Kalpa, aka: Kalpā, Kālpa; 21 Definition(s)
Kalpa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)
The four yugas are calculated in terms of the heavenly calendars and accordingly are twelve thousand years in terms of the heavenly planets. This is called a divya-yuga, and one thousand divya-yugas make one day of Brahmā.
The creation during the day of Brahmā is called kalpa, and the creation of Brahmā is called vikalpa. When vikalpas are made possible by the breathing of Mahā-Viṣṇu, this is called a mahā-kalpa. There are regular and systematic cycles of these mahā-kalpas, vikalpas and kalpas.
The thirty kalpas of Brahmā are:
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
1) Kalpa (कल्प).—A son of Dhruva. See under DHRUVA.
2) Kalpa (कल्प).—A period of one thousand Yugas or fourteen Manvantaras. See under MANVANTARA.
3) Kalpa (कल्प).—The customary proceedings of Yāgas. These proceedings are made in the form of Sūtras. The Sūtras describe how the Brāhmaṇas and mantras are to be used. For each Saṃhitā there are separate Śrauta Sūtras. The Śrauta Sūtras for Ṛgveda Saṃhitā are Āśvalāyana, Śāṃkhāyana and Śaunaka. Those for Sāmaveda are Maśaka, Lāṭyāyana and Drāhyāyaṇa. Those for Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda are Āpastamba Bauddhāyana, Satyāṣāḍha, Hiraṇyakeśī, Mānava, Bhāradvāja, Vādhūla, Vaikhānasa, Laugākṣi, Maitra, Kaṭha and Vārāha. For Śuklayajurveda it is Kātyāyana Srauta Sūtra. For Atharvaveda it is Kauśika Śrauta Sūtra. All these Sūtras contain only brief symbolic words and are difficult to understand without explanation.(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Kalpa (कल्प).—A son of Dhruva and Bhramī.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 10. 1.
1b) A nephew of Hiraṇyakaśipu.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 6. 26.
1c) The period of fourteen Manus or 1000 yugas followed by pralaya;1 in the day Brahmā; in the night Nārāyaṇa sleeping over his couch Śeṣa the thirty kalpas and the thirty days of Brahmā. These are mixed, tāmasa, rājasa and sātvika2 from klipu, to introduce with intelligence; the fourteen saṃsthas Brahmā introduced and hence kalpa;3 twenty-eight in number, each of two kalpārdhas;4 the 14 kalpas made by Brahmā and hence the name.5
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 8. 12; IV. 9. 14; XII. 4. 2-3; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 116, 173 and 210; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 50-2; VI. 3. 12.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 290. 1-16.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 7. 77; 21. 28ff.
- 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 17-18; 22. 7; 30. 231: 59. 138; 61. 54 and 102.
- 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 6. 74.
1d) Ritual literature; part of Viṣṇu.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 37.
2) Kalpā (कल्पा).—A door-keeper of Mahākāla.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 32. 18.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Kalpa (कल्प).—The tad. affix कल्पप् (kalpap) added to any substantive in the sense of slightly inferior, or almost complete; e.g. पट्कल्पः, मृदुकल्प (paṭkalpaḥ, mṛdukalpa); cf. P.V.3.67 and Kāśikā thereon.(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Kalpa (कल्प).—1. A lifetime of the universe, conventionally equal to 4,320,000,000 years. 2. A period of 1000 yugas. 3.The Vedāṅga of ritual practice. Note: Kalpa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.(Source): Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Dharmashastra (religious law)
Kalpa (कल्प, “social thought”) refers to one of the six divisions of the Vedāṅga texts, a type of Śāstra categorised as Apaurūṣeya; all part of the ancient Indian education system, which aimed at both the inner and the outer dimension of a person.(Source): Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Education: Systems & Practices
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
General definition (in Hinduism)
1. Kalpa is one of the six disciplines of Vedanga, treating ritual. Tradition does not single out any special work in this branch of the Vedanga; but sacrificial practice gave rise to a large number of systematic sutras for the several classes of priests.
2. Kalpa is a Sanskrit word (Hindi: कल्प kalpa) meaning an aeon, or a relatively long period of time (by human calculation) in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology. The concept is first mentioned in the Mahabharata. The definition of a kalpa equaling 4.32 billion years is found in the Purāṇas (specifically Viṣnu Purāṇa and Bhagavata Purāṇa).
