Kshema, Kṣema, Kṣemā: 24 definitions

Introduction:

Kshema means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kṣema and Kṣemā can be transliterated into English as Ksema or Kshema, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Kshem.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kṣemā (क्षेमा).—A celestial maid. This celestial maid took part in the birth celebration of Arjuna. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 66).

2) Kṣema (क्षेम).—A King in Ancient India. Mention is made in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Stanza 65, that this King was the rebirth of the Asura Krodhavaśa. In the Bhārata-battle this King took the side of the Pāṇḍavas and was killed by Droṇa. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 53).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kṣema (क्षेम) is the son of Gaṇeśa and Siddhi (Daughter of Prajāpati Viśvarūpa), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.20 (“The celebration of Gaṇeśa’s marriage”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] After some time, the noble Gaṇeśa begot two sons, one each of his wives. They were endowed with divine features. The son Kṣema was born to Siddhi. The highly brilliant son Lābha was born to Buddhi. While Gāṇeśa was enjoying the inconceivable happiness, the second son returned after circumambulating the earth. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kṣema (क्षेम).—One of the seven divisions of Plakṣadvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 3.

1b) Born of Dharma and Titikṣā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 52.

1c) The son of Śuci and father of Suvrata; ruled for 28 years.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 48; Matsya-purāṇa 271. 25.

1d) A son of Śānti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 61; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 37.

1e) A Satya god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 35.

1f) A son of Brahmadhāna;1 Ajita deva.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 7. 98; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 132.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 34.

1g) The son of Sunītha, and father of Ketumat.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 67. 73.

1h) Of Bṛhadratha line, ruled for 28 years.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 116; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 302.

1i) A son of Ugrāyudha.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 49. 78; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 193.

2) Kṣemā (क्षेमा).—An Apsaras.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 7.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kṣema (क्षेम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.60) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kṣema) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Kṣema (क्षेम, “foundation”).—The science of kshema or khema deals with transformation of base metals into gold. The term khema has been contracted into the Persian “kimia” or al-chamia.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kṣema (क्षेम) refers to “prosperity”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Either from observing some distant point in the horizon where the sun rises or sets or from observing the ingress or the egress of the end of shadow of a perpendicular rod placed at the centre of a big horizontal circle (the change in the sun’s course can be detected). [...] The Sun when he changes his course from north to south and when in his usual condition will bring on prosperity and increase of crops [i.e., kṣema-sasyavṛddhi-kara]; but when he undergoes a change either in his usual course or in his usual appearance he causes fear to mankind”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Kṣema (क्षेम) refers to the “welfare”, according to the Ghaṭikāyantraghaṭanāvidhi, an unpublished manuscript describing the ritual connected with the setting up of the water clock and its invocation.—Accordingly, “[Now the pala-verses]: [...] For the welfare of the world [i.e., loka-kṣema], there [manifested the incarnations of] the Fish, the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-Lion, One who had a Short Stature, Paraśurāma, Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, Buddha and Kalkin. I bow to Govinda, the god of gods, who in this manner assumed diverse forms, diverse shapes and diverse names, and who is meditated upon by sage”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Kṣema (क्षेम) refers to “safety”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as the Lord said to the Bodhisattva Ratnaśrī: “[...] That Kāyabandhana universe was, son of good family, thriving, prosperous, safe (kṣema), well-provided, filled with a great multitude of men, adorned with seven precious jewels, peaceful and delightful, pleasant to touch like a soft cloth, displayed by the lotus of gold from the Jāmbū river, decorated with all kinds of luminous jewels, patterned like a chess-board, and even like the palm of the hand. Just like the enjoyment and entertainment of the Paranirmitavaśavartin gods, all the people in that universe, staying in celestial palace and pavilions, enjoyed food and drink as they wished”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Kṣema (क्षेम) refers to “comfort”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān teaches an offering manual]: “[...] All crops, all flowers and fruits will be well protected. [...] Until the stake is drawn out there will be comfort (kṣema) and plenty, and all crops, flowers and fruits develop. They will be juicy and tender. All Nāgas will constantly provide protection, shelter and safeguard. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kṣemā (क्षेमा) is the name of an ancient city, according to chapter 4.1 [śreyāṃsanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In the (inhabited) half of Puṣkaravaradvīpa[1] in the East Videhas in the province Kaccha there is a capital city named Kṣemā. Its king was Nalinagulma, always spotless because of his virtues, whose lotus-feet were rubbed by the crowns of kings [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣēma (क्षेम).—n (S) Well-being, welfare, weal, happiness. 2 Friendly embracing or embrace. v ghē, ōḍha. Ex. baḷēṃ kṣēma vōḍhūni dē tyāsa rāma ||.

