Bhayanaka, Bhayānaka: 28 definitions


Bhayanaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Bhayanak.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Bhayānaka (भयानक) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Bhayānaka) various roles suitable to them.

2) Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to the “terrible” sentiment (rasa). It is one of the eight rasas mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.15. The color associated with the bhayānaka is black (kṛṣṇa), and the presiding deity of of the terrible (śṛṅgāra) sentiment is Kāla.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “The Terrible (bhayānaka) Sentiment has as its basis the Durable Psychological State of fear. This is created by Determinants like hideous noise, sight of ghosts, panic and anxiety due to [untimely cry of] jackals and owls, staying in an empty house or forest, sight of death or captivity of dear ones, or news of it, or discussion about it.”.

3) Bhayānakā (भयानका, “terrible”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses the ‘terrible sentiment’ (bhayānakarasa). There are a total thirty-six glances defined. The Glance in which the eyelids are drawn up and fixed, and the eyeballs are gleaming and turning up is called Bhayānakā (terrible). It indicates a great fear and is used in the Terrible Sentiment.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Bhayānaka (inspiring fear): the eyelids raised and fixed, the pupil bright and fluttering. Usage: great fear, the terrible.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Bhayānaka (भयानक) or the “sentiment (rasa) of terror”.—Bhayānakarasa has bhaya or fear for its sthāyibhāva and kāla or time as its presiding deity. It belongs to female and mean persons and it is treated under a mystical or mythological aspect by the learned as being black-coloured. The sources of fear is regarded as the ālambanavibhāvas here, the dreadful attempts etc. are uddīpanvibhāvas, the changes of colour and speaking with a stammering tone, tainting, perspiration, horripilation, trembling, looking at every direction etc. are anubhāvas, while disgust, agitation, bewilderment, terror, fatigue, distress, suspicion, epilepsy, confusion, death etc., are regarded as sañcāribhāvas in connection with the sentiment of terror.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

1) Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to the “terrible sentiment” and represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa bhayānaka is the sentiment of fear which arises from the commitment of a self committing offence. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, bhayānaka-rasa is accepted as the result of bībhatsa. In the Nāṭyaśāstra, Bharata gives numerous causes of fear viz., horrible noise, sight of ghosts, sound of jackal and owls, scene of dark forest, sight of death or imprisonment of dear ones etc. Bhaya i.e., fear is the sthāyibhāva of bhayānaka-rasa. Kṛṣṇa i.e black is the colour and Kāladeva is the God of this sentiment. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, it is to be enacted on stage by the gestures of trembling hands, pale face, drying up of lips and throat etc

2) Bhayānakā (भयानका) refers to one of the Thirty six kinds of Glances (dṛṣṭi) or “proper accomplishment of glances” (in Indian Dramas).—Dṛṣṭi is very important in a dance form. The appropriate movements of eyes, eyeballs and eyebrows of an artist make the performance more charming. There are thirty six kinds of glances (dṛṣṭi) accepted in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, for example bhayānakā, belonging to the rasadṛṣṭi division.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Ayurveda glossary

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Bhayānaka (भयानक) (lit. “one who is terrible”) is a synonym (another name) for the Tiger (Vyāghra), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to one of the sixteen varieties of “rats” (Ākhu or Mūṣika), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—The Kāśyapasaṃhitā seems to consider rat poison as the next powerful one, seriously affecting human beings. Kāśyapa gives antidotes for the 16 varieties of rats (e.g., Bhayānaka). The author follows this up with certain general instructions in tackling poisons.

Symptoms of Bhayānaka: Discolourisation, headache, hunger, thirst and phlegm.

Treatment (Antidote) of Bhayānaka: Fumigation with one measure of Asvari to be applied as ointment with snake-slough. Salt must be had with food made by boiling jaggery and milk must be given.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Bhayānakā (भयानका) refers to “she who is frightening” and is used to describe Goddess Carcikā, according to the Jayadrathayāmala verse 2.26.23cd-30ab.—Accordingly, “Now I will tell (you) the supreme teaching concerning Carcikā by just knowing which one attains every accomplishment. One should visualize (Carcikā) as very thin (and old), her face brilliant and frightening (bhayānakā) with her fierce gaze. She is (dark) like black lightning and is engaged in devouring the triple world. She has one face and three eyes and two arms and is adorned with a corpse. She is mounted on a buffalo and leather made of human skin is (under her) buttock. (Her) garland is made of human entrails and (she is) adorned with snakes”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Shaivism glossary
Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to “one who is terrible” and is used to describe Bhairava, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.1-7ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Bhairava]—“Now, at this moment, I shall explain the distinct appearance of Bhairava, [who] resembles an ointment [that clears the eye]. He has a nature that burns up and dissolves all things. Five-faced, atop a corpse, ten-armed [and] terrible (bhayānaka), he resembles troops with demon mouths. He rumbles, [producing] a terrible noise, speaks with a gaping mouth [adorned with] with large tusks, [his face] bent in a frown. [...] Having worshipped Bhairava, [the Mantrin] remembers being joined in union [with] him, [in the same way as] dissolution in fire”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Bhayānaka (भयानक) or “terrible sentiment” refers to one of the Nine Sentiments (citrarasa) in ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa nine kinds of sentiments [e.g., bhayānaka—terrible] are reflected through Paintings and these are termed as citrarasas in this work. [...] According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, bhayānaka-rasa can be manifested in a Painting through the portrayal of wicked or terrible looking persons engaged in crazy and violent activities. It can be deduced that if a painter paints the picture of the scene of abduction of Sītā by Rāvaṇa as described in the 49th chapter of the Araṇyakāṇḍa of the Rāmāyaṇa, it would definitely reflect the sentiment of fear (bhayānaka).