3. In Hinduism (cf. Hindu Time Cycles), it is equal to 4.32 billion years, a "day of Brahma" or one thousand mahayugas, measuring the duration of the world (scientists estimate the age of the Earth at 4.54 billion years). Each kalpa is divided into 14 manvantara periods, each lasting 71 yuga cycles (306,720,000 years). Preceding the first and following each manvatara period is a juncture (sandhya) the length of a Satya-yuga (1,728,000) years. Two kalpas constitute a day and night of Brahma. A "month of Brahma" is supposed to contain thirty such days (including nights), or 259.2 billion years. According to the Mahabharata, 12 months of Brahma (=360 days) constitute his year, and 100 such years the life cycle of the universe. Fifty years of Brahma are supposed to have elapsed, and we are now in the shvetavaraha-kalpa of the fifty-first; at the end of a Kalpa the world is annihilated.
4. The duration of the material universe is limited. It is manifested in cycles of kalpas. A kalpa is a day of Brahmā, and one day of Brahmā consists of a thousand cycles of four yugas, or ages: Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. The names of 30 Kalpas are found in the Matsya Purāṇa (290.3-12). These are:
- Māheśvara and
The Vāyu Purāṇa in chapter 21 gives a different list of 28 kalpas. It also lists five more kalpas in the next chapter.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Lord Brahma's one day is called a kalpa, the creation of Brahma is called vikalpa and the creation of the total creation is called mahakalpa.
In the Skanda Purana, Brahma's thirty days are mentioned:
- Sveta Varaha Kalpa
- Nilalohita Kalpa
- Vamadeva Kalpa
- Gathantara Kalpa
- Raurava Kalpa
- Prana Kalpa
- Brhat Kalpa
- Kandarpa Kalpa
- Sadyata Kalpa
- Isana Kalpa
- Dhyana Kalpa
- Sarasvata Kalpa
- Udana Kalpa
- Garuda Kalpa
- Kaurma Kalpa
- Narasimha Kalpa
- Samadhi Kalpa
- Agneya Kalpa
- Visnuja Kalpa
- Saura Kalpa
- Soma Kalpa
- Bhavana Kalpa
- Supuma Kalpa
- Vaikuntha Kalpa
- Arcisa Kalpa
- Vali Kalpa
- Vairaja Kalpa
- Gauri Kalpa
- Mahesvara Kalpa
- Paitr Kalpa
Each day of Brahma is a duration of one thousand divya yugas. A divya yuga comprises of one thousand of the four yugas. The same duration comprises his night.(Source): Vedic Knowledge Online: Creation and Annihilation of the Universe
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Kappa - One of Bavaris disciples. The questions he asked of the Buddha are recorded in the Kappamanavapuccha (q.v.). He became an arahant. Sn.vv.1007, 1092-5; SnA.ii.597.
2. Kappa Thera - An arahant. He was the son of a provincial governor in Magadha and was addicted to self indulgence. The Buddha, seeing him in his net of wisdom, visited him and admonished him, speaking to him of the filthy nature of the body, illustrating his sermon with a wealth of simile and metaphor. Kappa was greatly impressed and joined the Order. He became an arahant, as his head was being shaved. In the time of the Buddha Siddhattha he was a rich householder, and offered at the Buddhas shrine a kapparukkha containing objects of great value. Wherever he was born celestial trees grew outside his door. Seven kappas ago he was eight times king under the name of Sucela (Thag.567-76; ThagA.i.521ff). He is probably identical with Kapparukkhiya of the Apadana. Ap.i.91.
3. Kappa - In the Samyutta Nikaya (S.iii.169f) two suttas are connected with a monk called Kappa, who is probably identical with Kappa (2). In both suttas he asks the Buddha how it is possible to cultivate knowledge and thought so as to be free from thoughts of I and mine with regard to the body. The same questions, receiving the same answers, are elsewhere attributed to Rahula. S.ii.253f.
4. Kappa - A young brahmin (Kappakamara) who was the Bodhisatta. He later became a sage and the disciple and friend of Kesava. For his story see the Kesava Jataka (J.iii.142ff). The story is also referred to in the Bakabrahma Jataka (J.iii.361; DhA.i.342f), and mentioned in the Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.144; SA.i.164; MA.i.555), where Bakabrahma is identified with Kappas teacher, Kesava. v.l. Kappaka.
5. Kappa - See Nigrodha Kappa.(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
(Skr) = kappa).