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kṣēma (क्षेम).—a S Well, happy, prospering, thriving.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṣēma (क्षेम).—n Happiness, well-being. a Well.

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kṣēma (क्षेम).—n A friendly embrace.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṣema (क्षेम).—a. [kṣi-man Uṇādi-sūtra 1.138]

1) Conferring happiness, ease or comfort, good, beneficial, well; धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्यु- स्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् (dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyu- stanme kṣemataraṃ bhavet) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 1.46.

2) Prosperous, at ease, comfortable; विविशुस्ते वनं वीराः क्षेमं निहतकण्टकम् (viviśuste vanaṃ vīrāḥ kṣemaṃ nihatakaṇṭakam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.11.72.

3) Secure, happy; विविक्तक्षेमसेवनम् (viviktakṣemasevanam) Bhāgavata 3.28.3.

-maḥ, -mam 1 Peace, happiness, ease, welfare, well-being; वितन्वति क्षेममदेवमातृकाश्चिराय तस्मिन् कुरवश्चकासति (vitanvati kṣemamadevamātṛkāścirāya tasmin kuravaścakāsati) Kirātārjunīya 1.17; वैश्यं क्षेमं समागम्य (vaiśyaṃ kṣemaṃ samāgamya) (pṛcchet) Manusmṛti 2.127; अधुना सर्वजलचराणां क्षेमं भविष्यति (adhunā sarvajalacarāṇāṃ kṣemaṃ bhaviṣyati) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.

2) Safety, security; क्षेमेण व्रज बान्धवान् (kṣemeṇa vraja bāndhavān) Mṛcchakaṭika 7.7 safely; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.146.

3) Preserving, protection; आदिदेशाथ शत्रुघ्नं तेषां क्षेमाय राघवः (ādideśātha śatrughnaṃ teṣāṃ kṣemāya rāghavaḥ) R.15.6.

4) Keeping what is acquired; cf. योगक्षेम (yogakṣema); तेषां नित्याभियुक्तानां योगक्षेमं वहाम्यहम् (teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ yogakṣemaṃ vahāmyaham) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 9.22.

5) Final beatitude, eternal happiness.

6) Basis, foundation; क्षेमे तिष्ठाति घृतमुक्षमाणा (kṣeme tiṣṭhāti ghṛtamukṣamāṇā) Av.3. 12.1.

7) Residence, resting-place; Av.13.1.27.

8) A star, asterism (nakṣatra).

-maḥ, -mā A kind of perfume.

-mā An epithet of Durgā.

-mam Name of one of the seven वर्षा (varṣā)s in Jambu-dvīpa. शिवं यवसं सुभद्रं शान्तं क्षेमममृतमभयमिति वर्षाणि (śivaṃ yavasaṃ subhadraṃ śāntaṃ kṣemamamṛtamabhayamiti varṣāṇi) Bhāgavata 5.2.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kṣema (क्षेम).—(1, as in Sanskrit, adj. causing peace and comfort, or n. comfort: Mahāvastu i.302.1 kiṃ kṣemaṃ, what (can we do that) will cause you peace and comfort ? In the verse form 303.21 replaced by kiṃ karoma. Response to a cry of distress; followed by kiṃ avidhāvidhaṃ ti krandasi.Senart fails to understand.) (2) name of a king of old (= Pali Khema, oftener Khemaṃkara, q.v. Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)): Divyāvadāna 242.5 (his capi- tal was Kṣemāvatī, q.v.); (3) name of a Buddha: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 365.17 (verse, but submetrical; one syllable short).

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Kṣemā (क्षेमा).—(1) (= Pali Khemā) name of Śākyamuni's chief female disciple: Mahāvastu i.251.21 (agrā…śrāvikā); (2) name of a daughter of King Prasenajit, who also became a nun in the Buddha's order: Avadāna-śataka ii.46.7 ff.; in 50.9 she is, in fact, declared by Buddha to be agrā me…bhikṣu- ṇīnāṃ mama śrāvikāṇāṃ, so that she is actually identified with (1); her story, however (Avadāna-śataka no. 79) is wholly different from the story of Khemā in Pali. (Mahāvastu gives no story about Kṣemā 1.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣema (क्षेम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) Happy, well, prosperous, right, &c. mn.