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to “awful”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.7 (“Commencement of the War”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] The fight between the gods and the Asuras desirous of victory over each other was very tumultuous. It was pleasing to the brave and terrible to the others. The battle ground became impassable and awful (ati-bhayānaka) with the corpses of the gods and Asuras lying there in thousands but it was very pleasing to the brave”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to the “emotion of fear”, according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the outlines of hawking]: “[...] Caraka, when it seizes a young gazelle and eats its limbs and entrails, produces irresistibly a loathing. Kecuka and other birds, afraid of the swiftness of the wings of Ṭonā and others, hiding themselves motionless in bushes, produce the emotion of fear (bhayānaka)”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Jainism glossary
Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Bhayānaka (भयानक) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Bhayānaka] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to “dreadful”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Is one not disturbed by [family] attachments? Is this body not cut down by diseases? Does death not open its mouth? Do calamities not do harm every day? Are hells not dreadful (bhayānakaśvabhrāḥ kiṃ na bhayānakāḥ)? Are not sensual pleasures deceiving like a dream? Because of which, having discarded one’s own benefit, you have a desire for the world which is like a city of Kiṃnaras”.

2) Bhayānaka (भयानक) refers to “fearful (persons)”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “As the young so the old, as the rich so the poor, as the brave so the cowardly [com.bhayānaka—‘fearful’]—Yama devours [all] equally. When Yama is an opponent of embodied souls, all elephants, horses, men, and soldiers and the powers of mantras and medicines become useless”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

bhayānaka : (adj.) frightful; horrible.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Bhayānaka, (adj.) (fr. bhaya, cp. Epic Sk. bhayānaka) frightful, horrible J. III, 428; MA 113; PvA. 24 (as °ika); Sdhp. 7, 208.—nt. °ṃ something awful Nd2 470 (in def. of bhaya). Bhara-bhara, a word imitating a confused sound M. I, 128; otherwise contracted to babbhara (q. v.). (Page 499)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhayānaka (भयानक).—a (S) Frightful, terrible, formidable, dreadful.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

bhayānaka (भयानक).—a Frightful, terrible.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhayānaka (भयानक).—a. [vibhetyasmāt, bhī-ānak; Uṇādi-sūtra 3.82] Fearful, horrible, terrible, frightful; किमतः परं भयानकं स्यात् (kimataḥ paraṃ bhayānakaṃ syāt) Uttararāmacarita 2; Śiśupālavadha 17.2; दंष्ट्राकरालानि भयानकानि (daṃṣṭrākarālāni bhayānakāni) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 11.27.

-kaḥ 1 A tiger.

2) Name of Rāhu.

3) The sentiment of terror, one of the eight or nine sentiments in poetry; भयानको भयस्थायिभावः कालाधिदैवतः (bhayānako bhayasthāyibhāvaḥ kālādhidaivataḥ) S. D.; see under रस (rasa).

-kam Terror, fear.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhayānaka (भयानक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) Frightful, formidable, terrific. n.

(-kaṃ) Terror. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. Rahu or the personified ascending node. 2. A tiger. 3. One of the nine sentiments in poetry, or the sentiment of terror, as excited by poetical or dramatic composition. E. bhī to fear, ānaka Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhayānaka (भयानक).—properly an old anomal. ptcple. pres. [Ātmanepada.] of bhī, viz. bhayāna + ka, I. adj. Frightful, formidable, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 11, 27; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 43, 12. Ii. m. 1. The sentiment of terror, as excited by poetical composition. 2. A tiger. 3. Rāhu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhayānaka (भयानक).—[adjective] dreadful, terrible.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bhayānaka (भयानक):—[from bhaya] mf(ā)n. ([probably] [from] bhayāna for bhayamāna) fearful, terrible, dreadful, formidable, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] n. terror (?), [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] m. the sentiment of, terror (as one of the 9 Rasas in poetical or dramatic composition), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Pratāparudrīya] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] a tiger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Rāhu or the ascending node personified, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhayānaka (भयानक):—[(kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) a.] Frightful. n. Terror. m. Rāhu; a tiger.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Bhayānaka (भयानक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Bhayāṇaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Bhayanaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Bhayānaka (भयानक) [Also spelled bhayanak]:—(a) dreadful, terrible, horrible, frightening, fearful, dangerous; hence ~[] (nf).

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhayanaka in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Bhayānaka (ಭಯಾನಕ):—

1) [adjective] causing fear or dread; formidable.

2) [adjective] outrageously evil or wicked; abominable.

--- OR ---

Bhayānaka (ಭಯಾನಕ):—

1) [noun] a thing, circumstance, event that causes fear or dread.

2) [noun] an outrageiously evil or wicked thing, circumstance.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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