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(Sanskrit kalpa): 'world-period', an inconceivably long space of time, an aeon. This again is subdivided into 4 sections:
- world-dissolution (samvatta-kappa) dissolving world),
- continuation of the chaos (samvatta-tthāyī),
- world-formation (vivatta-kappa),
- continuation of the formed world (vivatta-tthāyī).
"How long a world-dissolution will continue, how long the chaos, how long the formation, how long the continuation of the formed world, of these things; o monks, one hardly can say that it will be so many years, or so many centuries, or so many millennia, or so many hundred thousands of years" (A.IV.156)
A detailed description of the 4 world-periods is given in that stirring discourse on the all-embracing impermanence in A.VII.62.
The beautiful simile in S.XV.5 may be mentioned here: "Suppose, o monks, there was a huge rock of one solid mass, one mile long, one mile wide, one mile high, without split or flaw. And at the end of every hundred years a man should come and rub against it once with a silken cloth. Then that huge rock would wear off and disappear quicker than a world-period. But of such world-periods, o monks, many have passed away, many hundreds, many thousands, many hundred thousands. And how is this possible? Inconceivable, o monks, is this samsāra, not to be discovered is any first beginning of beings, who obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths."
Compare here Grimm's German fairy-tale of the little shepherd boy: 'In Farther Pommerania there is the diamond-mountain, one hour high, one hour wide, one hour deep. There every hundred years a little bird comes and whets its little beak on it. And when the whole mountain is ground off, then the first second of eternity has passed."(Source): Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)
Kalpa (कल्प) or Caturkalpa refers to the “four aeons” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 87):
- antara-kalpa (an intervalic aeon),
- mahā-kalpa (a great aeon),
- śūnya-kalpa (an empty aeon),
- sāra-kalpa (an essential aeon).
The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., kalpa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgrahaKalpa in Sanskrit, Kappa in Pali. It is a fabulous period of four hundred and thirty two million years of mortals, measuring the duration of world. It is the period of time between other creation and recreation of a world or universe. The four kalpas of formation, existence, destruction and emptiness as a complete period, is called maha kalpa or great kalpas. Each great kalpa is subdivided into four asamkhyeya kalpas or kalpas. Each of the four kalpas is subdivided into twenty antara kalpas, or small kalpas. There are different distinctions and illustrations of kalpas. In general, a small kalpa is represented as 16,800,000 years, a kalpa as 336,000,000 years and a mahakalpa is 1,334,000,000 years.(Source): Buddhist Door: Glossary
A Kalpa denotes a great period of time; a period during which a physical universe is formed and destroyed.
Asankhyeya denotes the highest sum for which a conventional term exists:
- According to Chinese calculations equal to one followed by seventeen ciphers;
- According to Thibetan and Singhalese, equal to one followed by ninety-seven ciphers.
Every Maha-kalpa consists of four Asankhyeya-kalpas. Eitel, p. 15.(Source): eBooks@Adelaide: A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms
Kalpa Skt.; world cycle, world age (Pali, kappa); term for an endlessly long period of time, which is the basis of Buddhist time reckoning. The length of a kalpa is illustrated by the following simile: suppose that every hundred years a piece of silk is rubbed once on a solid rock one cubic mile in size; when the rock is worn away by this, one kalpa will still not have passed.
A kalpa is divided into four parts: the arising of a universe, the continuation of the arisen universe, the demise of that universe, the continuation of chaos. In the period of the arising of a universe, individual worlds with their sentient beings are formed. In the second period sun and moon come into being, the sexes are distinguished, and social life develops. In the phase of universal demise, fire, water, and wind destroy almost everything. The period of chaos is that of total annihilation. a(Source): Shambala Publications: General
1. According to Visuddhimagga, there are several explanations for types of kalpas and their duration. In the first explanation, there are four types:
2. In another simple explanation, there are four different lengths of kalpas. A regular kalpa is approximately 16 million years long (16,798,000 years), and a small kalpa is 1000 regular kalpas, or about 16 billion years. Further, a medium kalpa is roughly 320 billion years, the equivalent of 20 small kalpas. A great kalpa is 4 medium kalpas, or around 1.28 trillion years.(Source): WikiPedia: Buddhism
General definition (in Jainism)
Kalpa (कल्प).—One of the four heavens of the upper world (ūrdhvaloka);—The kalpas are 16, according to the Digambaras, and situated in eight superimposed pairs which are compared to the ribs of a man. They are:
According to the Śvetāmbaras the kalpa heavens are 12 in number, omitting Brahmottara, Kāpiṣṭha, Mahāśukra and Śatāra of the Digambara list.(Source): Google Books: Jaina Iconography
Kalpa (कल्प, “heaven”).—According to the Tattvārtasūtra 4.23, “prior to graiveyakas are the kalpas”.—What is a kalpa? The places where lords (Indra), his equals /co-chiefs, the councilors etc are imagined to exist are called kalpa. How many kalpas are there? There are sixteen heavens from Saudharma-Acyuta heavens or twelve heavens are called kalpas.