(-maḥ-maṃ) 1. Happiness, well being. 2. Preserving, protecting, keeping what is acquired. 3. Final emancipation or eternal happiness. 4. The proper term of civil address to Vaisya, as kṣemamasti kṣemaṃ bhavatu Is it well, or may it be well, &c. f.

(-mā) A name of Durga. E. kṣi to remove, and man Unadi affix; what removes or destroys sorrow, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣema (क्षेम).—i. e. 1. or 2. kṣi + ma, 1. adj., f. , 1. Safe, dangerless, Mahābhārata 3, 488. 2. Prosperous, Mahābhārata 3, 15976. Ii. m. and n. 1. Safety, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 127. 2. Well-being, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 44, 15. 3. Happiness, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 6, 18. 4. Fortune, wealth, Mahābhārata 13, 3081. 5. instr. meṇa, adverbially, Peacefully, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 110, 8; happily, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 162; also kṣemais, Mahābhārata 13, 1519. Iii. m. 1. kṣema, safety, happiness, personified, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 1, 51. 2. The name of a prince, Mahābhārata 1, 2701. Iv. f. , The name of an Apsaras, Mahābhārata 1, 4818. V. n. The name of one of the divisions of the continent, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 20, 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣema (क्षेम).—[adjective] habitable, comfortable, peaceful, tranquil, safe. [masculine] resting place, abode, home; security, tranquillity, comfort, welfare, enjoyment ([opposed] yoga exertion, acquisition). kṣemaṃ te hail to thee! Instr. sgl. & [plural] safely, at ease.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṣema (क्षेम):—mf(ā)n. (√2. kṣi) habitable

2) giving rest or ease or security, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

3) at ease, prosperous, safe, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) m. basis, foundation, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xviii, 7; Atharva-veda iii, 12, 1 and iv, 1, 4; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiii; Kapila’s Sāṃkhya-pravacana i, 46]

5) residing, resting, abiding at ease, [Ṛg-veda x; Atharva-veda xiii, 1, 27; Taittirīya-saṃhitā iii; viii]

6) mn. ([Vedic or Veda] only m.; [gana] ardharcādi), safety, tranquillity, peace, rest, security, any secure or easy or comfortable state, weal, happiness, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (kṣema & yoga [or pra-yuj], rest and exertion, enjoying and acquiring, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxx, 14; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata xiii, 3081]; cf. kṣema-yoga and yoga-kṣ; kṣemaṃ te, ‘peace or security may be to thee’ [this is also the polite address to a Vaiśya, asking him whether his property is secure, [Manu-smṛti ii, 127]], [Śāntiśataka ii, 18])

7) final emancipation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) m. a kind of perfume (= caṇḍā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) Ease or Prosperity (personified as a son of Dharma and Śānti, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]; as a son of Titikṣā, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 1, 51])

10) Name of a prince, [Mahābhārata i, 2701; Divyāvadāna xviii]

11) of a son of Śuci and father of Su-vrata, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa ix, 22, 46]

12) Name of a kind of college (maṭha), [Rājataraṅgiṇī vi, 186]

13) m. in security, safely, [Rāmāyaṇa; Mṛcchakaṭikā; Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

14) (ifc. with yathā, [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 54, 4])

15) Kṣemā (क्षेमा):—[from kṣema] f. a kind of perfume (= kāṣṭha-guggula, or coraka [commentator or commentary]), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā iii]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] of another deity (= kṣemaṃ-karī), [DevīP.]

18) [v.s. ...] of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata i, 4818]

19) Kṣema (क्षेम):—n. Name of one of the seven Varṣas in Jambū-dvīpa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 20, 3.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣema (क्षेम):—[(maḥ-maṃ)] 1. m. n. Happiness; preserving; a Vaisya. () f. Final bliss; Durgā. a. Happy.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṣema (क्षेम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Khema, Khemā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kshema in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kṣema (क्षेम) [Also spelled kshem]:—9(nf) 9welfare, 9well-being.

context information

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṣēma (ಕ್ಷೇಮ):—

1) [noun] the place in which a person normally resides; a dwelling place; a house; a residence.

2) [noun] freedom from anxiety, fear, etc.; peace; happiness; ease; mental well-being.

3) [noun] physical well being; freedom from disease, pain, etc.

4) [noun] a taking good care of something one has.

5) [noun] the state of prosperity or condition of being auspicious.

6) [noun] a kind of perfume made from the root stalk of the plant Curcuma zeodarina.

7) [noun] an affectionate hug.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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