Rudra, Rudrā: 40 definitions
Rudra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy
1) Rudra was produced from the frown of Brahmā (or Viṣṇu), and divided into eleven minor Rudras, who went by the collective name of the Ekādaśa-Rudras.
The names of these eleven emanations of Rudra, according to the Aṃśumadbhedāgama, are
- and Kapālīśa.
The general characteristics of the images of these deities are first given in the authority quoted above and in the Śilparatna. It is stated in these works that the images of all these aspects of Śiva should have three eyes, four arms, jaṭāmakuṭas and be of white colour; they should be draped also in white clothes and be standing erect (samabhaṅga) on a padmapīṭha. They should be adorned with all ornaments and with garlands composed of all flowers and they should keep their front right hand in the abhaya and the front left hand in the varada poses, while they should carry in the back right hand the paraśu and in the back left hand the mṛga.
In the Viśvakarma-śilpa, the names are given as:
- and Aparājita.
In the Rūpamaṇḍana, the names are given as:
- and Tryambaka.
Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
2) Rudra (रुद्र):—Tenth of the eleven emanations of Rudra (ekādaśa-rudra), according to the Aṃśumadbhedāgama and the Śilparatna. The images of this aspects of Śiva should have three eyes, four arms, jaṭāmakuṭas and be of white colour. It should be draped also in white clothes and be standing erect (samabhaṅga) on a padmapīṭha. It should be adorned with all ornaments and with garlands composed of all flowers and it should keep their front right hand in the abhaya and the front left hand in the varada poses, while it should carry in the back right hand the paraśu and in the back left hand the mṛga.
Rudra (रुद्र) is a Sanskrit name referring to one of the eight manifestations of Krodha, who is a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. Each form (e.g., Krodha) has a further eight sub-manifestations (e.g., Rudra), thus resulting in a total of 64 Bhairavas.
When depicting Rudra according to traditional iconographic rules (śilpaśāstra), one should depcit him (and other forms of Krodha) having a smoke color; he should carry khaḍga, kheṭaka, a long sword and paraśu. The word Śilpaśāstra refers to an ancient Hindu science of arts and crafts, dealing with subjects such as painting, sculpture and iconography.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna
Rudra, the Malevolent: The Rudra of the Ṛg-veda isa fierce god destructive like a wild beast. In the whole range of Vedic literature there are many instances indicating his malevolant character, though we find him here and there emerging as a great god capable of bestowing good on those that pray to him. Even up to the time of the Gṛhya-sūtras this darker side of the nature of this god was never forgotten and we find a sacrifice called Śūlagava mentioned in these works which was meant to appease him. With the growth of religious sentiments which exalted Śiva as a supreme god this darker side of his nature began to recede in the background though it was never wiped out altogether.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Rudra (रुद्र).—A form of Śiva. General information. The birth of Rudra is from Brahmā. Even before the creation of the Prajāpatis, Brahmā had created Sanandana, Sanaka, Sanātana and Sanatkumāra. These four were not desirous of mundane pleasures and were not prepared to beget children. They were great sages and scholars, of abstinence and without any discord and animosity. When these four showed no interest at all in the creation of the world, Brahmā became angry to such an extent that he was prepared to destroy the three worlds. At that time the whole of the three worlds shone in the radiance that emanated from the fire of the fury of Brahmā. Then from his shining eyebrows which were curved with fury, a figure of unbearable radiance like the mid-day sun came out. That figure was Rudra. Half of the fierce body of that Rudra who was very furious, was a woman and the other half was a man. Brahmā, saying, "Divide body", disappeared. Instantly Rudra split himself into the figure of a man and the figure of a woman. He again divided the body of the man into eleven parts. These eleven figures are the eleven Rudras. (See full article at Story of Rudra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Rudra (रुद्र) refers to one of the various classifications of Gaṇas: a group of deities attached to Lord Śiva.—Gaṇas are troops who generally appear in classes. Nine such classes are mentioned in the Purāṇas: They are (1) Ādityas (2) Viśvas or Viśvedevas (3) Vasus (4) Tuṣitas (5) Ābhāsvaras (6) Anilas (7) Mahārājikas (8) Sādhyas (9) Rudras. These are attached to Lord Śiva and serve under the command of Gaṇeśa, dwelling on Gaṇaparvata identified with Kailāsa—a peak of the Himālaya mountain.