What is the difference between kalpa and kalpātīta? The places where lords, his equal, the counselors etc are imagined to exist are called kalpa. The places where only Ahmindras exist are called kalpātīta.(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
kappa : (m.) 1. a world cycle; an aeon; 2. thought. (adj.), suitable; proper; resembling. (in cpds.).(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
kalpa (कल्प).—m (S) A day and night of brahmā, a period of 4,320,000,000 solar-sidereal years, measuring the duration of the world, and the interval betwixt its annihilation and re-creation. 2 A side or view (of a case or subject). 3 More frequently vikalpa Optionality or alternative. 4 The name of a Shastra, one of the six Vedangas comprehending the description of religious rites. 5 Doubting or doubt. 6 A resolve or purpose.
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kalpa (कल्प).—a S Capable of; competent unto. 2 In comp. Like or resembling.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kalpa (कल्प).—m Doubt. A day and night of bramhā. A resolve. A side or view of a case.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Search found 348 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Kalpavṛkṣa (कल्पवृक्ष).—A tree in Devaloka. It has the power of giving any object that one wish...
Mahākalpa (महाकल्प).—a great cycle of time (1 years of Brahman); Bhāg.7.15.69. Derivable forms:...
Kalpasūtra (कल्पसूत्र).—a manual of ritual in the form of Sūtras. Mb.14.54.9. Name of a sacred ...
Kalpalatā (कल्पलता) is the name of a work dealing with erotics, ascribed to Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācār...
Kalpataru (कल्पतरु) or Kalpatarurasa is the name of an Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fourth v...
Kalpānta (कल्पान्त).—end of the world, universal destruction; कल्पान्तेष्वपि न प्रयाति निधनं वि...
Bhadrakalpa (भद्रकल्प).—Name of the present age; Buddh. Derivable forms: bhadrakalpaḥ (भद्रकल्प...
Śāntikalpa (शान्तिकल्प).—One of the five saṃhitā sections of the Atharvaveda composed by muni M...
Āṅgirasakalpa (आङ्गिरसकल्प).—A saṃhitā division of Atharvaveda. The five saṃhitā divisions of A...
Varāhakalpa (वराहकल्प).—the period of the boar incarnation, the period during which Viṣṇu assum...
Kalpādi (कल्पादि).—renovation of all things in the creation; कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि कल्पादौ विसृजा...
Pitṛkalpa (पितृकल्प).—1) performance of the Śrāddha ceremony in honour of the Manes. 2) Brahma'...
Lakṣmīkalpa (लक्ष्मीकल्प).—a particular period of time. Derivable forms: lakṣmīkalpaḥ (लक्ष्मीक...
Kalpasthāna (कल्पस्थान).—1) the art of preparing drugs; Charak 7. 2) the science of poisons and...
Kalpapādapa (कल्पपादप).—1) one of the trees of heaven or Indra's praradise, fabled to fulfill a...
Search found 103 books and stories containing Kalpa, Kalpā or Kālpa. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Abhidharmakośa (by Vasubandhu)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Part 10 - Attaining the qualities of all the Buddhas < [Chapter XLIX - The Four Conditions]
Appendix 1 - The damned remain in Avīci hell for one kalpa < [Chapter XIII - The Buddha-fields]
Bodhisattva quality 15: formulated the vows < [Chapter X - The Qualities of the Bodhisattvas]
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 6 - The Kalpas and Manvantaras: their duration < [Section 1.2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 7 - Knowledge about the world < [Section 1.2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 4 - Constitution of the world (The Cosmic Egg) < [Section I - Prakriyā-pāda (section on rites)]
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
Chapter VI - Division of the Sama-veda < [Book III]
17. The Gāruḍa Purāṇa < [Preface]