Bhayanaka, aka: Bhayānaka; 10 Definition(s)


Bhayanaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Bhayānaka (भयानक) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Bhayānaka) various roles suitable to them.

2) Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to the “terrible” sentiment (rasa). It is one of the eight rasas mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.15. The color associated with the bhayānaka is black (kṛṣṇa), and the presiding deity of of the terrible (śṛṅgāra) sentiment is Kāla.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “The Terrible (bhayānaka) Sentiment has as its basis the Durable Psychological State of fear. This is created by Determinants like hideous noise, sight of ghosts, panic and anxiety due to [untimely cry of] jackals and owls, staying in an empty house or forest, sight of death or captivity of dear ones, or news of it, or discussion about it.”.

3) Bhayānakā (भयानका, “terrible”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses the ‘terrible sentiment’ (bhayānakarasa). There are a total thirty-six glances defined. The Glance in which the eyelids are drawn up and fixed, and the eyeballs are gleaming and turning up is called Bhayānakā (terrible). It indicates a great fear and is used in the Terrible Sentiment.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

A type of glance (or facial expression): Bhayānaka (inspiring fear): the eyelids raised and fixed, the pupil bright and fluttering. Usage: great fear, the terrible.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

Bhayānaka (भयानक) or the “sentiment (rasa) of terror”.—Bhayānakarasa has bhaya or fear for its sthāyibhāva and kāla or time as its presiding deity. It belongs to female and mean persons and it is treated under a mystical or mythological aspect by the learned as being black-coloured. The sources of fear is regarded as the ālambanavibhāvas here, the dreadful attempts etc. are uddīpanvibhāvas, the changes of colour and speaking with a stammering tone, tainting, perspiration, horripilation, trembling, looking at every direction etc. are anubhāvas, while disgust, agitation, bewilderment, terror, fatigue, distress, suspicion, epilepsy, confusion, death etc., are regarded as sañcāribhāvas in connection with the sentiment of terror.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Bhayanaka in Jainism glossary... « previous · [B] · next »

Bhayānaka (भयानक) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Bhayānaka] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Bhayanaka in Pali glossary... « previous · [B] · next »

bhayānaka : (adj.) frightful; horrible.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Bhayānaka, (adj.) (fr. bhaya, cp. Epic Sk. bhayānaka) frightful, horrible J. III, 428; MA 113; PvA. 24 (as °ika); Sdhp. 7, 208.—nt. °ṃ something awful Nd2 470 (in def. of bhaya). Bhara-bhara, a word imitating a confused sound M. I, 128; otherwise contracted to babbhara (q. v.). (Page 499)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Bhayanaka in Marathi glossary... « previous · [B] · next »

bhayānaka (भयानक).—a (S) Frightful, terrible, formidable, dreadful.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhayānaka (भयानक).—a Frightful, terrible.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhayanaka in Sanskrit glossary... « previous · [B] · next »

Bhayānaka (भयानक).—a. [vibhetyasmāt, bhī-ānak; Uṇ.3.82] Fearful, horrible, terrible, frightful; किमतः परं भयानकं स्यात् (kimataḥ paraṃ bhayānakaṃ syāt) U.2; Śi.17.2; दंष्ट्राकरालानि भयानकानि (daṃṣṭrākarālāni bhayānakāni) Bg.11.27.

-kaḥ 1 A tiger.

2) Name of Rāhu.

3) The sentiment of terror, one of the eight or nine sentiments in poetry; भयानको भयस्थायिभावः कालाधिदैवतः (bhayānako bhayasthāyibhāvaḥ kālādhidaivataḥ) S. D.; see under रस (rasa).

-kam Terror, fear.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhayānaka (भयानक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) Frightful, formidable, terrific. n.

(-kaṃ) Terror. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. Rahu or the personified ascending node. 2. A tiger. 3. One of the nine sentiments in poetry, or the sentiment of terror, as excited by poetical or dramatic composition. E. bhī to fear, ānaka Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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