2) Rudra (रुद्र) or Rudrasaṃhitā refers to one of the seven books (saṃhitās) of the Śiva-purāṇa, according to the Śivapurāṇa-māhātmya 1.30-34.—“[...] This work consists of twenty-four thousand verses divided into seven saṃhitās (compendiums) [viz., rudra-saṃhitā]. The three kinds of Devotion [(1) by meditation, (2) recital of prayer and (3) acts of worship and service] are fully explained in it. It must be listened to with great respect. [...] This divine Purāṇa of seven saṃhitās and called after Śiva stands on an equal footing with Brahman (i.e. Vedic Texts) and accords an achievement that is superior to everything else. He who reads the entire Śivapurāṇa without omitting any of the seven saṃhitās can be called a Jīvanmukta (a living liberated soul)”.
3) Rudra (रुद्र) is the name of a deity corresponding to a “Rudraksha with elevenfaces” (Trayodaśamukha), according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.25, while explaining the greatness of Rudrākṣa:—“[...] o Parameśvarī, a Rudrākṣa with eleven faces (trayodaśamukha) is Rudra. By wearing it one becomes victorious everywhere”.
4) Rudra (रुद्र) refers the “perfect manifestation of Śiva with all his attributes”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.10. Accordingly as Viṣṇu said to Brahmā:—“[...] Then we requested Him ‘‘O Śiva, the lord of all, be pleased to take an incarnation with all your attributes’. Thus requested He laughed and spoke sympathetically, with his eyes raised to Heaven. Verily He is an adept in divine sports. O Viṣṇu, a form of mine like this shall be manifested through my limbs and shall be glorified as Rudra in the world. He is my full form and perfect manifestation. He is worthy of being worshipped by both of you. He shall fulfil your desires entirely. He is the cause of dissolution, the presiding deity of attributes, the practitioner of perfect Yoga without anyone to exceed [...] In due course we secured our wives. Śiva incarnated as Rudra at Kailāsa, His residence”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Rudra (रुद्र).—Born of anger of Brahmā; name explained; ‘the weapon’: places assigned to him; his women; asked to procreate and be a Prajāpati; created beings which would burn the universe; persuaded by Brahmā to stop this, and proceed to tapas; expression of the tamas.1 Claimed the remaining wealth of the Angirasa sacrificers as his own, which Nābhāga thought was his. When Nābhāga gave it to Rudra, the worshipful god presented him that wealth and disappeared; presented Pṛthu with a sword daśacandra.2 Taught Kriyā yoga to Umā; Brahmā fled in fear from;3 came with the gods to Dvārakā to ask Kṛṣṇa to go back to Vaikuṇṭha, and glorified Hari.4 No offerings by Dakṣa in his sacrifice, and Satī's voluntary death. Rudra created Vīrabhadra to cause Dakṣa's death. Brahmā pacified Rudra and revived Dakṣa and others.5 Rudra to bear the Gangā;6 addressed Kṛṣṇa as Hari;7 worship of, leads to wealth and pleasure. Conferred a boon on Vṛkāsura and came to grief.8
The presiding deity of the planet Śanaiścara. KāloRudra is Śiva; at the end of a Kalpa he assumes the form of a Samvarttaka sun and burns down all the worlds. His own messengers of death; worshipped by Kāma with Śatarudrīya.9 Enshrined in Gokarṇa.10 Destroyed the god of Love and married Umā on the advice of the seven sages; marriage rites described.11 Umā's transfer as Gaurī.12 Āḍi, son of Andhaka, who attacked him was killed.13 Agni's entrance into the harem when Śiva made him drink his vīra. This was God Subrahmaṇya nursed by Kṛttikas;14 blessed Bāṇāsura.15 Icon of; in the form of a 16 year old boy; worshipped before buildings; different postures detailed.16
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 12, 7-20; XI. 4. 5, 30. 38.
- 2) Ib. IX. 4. 6-11; IV. 15. 17.
- 3) Ib. XI. 27, 3; I. 7. 18.
- 4) Ib. IV. ch. 24 (whole) ; XI. 6. 1; 7. 1. VI. 17. 26-39.
- 5) Ib. IV. chh. 4-7.
- 6) Ib. IX. 9. 7-9; X. 7. 29; 39. 53.
- 7) Ib. X. 63. 34-45.
- 8) Ib. X. ch. 88 (whole).
- 9) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 49; III. 3. 102 and 109; 23. 64; 65. 32; IV. 6. 70; 7. 38; 10. 87; 11. 33; 15. 24; 30. 8; 36. 16; 40. 13 and 27.
- 10) Ib. III. 13. 20.
- 11) Matsya-purāṇa 4. 12, 22; 11. 29; 13. 9. and 14; 138. 26; 154. 194-245, 439-83.
