- Rudra savarni
- Deva savarni
- Indra savarni
Each of the 14 Manvantaras is divided into 71 Mayayugas and are separated from one another by an interval called a Sandhya. There are thus 15 separating Sandhyas which together last 6 Mahayugas. Thus the total duration of the Kalpa is (14 x 71) + 6 ie 1000 Mahayugas.
Each Mahayuga breaks up to a repetitive sequence of 4 Yugas, viz Satya (or Krita),Treta, Dvapara and Kali Yuga.
atya (Krita) 17,28,000 years
Treta 12,96,000 years
Dvapara 8,64,000 years
Kali 4,32,000 years
Total 43,20,000 years
Lord Brahma's one day is called a kalpa, the creation of Brahma is called vikalpa and the creation of the total creation is called mahakalpa.
In the Skanda Purana, Brahma's thirty days are mentioned:
- Sveta Varaha Kalpa
- Nilalohita Kalpa
- Vamadeva Kalpa
- Gathantara Kalpa
- Raurava Kalpa
- Prana Kalpa
- Brhat Kalpa
- Kandarpa Kalpa
- Sadyata Kalpa
- Isana Kalpa
- Dhyana Kalpa
- Sarasvata Kalpa
- Udana Kalpa
- Garuda Kalpa
- Kaurma Kalpa
- Narasimha Kalpa
- Samadhi Kalpa
- Agneya Kalpa
- Visnuja Kalpa
- Saura Kalpa
- Soma Kalpa
- Bhavana Kalpa
- Supuma Kalpa
- Vaikuntha Kalpa
- Arcisa Kalpa
- Vali Kalpa
- Vairaja Kalpa
- Gauri Kalpa
- Mahesvara Kalpa
- Paitr Kalpa
Each day of Brahma is a duration of one thousand divya yugas. A divya yuga comprises of one thousand of the four yugas. The same duration comprises his night.
kappa : (m.) 1. a world cycle; an aeon; 2. thought. (adj.), suitable; proper; resembling. (in cpds.).
1. According to Visuddhimagga, there are several explanations for types of kalpas and their duration. In the first explanation, there are four types:
- Ayu-Kalpa - a variable time span representing the life expectancy of a typical human being in a particular era or yuga. This can be as high as one Asankya or as small as 10 years. This number is directly proportional to the level of virtue of people in that era. Currently this value hovers around 100 years and is continually decreasing.
Antah-Kalpa - the time it takes for one Ayu-Kalpa to grow from 10 years up to one Asankya and back to 10 years. The ending of one Antah-Kalpa (or mass-extinction) can happen in one of three ways, all involving the majority of the human population going extinct:
- Sashthrantha-Kalpa - Mass extinction by wars.
- Durbhikshantha-Kalpa - Mass extinction by hunger.
- Rogantha-Kalpa - Mass extinction by plague.
- Asankya-Kalpa - time span of 20 Antah-Kalpas. One is equivalent to a quarter of Maha-Kalpa.
Maha-Kalpa - largest time unit in Buddhism. Ending of a Maha-Kalpa (apocalypse) can happen in three ways: fire, water and wind. It is divided into four quarters each equivalent to one Asankya-Kalpa.
- First quarter - time taken for this world to form.
- Second quarter - stable duration of this world where all living beings can thrive.
- Third quarter - time taken for this world to be destroyed.
- Fourth quarter - empty time period.
2. In another simple explanation, there are four different lengths of kalpas. A regular kalpa is approximately 16 million years long (16,798,000 years), and a small kalpa is 1000 regular kalpas, or about 16 billion years. Further, a medium kalpa is roughly 320 billion years, the equivalent of 20 small kalpas. A great kalpa is 4 medium kalpas, or around 1.28 trillion years.
1. Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual. Tradition does not single out any special work in this branch of the Vedanga; but sacrificial practice gave rise to a large number of systematic sutras for the several classes of priests.
2. Kalpa is a Sanskrit word (Hindi: कल्प kalpa) meaning an aeon, or a relatively long period of time (by human calculation) in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology. The concept is first mentioned in the Mahabharata. The definition of a kalpa equaling 4.32 billion years is found in the Purāṇas (specifically Viṣnu Purāṇa and Bhagavata Purāṇa).
3. In Hinduism (cf. Hindu Time Cycles), it is equal to 4.32 billion years, a "day of Brahma" or one thousand mahayugas, measuring the duration of the world (scientists estimate the age of the Earth at 4.54 billion years). Each kalpa is divided into 14 manvantara periods, each lasting 71 yuga cycles (306,720,000 years). Preceding the first and following each manvatara period is a juncture (sandhya) the length of a Satya-yuga (1,728,000) years. Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma. A "month of Brahma" is supposed to contain thirty such days (including nights), or 259.2 billion years. According to the Mahabharata, 12 months of Brahma (=360 days) constitute his year, and 100 such years the life cycle of the universe. Fifty years of Brahma are supposed to have elapsed, and we are now in the shvetavaraha-kalpa of the fifty-first; at the end of a Kalpa the world is annihilated.