- 12) Ib. ch. 155.
- 13) Ib. ch. 156.
- 14) Ib. ch. 158.
- 15) Ib. ch. 188; 225. 13; 253. 42.
- 16) Ib. 259. 3-26; 265. 41; 266. 43; 268. 22.
1b) Born of Ananta from between the agitated brows: Exhibited in eleven forms with Śūla and three eyes. His name is Saṅkarṣaṇa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 25. 3; XII. 5. 1-3.
1c) A mountain west of the Śitoda.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 27.
1d) (hundred?) Eleven in number, heads of Gaṇas: born of Bhūta and Bhūtā: gods of the Vaivasvata epoch:1 Fought with Krodhavaśas in a Devāsura battle;2 came with the other gods to Dvārakā to invite Kṛṣṇa back to Vaikuṇṭha;3 worshipped for prowess.4 Wait upon Indra. Nīlalohita, a chief Rudra.5 According to the Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa sons of Surabhī and Kaśyapa. These are Angāraka, Sarpa, Niṛṛti, Sadasaspati, Ajaikapāt, Ahirbudhnya, Ūrdhvaketu, Jvara, Bhuvana, Īśvara, Mṛtyu, and Kapāli. Their sisters were Rohiṇī and Gāndharvī: Their overlord was Vṛṣadhvaja. Live in Śivapuram:6 Vanquished by Rāvaṇa;7 part of Viṣṇu;8 Rudras as different from Mahārudra, and as his attendants. For different names of Rudras see the text;9 one of the seven Devagaṇas of the Vaivasvata epoch: Pitāmahas considered as;10 their part in Devāsura wars.11
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 17; VIII. 13. 4; Matsya-purāṇa 5. 30-2; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 31.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 10. 34.
- 3) Ib. XI. 6. 2.
- 4) Ib. II. 3. 3.
- 5) Ib. VI. 7. 2; 10. 17; XI. 16. 13.
- 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 61; 3. 72; 8. 6; 32. 22; IV. 2. 27 and 257; 20 47; 30. 8.
- 7) Ib. III. 7. 254; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 68-70.
- 8) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 17 and 58.
- 9) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 33. 84-96; 34. 4-52.
- 10) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 44; 9. 29; 19. 3.
- 11) Ib. 153. 16-21; 154. 24; 171. 38-40; 247. 10; 248. 22; 285. 8.
1e) A tribe.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 98. 108.
1f) To be recited on the occasion of founding a temple.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 265. 26.
2) Rudrā (रुद्रा).—One of the ten daughters of Rudrāśva.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 125.
Rudra (रुद्र) is the name of a deity created out of Brahmā’s fury, according to the first chapter of the Brahma-purāṇa (on the origin of Devas and Asuras). Accordingly, “Subsequent to the seven sons of Brahmā who were identical with Nārāyaṇa, Brahmā created Rudra out of his fury”.
The Brahmapurāṇa (mentioning Rudra) is one the eighteen mahāpurāṇas originally composed of over 10,000 verses. The first three books of the extant edition contains a diverse amount of topics such as creation theory, cosmology, mythology, philosophy and genealogy. The fourth and last part represents pilgrimage’s travel guide (māhātmya) and narrates the legends surrounding numerous holy spots (tīrtha) around the Godāvarī region in India.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Rudra (रुद्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.37) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Rudra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
1) Rudra (रुद्र) was created born from the forehead of Brahmā, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa (chapter 23): one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—[cf. Rudrasarga] Rudra has other seven names—Bhava, Śarva, Īśāna, Paśupati, Bhīma, Ugra and Mahādeva. Śiva has eight embodiments—Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether, Sun, Moon and The Brahmin who is consecrated (dīkṣita). All the worlds are pervaded by these eight forms of the Lord Śiva. Then Brahmā ordered Śiva to create progeny and then Maheśvara created Rudras like himself. All of them were blue-necked , three-eyed and jaṭāmukuṭā maṇḍita, vṛṣadhvaja, devoid of passions and devoid of old age and death. They were all-knowing, truthful and compassionate towards all.
2) Rudra (रुद्र) refers to a group of deities in the Vaivasvatamanvantara.—Accordingly, “The present, the seventh manvantara is Vaivasvata [viz., vaivasvatamanvantara]. In this manvantara, Purandara is the Indra who is the Subduer of the pride of the Asuras; The gods are the Ādityas, the Rudras, the Vasus and the Maruts. The seven seers are Vasiṣṭha, Kaśyapa, Atri, Jamadagni, Gautama, Viśvāmitra and Bharadvāja.”.
3) Rudra (रुद्र) refers to one of the names for the “sun” [viz., Sūrya], according to the eulogy of the Sun by Manu in the SaurapurāṇaŚaivism.—Accordingly, the Saurapurāṇa which is purely a Śaivite work, though it purports to be revealed by the Sun, contains some references to practices of Saura Sects, and here and there it identifies Śiva with the Sun. From the eulogy of the Sun by Manu it appears that the sun is the Supreme deity. [...] In another passage Manu while eulogizing the Sun god expresses that the Sun is another form of Lord Śiva. The sun is also stated to be [viz., Rudra] [...].
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.12.11
The creation of Rudra from between the eyebrows of Brahmā as the result of his anger, generated from the mode of passion partly touched by ignorance, is very significant. In Bhagavad-gītā (3.37) the principle of Rudra is described. The egocentric attitude is a manifestation of the Rudra principle in the heart, wherein krodha (anger) is generated. This anger develops in the heart and is further manifested through various senses, like the eyes, hands and legs.
There are many earthly creatures who constantly represent the Rudra element. The snake, tiger and lion are always representations of Rudra. When the Rudra principle is exhibited by persons who are not engaged in the devotional service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the angry person falls down from the peak of his improved position.Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Rudra (रुद्र) refers to “one of the eleven expansions of Lord Śiva”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Rudra (रुद्र) refers to:—An expansion of Śrī Śiva. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
1) Rudra (रुद्र, “Howling One”):—One of the male offspring from Mahākālī (tamas-form of Mahādevī). Also known as Śiva or Saṅkara (“Causing Prosperity, Beneficent, Auspicious”). Mahākālī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahālakṣmī and Mahāsarasvatī. Not to be confused with Kālī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named tamas. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.
2) Rudra (रुद्र) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Rudra).Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Rudra (रुद्र) is the name of a deity.—In the Vedas, Rudra is said to be “blue and red” (nīlalohita). His throat is blue. His belly is black and his back red —colours that probably relate to those of the sky at sunset. The Śrīmatottara refers to the goddess as Mahāpiṅgalā (the Great Tawny One) who establishes the order of the letters of the Mālinī alphabet. In this respect also, she is like Rudra who is also said to be a ruddy brown. This is because Rudra is the Fire just as the goddess is Saṃvartā, the energy of Fire.
According to Kramrisch:—“Of ruddy brown complexion he shines in many colours’ like Fire (Agni). Indeed Rudra is Agni and Agni is Rudra. They are one in nature, though not in intensity. Rudra is the terrible, frightening, quintessential Agni. He is the fury of Fire. Like fire, but fiercer and more luminous, wild tremendous Rudra is fire, lightning and the sun. Fire is the power of illumination and is concentrated in him. He burns; he is atrocious, and full of heat; like fire he devours flesh, blood and marrow. The Wild God—the essence of fire—is in the fire, in the waters, in the plants; he has entered all beings.”.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Rudra (रुद्र) or Rudratantra refers to one of the twenty-three Vāmatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Rudra-tantra belonging to the Vāma class.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Rudra (रुद्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to a group of deities. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-88, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).
As such, Brahmā assigned the Rudras and the Ādityas to the space between the pillars (stambha). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.
2) Rudra is to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (e.g., to Rudra).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Rudra (रुद्र) is the Sanskrit name of a deity presiding over Kanakhāla, one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, which is one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas and presiding deities (e.g., Rudra) is found in the commentary on the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Rudra (रुद्र) is the name of name of a merchant, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 54. Accordingly, as Hariśikha said to Naravāhanadatta: “there is in this town a merchant of the name of Rudra, and he went to the island of Suvarṇadvīpa on a mercantile expedition. As he was returning, the hoard of wealth that he had managed to acquire was lost, being sunk in the sea by his ship foundering. And he himself happened to escape from the sea alive”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Rudra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Rudrā (रुद्रा) is another name for Rudrajaṭā, a medicinal plant identified with Aristolochia indica (Indian birthwort or duck flower) from the Aristolochiaceae or “birthwort family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.79-81 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Rudrā and Rudrajaṭā, there are a total of sixteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study
Rudra (रुद्र) or Rudragītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Rudra-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
According to the Bhāgavata Purāṇa (3.12.12), Rudra has eleven other names:
- and Dhṛtavrata.
He also has eleven wives called the Rudrāṇīs:
- and Dīkṣā.