4. The duration of the material universe is limited. It is manifested in cycles of kalpas. A kalpa is a day of Brahmā, and one day of Brahmā consists of a thousand cycles of four yugas, or ages: Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. The names of 30 Kalpas are found in the Matsya Purāṇa (290.3-12). These are:
- Māheśvara and
The Vāyu Purāṇa in chapter 21 gives a different list of 28 kalpas. It also lists five more kalpas in the next chapter.
Kalpa Skt.; world cycle, world age (Pali, kappa); term for an endlessly long period of time, which is the basis of Buddhist time reckoning. The length of a kalpa is illustrated by the following simile: suppose that every hundred years a piece of silk is rubbed once on a solid rock one cubic mile in size; when the rock is worn away by this, one kalpa will still not have passed.
A kalpa is divided into four parts: the arising of a universe, the continuation of the arisen universe, the demise of that universe, the continuation of chaos. In the period of the arising of a universe, individual worlds with their sentient beings are formed. In the second period sun and moon come into being, the sexes are distinguished, and social life develops. In the phase of universal demise, fire, water, and wind destroy almost everything. The period of chaos is that of total annihilation. a
Originally, a kalpa was considered to be 4,320,000 years.
(Skr) = kappa).
-- or --
(Sanskrit kalpa): 'world-period', an inconceivably long space of time, an aeon. This again is subdivided into 4 sections:
- world-dissolution (samvatta-kappa) dissolving world),
- continuation of the chaos (samvatta-tthāyī),
- world-formation (vivatta-kappa),
- continuation of the formed world (vivatta-tthāyī).
"How long a world-dissolution will continue, how long the chaos, how long the formation, how long the continuation of the formed world, of these things; o monks, one hardly can say that it will be so many years, or so many centuries, or so many millennia, or so many hundred thousands of years" (A.IV.156)
A detailed description of the 4 world-periods is given in that stirring discourse on the all-embracing impermanence in A.VII.62.
The beautiful simile in S.XV.5 may be mentioned here: "Suppose, o monks, there was a huge rock of one solid mass, one mile long, one mile wide, one mile high, without split or flaw. And at the end of every hundred years a man should come and rub against it once with a silken cloth. Then that huge rock would wear off and disappear quicker than a world-period. But of such world-periods, o monks, many have passed away, many hundreds, many thousands, many hundred thousands. And how is this possible? Inconceivable, o monks, is this samsāra, not to be discovered is any first beginning of beings, who obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths."
Compare here Grimm's German fairy-tale of the little shepherd boy: 'In Farther Pommerania there is the diamond-mountain, one hour high, one hour wide, one hour deep. There every hundred years a little bird comes and whets its little beak on it. And when the whole mountain is ground off, then the first second of eternity has passed."
A Kalpa denotes a great period of time; a period during which a physical universe is formed and destroyed.
Asankhyeya denotes the highest sum for which a conventional term exists:
- According to Chinese calculations equal to one followed by seventeen ciphers;
- According to Thibetan and Singhalese, equal to one followed by ninety-seven ciphers.
Every Maha-kalpa consists of four Asankhyeya-kalpas. Eitel, p. 15.
1. Kappa - One of Bavaris disciples. The questions he asked of the Buddha are recorded in the Kappamanavapuccha (q.v.). He became an arahant. Sn.vv.1007, 1092-5; SnA.ii.597.
2. Kappa Thera - An arahant. He was the son of a provincial governor in Magadha and was addicted to self indulgence. The Buddha, seeing him in his net of wisdom, visited him and admonished him, speaking to him of the filthy nature of the body, illustrating his sermon with a wealth of simile and metaphor. Kappa was greatly impressed and joined the Order. He became an arahant, as his head was being shaved. In the time of the Buddha Siddhattha he was a rich householder, and offered at the Buddhas shrine a kapparukkha containing objects of great value. Wherever he was born celestial trees grew outside his door. Seven kappas ago he was eight times king under the name of Sucela (Thag.567-76; ThagA.i.521ff). He is probably identical with Kapparukkhiya of the Apadana. Ap.i.91.
3. Kappa - In the Samyutta Nikaya (S.iii.169f) two suttas are connected with a monk called Kappa, who is probably identical with Kappa (2). In both suttas he asks the Buddha how it is possible to cultivate knowledge and thought so as to be free from thoughts of I and mine with regard to the body. The same questions, receiving the same answers, are elsewhere attributed to Rahula. S.ii.253f.
4. Kappa - A young brahmin (Kappakamara) who was the Bodhisatta. He later became a sage and the disciple and friend of Kesava. For his story see the Kesava Jataka (J.iii.142ff). The story is also referred to in the Bakabrahma Jataka (J.iii.361; DhA.i.342f), and mentioned in the Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.144; SA.i.164; MA.i.555), where Bakabrahma is identified with Kappas teacher, Kesava. v.l. Kappaka.
5. Kappa - See Nigrodha Kappa.
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