In the Rig Veda, Rudra is a God who belongs to the atmospheric group of Gods, who are Rudra, Indra, ApamNapat, the Maruts, Vayu, Parjanya and the ocean. In the Puranas and in later texts, this name is an appelation of Lord Shiva. Conversely, in the Rig Veda, Rudra is also addressed as Shiva, completing the association.
However, in the Rig Veda, he is definitely a subordinate deity. He is the only God who is described as having negative qualities. His wife is Prsni (who is either a cow, or a storm-cloud), and the Maruts are his sons. They are either hundred and eighty or twenty one in number. Some of his attributes (he is brown colored, his form is dazzling, he has braided hair), are also attributes of Shiva.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Rudra (रुद्र): A Rigvedic god of the storm, the hunt, death, Nature and the Wind. Rudra is an early form of Shiva and a name of Shiva in the Shiva sahasranama.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
1) Rudrā (रुद्रा) refers to one of the twenty-four Ḍākinīs positioned at the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, between the south and east (of the heruka-maṇḍala) are six Ḍākinīs who are half yellow and half black in color. They [viz., Rudrā] are headed by the major four Ḍākinīs of the Cakrasaṃvara tradition. They stand in the Pratyālīḍha posture and, except for the body posture, their physical features and objects that they hold are the same as Vajravārāhīs.
2) Rudra (रुद्र) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Medinīcakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Rudra is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Stambhana; with the female world-guardian (lokapālinī) named Vāyubhāryā; with a female serpent (nāginī) and with a female cloud (meghinī).
3) Rudrā (रुद्रा) refers to one of the female world-guardians (lokapālinī) of the Medinīcakra, according to the same work. Rudrā is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Mahābhaya; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Nālīra; with a female serpent (nāginī) and with a female cloud (meghinī).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Rudra (रुद्र).—The rudras are a group of celestial beings living in the lower regions of adholoka (lower world) according to Jaina cosmology. Adholoka is made up of seven regions and offers residence to the infernal beings existing within these lands.
2) Rudra (रुद्र) is the father of Puruṣottama: the fourth Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).
The stories of king Rudra, queen Sitā and their son, Puruṣottama are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Rudra (रुद्र) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Rudra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Rudra (रुद्र) is the name of an ancient king from Dvārakā, according to chapter 4.3 [vimalanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“Now in Bharatakṣetra in the city Dvārakā there was a king, Rudra, deep as the ocean. He had two wives, Suprabhā and Pṛthivī, like beauty and the earth in person, charming with a wealth of beauty and virtues. Nandisumitra’s soul fell from Anuttaravimāna and descended into Queen Suprabhā’s womb. [...] Dhanamitra’s soul fell from the heaven Acyuta and was generated in Queen Pṛthivī’s womb like a lotus in a pool. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Rudra.—(SITI), a Śaiva devotee. Note: rudra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Rudra.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘eleven’. Note: rudra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
rudra (रुद्र).—m (S) A form or name of Shiva. Pr. kāḷā brāhmaṇa gōrā śūdra hyālā pāhūna kāmpē rudra. 2 An inferior manifestation of Shiva, a demigod; or, according to one legend, a being born from the forehead of Brahma. There are eleven. See akarā rudra. Hence 3 An allusive term for any aggregate of eleven. 4 or rudranāla m A measure of music.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
rudra (रुद्र).—m A form or name of śiva.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Rudra (रुद्र).—a. [roditi rud-rak Uṇ.2.22]
1) Dreadful, terrific frightful, formidable.
2) Great, large.
3) Driving away evil.
-draḥ 1 Name of a group of gods, eleven in number, supposed to be inferior manifestations of Śiva or Śaṃkara, who is said to be the head of the group; रुद्राणां शंकरश्चास्मि (rudrāṇāṃ śaṃkaraścāsmi) Bg.1.23; रुद्राणामपि मूर्धानः क्षतहुंकारशंसिनः (rudrāṇāmapi mūrdhānaḥ kṣatahuṃkāraśaṃsinaḥ) Ku.2.26.
2) Name of Śiva.
4) The number 'eleven'.
5) (pl.) प्राण (prāṇa)s and इन्द्रिय (indriya)s; Mb.12.316.5 (com.).
6) N. for the hymns addressed to Rudra.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-draḥ) 1. A name or form of Siva. 2. A demi-god, an inferior manifestation of Siva, or according to one legend, a being, born from the forehead of Brahma: the Rudras are eleven in number, and are severally named, Ajaikapada, Ahivradhna, Virupak- Sha, Sureshwara, Jayanta, Bahurupa, Tryambaka, Apara- Jita, Baibaswata, Savitra and Hara. f. (-drī) A sort of lute or guitar. f. (-drāṇī) A name of Parvati, wife of Rudra. E. rud to weep, rak Unadi aff., and the vowel unchanged; the name is given to Siva, because according to his own declaration, he disperses the tears of mortals: to the demi-gods, because they wept at their birth. or because they made the enemies of the gods weep.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Rudra (रुद्र).—[rud + ra], I. adj. One who roars,
— Cf. perhapsSource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Rudra (रुद्र).—[adjective] [Epithet] of [several] gods (as the red or howling); [masculine] [Name] of the god of tempests (later identif. [with] Śiva), ruler of the Maruts, [plural] his sons, the Rudras or Maruts.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Rudra (रुद्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Jagannātha (Vivādabhaṅgārṇava). Oxf. 296^a.
2) Rudra (रुद्र):—son of Jayadhara, father of Vāsudeva, grandfather of Śaṅkara (Abhijñānaśakuntalaṭīkā). Oxf. 135^a.
3) Rudra (रुद्र):—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] (Dharmādhikaraṇikarudra). See Mālavarudra, Medhārudra.
4) Rudra (रुद्र):—Jyotiścandrārka. Praśnaratnaṭīkā. Meghamālā. Sphuṭavivaraṇa.
5) Rudra (रुद्र):—Trailokyasundarī.
6) Rudra (रुद्र):—Yuddhakauśala.
7) Rudra (रुद्र):—Rudrakośa lex. Quoted by Medinīkara, by Mallinātha Oxf. 126^a, by Bhānujī Oxf. 182^b, by Gadasiṃha, Śivarāma, Rāyamukuṭa, and others.
8) Rudra (रुद्र):—Smaradīpikā.
9) Rudra (रुद्र):—concisely for Rudrajapa, Rudrapāṭha, Rudrādhyāya. B. 1, 22. Oppert. Ii, 2353 (Yv.). Rice. 4.
—[commentary] B. 1, 24. Rice. 58. Peters. 2, 185.
—[commentary] Camaka. B. 1, 24.
—[commentary] Namaka. B. 1, 24.
—[commentary] by Abhinava-Śaṅkarācārya. Oppert. Ii, 6404. 7288.
—[commentary] by Abhinava-Śukrācārya. Oppert. 4606.
—[commentary] by Ahobala. Io. 2232. Oppert. 3842. Quoted Oxf. 131^b.
—[commentary] by Jhayyaṭa Bhaṭṭa. B. 1, 24.
—[commentary] by Brahmasarasvatī. B. 1, 24.
—[commentary] by Bhaṭṭa Bhāskara, from his
—[commentary] on the Taittirīyasaṃhitā. Io. 1625 B. Rice. 58.
—[commentary] by Mahīdhara Vs. B. 1, 24. Np. Iii, 92.
—[commentary] by Rudra Bhaṭṭa. Taylor. 1, 464.
—[commentary] by Śatrughna. B. 1, 24.
—[commentary] by Sāyaṇa, from his
—[commentary] on the Taittirīyasaṃhitā. Io. 1857 (Namakacamakabhāṣya). Bik. 30. NW. 18. Oudh. Xi, 2. Oppert. 4885. Ii, 8079. Rice. 58.
—[commentary] Rudrabhāṣyaṭīkā. Oppert. Ii, 8080.
10) Rudra (रुद्र):—for Rudrajapa.
—[commentary] by Sāyaṇa. add L. 188. Bp. 284.
11) Rudra (रुद्र):—concisely for Rudrajapa, Rudrapāṭha, Rudrādhyāya. Cu. add. 2473. Peters. 4, 3.
—[commentary] by Bhaṭṭa Bhāskara. Hz. 179. 277. 626.
—[commentary] by Mahīdhara. Peters. 4, 3.
—[commentary] by Mātṛdatta. L. 4210 (Baudh.).
—[commentary] by Sāyaṇa from his
—[commentary] on the Taittirīyasaṃhitā 4, 7. 1-11. Cs. 545. 546. 550. Hz. 82. Peters. 4, 3.
—[commentary] by Haridatta Miśra. Cu. add. 2473.
12) Rudra (रुद्र):—for Rudrajapa etc. C. by Bhaṭṭa Bhāskara. Hz. 1052. C. by Sāyaṇa. Hz. 1545.
13) Rudra (रुद्र):—son of Vidyānivāsa, grandson of Vidyāvācaspati: Padārthakhaṇḍanaṭīkā. Bhramaradūta kāvya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Rudra (रुद्र):—[from rud] a mfn. ([probably]) crying, howling, roaring, dreadful, terrific, terrible, horrible (applied to the Aśvins, Agni, Indra, Mitra, Varuṇa, and the spaśaḥ), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] ([according to] to others ‘red, shining, glittering’, [from] a √rud or rudh connected with rudhira; others ‘strong, having or bestowing strength or power’, [from] a √rud = vṛd, vṛdh; native authorities give also the following meanings, ‘driving away evil’; ‘running about and roaring’, [from] ru dra = 2. dru; ‘praiseworthy, to be praised’; ‘a praiser, worshipper’ = stotṛ, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 16])
2) [v.s. ...] m. ‘Roarer or Howler’, Name of the god of tempests and father and ruler of the Rudras and Maruts (in the Veda he is closely connected with Indra and still more with Agni, the god of fire, which, as a destroying agent, rages and crackles like the roaring storm, and also with Kāla or Time the all-consumer, with whom he is afterwards identified; though generally represented as a destroying deity, whose terrible shafts bring death or disease on men and cattle, he has also the epithet śiva, ‘benevolent’ or ‘auspicious’, and is even supposed to possess healing powers from his chasing away vapours and purifying the atmosphere; in the later mythology the word śiva, which does not occur as a name in the Veda, was employed, first as an euphemistic epithet and then as a real name for Rudra, who lost his special connection with storms and developed into a form of the disintegrating and reintegrating principle; while a new class of beings, described as eleven [or thirty-three] in number, though still called Rudras, took the place of the original Rudras or Maruts: in [Viṣṇu-purāṇa i, 7], Rudra is said to have sprung from Brahmā’s forehead, and to have afterwards separated himself into a figure half male and half female, the former portion separating again into the 11 Rudras, hence these later Rudras are sometimes regarded as inferior manifestations of Śiva, and most of their names, which are variously given in the different Purāṇas, are also names of Śiva ; those of the [Vāyu-purāṇa] are Ajaikapād, Ahir-budhnya, Hara, Nirṛta, Īśvara, Bhuvana, Aṅgāraka, Ardha-ketu, Mṛtyu, Sarpa, Kapālin; [according to] to others the Rudras are represented as children of Kaśyapa and Surabhi or of Brahmā and Surabhi or of Bhūta and Su-rūpā; [according to] to [Viṣṇu-purāṇa i, 8], Rudra is one of the 8 forms of Śiva; elsewhere he is reckoned among the Dik-pālas as regent of the north-east quarter), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 75 etc.])
3) [v.s. ...] Name of the number ‘eleven’ (from the 11 Rudras), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
4) [v.s. ...] the eleventh, [Catalogue(s)]
5) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) Name of the first Muhūrta
6) [v.s. ...] (in music) of a kind of stringed instrument (cf. rudrī and rudra-vīṇā)
7) [v.s. ...] of the letter e, [Upaniṣad]
8) [v.s. ...] of various men, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
9) [v.s. ...] of various teachers and authors (also with ācārya, kavi, bhaṭṭa, śarman, sūri etc.), [Catalogue(s)]
10) [v.s. ...] of a king, [Buddhist literature]
11) [v.s. ...] [dual number] (incorrect [accusative] to, [Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti v, 2, 1]) Rudra and Rudrāṇī (cf. also bhavā-r and somā-rudra)
12) [v.s. ...] [plural] the Rudras or sons of Rudra (sometimes identified with or distinguished from the Maruts who are 11 or 33 in number), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
13) [v.s. ...] an abbreviated Name for the texts or hymns addressed to Rudra, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Vasiṣṭha] (cf. rudra-japa)
14) [v.s. ...] of a people ([varia lectio] puṇḍra), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
15) Rudrā (रुद्रा):—[from rudra > rud] f. a species of creeping plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) [v.s. ...] Name of a wife of Vasu-deva, [Vāyu-purāṇa]
17) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Raudrāśva ([varia lectio] bhadrā), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
18) [v.s. ...] [plural] a hundred heat-making suns' rays, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) Rudra (रुद्र):—b etc. See p. 883, col. 1.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Rudra (रुद्र):—(draḥ) 1. m. A name or form of Shiva; a demigod. f. (drī) A guitar.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Rudra (रुद्र):—Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Rudra (रुद्र):—(auch dreisilbig) —
1) Adj. als Beiw. verschiedener Götter nach den Erklärern heulend , heulen machend , mit Gebrüll laufend , schrecklich ; Uebel vertreibend ; zu preisen u.s.w. —
2) m. — a) der Sturmgott , Name des Beherrschers der Marut. Schon in den [BRĀHMAṆA.] wird Rudra zuweilen als eine Form des Agni aufgefasst ; in der Folge wird Śiva mit ihm identificirt. — b) Du. s. bhavārudra und somārudra. — c) Pl. die Söhne Rudra’s , eine best. Schaar von Winden , die Marut ; später werden sie auch als Kinder Kaśyapa’s und der Surabhi gefasst. Man nimmt ihrer eilf (die Namen variiren stark) und auch dreiunddreissig an. — d) Bez. der Zahl eilf [Rājan 4,176.] — e) der eilfte. — f) abgekürzte Bez. der an Rudra gerichteten Sprüche [Mānavaśrautasūtra 11,2,1.] [Mānavagṛhyasūtra 1,4.] [Gautama's Dharmaśāstra 19,12.] [Vasiṣṭha 22,9.] — g) Bez. des ersten Muhūrta [Indische studien von Weber 10,296.] — h) ein best. Saiteninstrument [Saṃgitasārasaṃgraha 185] ; vgl.
4) und rudravīṇā. — i) mystische Bez. des Lautes e. — k) Nomen proprium — α) Pl. eines Volkes [Wilson's Uebersetzung des Viṣṇupurāṇa 2,132.] v.l. puṇḍra. — β) verschiedener Männer. — γ) eines zu den Viśve Devās gezählten göttlichen Wesens. Richtig ruru. —
3) f. rudrā — a) *eine best. Schlingpflanze. — b) Nomen proprium — α) einer Gattin Vasudeva's. — β) einer Tochter Raudrāśva’s [Wilson's Uebersetzung des Viṣṇupurāṇa 4,129.] v.l. bhadrā. —
4) rudrī eine Art Laute ; vgl. 2)h).
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Rudra (रुद्र):—(nm) an epithet of Lord Shiv and inferior manifestations of the Lord; hence [rudrānī] —Parvati: —the spouse of Lord Shiv
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+290): Rudra acarya, Rudra bhata, Rudra bhatta, Rudra bhatta ayacita, Rudra bhatta vaidya, Rudra kavi, Rudra kavindra, Rudra Nritya, Rudra nyayavacaspati, Rudra nyayavacaspati bhattacarya, Rudra sharman, Rudra sharman tripathin, Rudra suri, Rudra-abhisheka, Rudra-asya, Rudra-maheshvara, Rudra-muhurta, Rudra-putra, Rudrabali, Rudrabhaga.
Ends with (+22): Aghorarudra, Akaravarudra, Anadirudra, Apastambarudra, Arudra, Bailmavegarudra, Bhavarudra, Damarudra, Daridrarudra, Ekadasharudra, Ekarudra, Harirudra, Jamburudra, Jatarudra, Kadrudra, Kakatiyarudra, Kalagnirudra, Kalarudra, Kapilarudra, Karanarudra.
Full-text (+1387): Raudra, Tryambaka, Rudriya, Ekadasharudra, Rudrabali, Bahurupa, Hara, Rudragana, Rudrabhu, Maharudra, Mahinasa, Shatarudra, Aparajita, Ritadhvaja, Bhima, Rudragarbha, Rudrakrida, Raudri, Rudrapriya, Rudravasa.
Search found 139 books and stories containing Rudra, Rudrā; (plurals include: Rudras, Rudrās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Vedic influence on the Sun-worship in the Puranas (by Goswami Mitali)
Part 9 - Number and Classification of the Vedic Gods < [Chapter 1 - Vedic Concept of God and Religion]
Part 1 - Eulogy of the Sun-god in the Purāṇas < [Chapter 4 - Vedic Influence on the Sun-Worship in the Purāṇas]
Part 8 - The Concept of God in the Light of the Vedas < [Chapter 1 - Vedic Concept of God and Religion]
The Brahma Purana (by G. P. Bhatt)
The Matsya Purana (critical study) (by Kushal Kalita)
Part 2 - Śaivism: The Śiva-cult < [Chapter 4 - Religious aspects of the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 2.2 - Different names of Śiva < [Chapter 4 - Religious aspects of the Matsyapurāṇa]
Part 5 - Pañca-lakṣaṇa (the five characteristics) and the Matsyapurāṇa < [Chapter 1 - Introduction]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Lalitopakhyana (Lalita Mahatmya) (by G.V. Tagare)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 276 - Origin of Eleven Rudras < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]
Chapter 87 - Greatness of Bhūteśvara < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 277 - In Praise of Dāna Performed in front of Rudras < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]