The Brahmanda Purana

by G.V. Tagare | 1958 | 319,243 words | ISBN-10: 8120838246 | ISBN-13: 9788120838246

This page describes different dynasties enumerated which is Chapter 7 of the English translation of the Brahmanda Purana: one of the oldest puranas including common Puranic elements such as cosmogony, genealogy, ethics, geography and yoga. Traditionally, the Brahmandapurana is said to consist of 12,000 verses metrical Sanskrit verses.

Chapter 7 - Different dynasties enumerated

Note: This chapter enumerates the prominent members of clans of Gandharvas, Apsaras, birds (Garuḍas), serpents (Nāgas), Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, Piśācas, Yātudhānas and other species with super-natural powers.

Sūta said:—

1-4. The Gandharvas and the Apsaras were the children of Muni.[1] Know them (by their names). They are Bhīmasena, Ugrasena, Suparṇa, Varuṇa, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Goman, Sūryavarcas, Patravān, Arkaparṇa, Prayuta, Bhīma and Citraratha who was well-known as the conqueror of all and as one who had kept his senses under perfect control, Śāliśiras the thirteenth, Parjanya the fourteenth, Kali the fifteenth, and Nārada the sixteenth. Thus these divine Gandharvas, children of Muni, have been recounted.

5-9. They had twenty-four splendid younger sisters named Apsaras:—viz. Aruṇā, Anapāyā, Vimanuṣyā, Varāmbarā, Miśrakeśī, Asiparṇinī, Alumbuṣā, Mārīcī, Śucikā, Vidyutparṇā, Tilottamā, Adrikā, Lakṣmaṇā, Kṣemā, the divine Rambhā, Manobhavā, Asitā, Subāhu, Supriyā, Subhujā, Puṇḍarīkā, Ajagandhā, Sudatī and Surasā. Her brothers—Subāhu, the celebrated Hāhā, Hūhū and Tumburu—these four are remembered as excellent Gandharvas. Thus these Gandharvas and Apsaras, the children of Muni have been named.

10. The following are remembered as Laukikī Apsaras (i.e. Earthly Apsaras) viz. Haṃsā, Sarasvatī, Sūtā, Kamalā, Abhayā, Sumukhī, and Haṃsapadī.

11-12a. (There are nine more Gandharvas(?) Viz. Haṃsa, Jyotiṣṭama, Ācāra, Dāruṇa, Varūtha, Vareṇya, Vasuruci, Suruci the eighth among them and then Viśvāvasu.

12b-13. The extremely fortunate Ṛṣṭā who had been, honoured by the Devas and the sages, gave birth to three (daughters) Viz. Arūpā, Subhagā and Bhāsī.

Manuvantī and Sukeśī were the splendid daughters of Tumbaru.

14-15. One should know that these ten (celestial Damsels) are Pañca-cūḍas (having five plaits of hair).

They are Menakā, Sahajanyā, Parṇinī, Puñjikastalā, Kṛtasthalā, Ghṛtācī, Viśvācī, Pūrvacitti who is wellknown as Pramlocā and Anumlocā. They are thus ten.

16. Urvaśī is remémbered as the eleventh. She had been born of Nārāyaṇa who has neither a beginning nor an end. Her limbs are free from blemishes (i.e. extremely beautiful) befitting a noble family.

17. Menakā the daughter of Menā was born as a beautiful woman in every limb. All these are remembered as expounders of Brahman and extremely fortunate.

18-20a. The meritorious groups of Apsaras are well-known to be fourteen viz.—Āhṛtis, Śobhavatīs, Vegavatīs, Ūrjās, Yuvatīs, Sruks, Kurus, Barhīs, Amṛtās, Mudās, Mṛgus, Ruks, Bhīrus and Śobhayantīs.

20b-24. The Āhṛtis are the mental daughters of Brahmā. The Śobhavatīs are the daughters of Maruts. The Vegavatīs are the daughters of Ṛiṣṭā. The Ūrjās are born of Agni (fire-god). The Yuvatīs are born of rays of the sun. They are very splendid. The auspicious Kurus are born along with the rays of the moon. The (Apsaras) named Śruks were born of Yajña (sacrifice). The Barhis were born of Kuśavatī. The Apsaras born of Amṛta and (therefore) they are remembered as Amṛtās. The Apsaras named Mudās were born of Vayu (wind). The Mṛgus were born of the earth. The Apsaras named Ruks were born of the lightning. The Bhīrus are the daughters of Mṛtyu. The Śobhayantīs (were the daughters) of Kāma. The fourteen groups (of Apsaras) have been recounted.

25. These brilliant groups of Apsaras numbering many thousands are the wives and mothers of the Devas, and the sages.

26-29. (Text partially defective.) All these Apsaras are equally fragrant and free from excitement (Niṣpandāḥ—Steady). Except Hara, everyone from among the Devas and the sages had contacts with them on account of Kāma (God oflove), since they were common to all.[2] Parvata and Nārada were born of them. But since they were born of divine sages, Parvata and Nārada are included among sages. A third is also remembered as younger to them viz. Arundhatī.

Aruṇa and Garuḍa were the sons of Vinatā.

30. The (veḍic) metres are those beginning with Gāyatrī. The birds are born of Suparṇa (Garuḍa)

31-37. Kadru gave birth to thousand serpents[3] who support the earth. They have many hoods. They are noble-souled and they are able to traverse through the sky. Since they are innumerable (all the names are not mentioned here). Learn the names of the most important among them.

The most important among the serpents are Śeṣa, Vāsuki and Takṣaka. (The other important serpents are) Akarṇa, Hastikarṇa, Piñjara, Āryaka, Airāvata, Mahāpadma, Kambala, Aśvatara, Elāpatra, Śaṅkha, Karkoṭaka, Dhanañjaya, Mahākarṇa, Mahānīla, Dhṛtarāṣṭra, Balāhaka, Karavīra, Puṣpadaṃṣṭra, Sumukha, Durmukha, Sūnāmukha, Dadhimukha, Kāliya, Alipiṇḍaka, Kapila, Ambarīṣa, Akrūra, Kapitthaka, Prahrāḍa born of Brahman Gandharva, Maṇiṣṭhaka, Nahuṣa, Kararoman and Maṇi. These and others too, (sons of Kadru have been recounted.) Understand the sons of Khaśā.

38. Khaśā gave birth to two deformed sons of very rough modes of life; the elder was born at dusk and the younger at dawn.[4]

39-42. Khaśā gave birth to the elder son with the following characteristics:—One of his ears was very red. He had four arms and four legs. He was faltering and unsteady while walking, swaying on either side (? Dvidhāgatim). He had hair all over his body. His limbs were stout. His nose was splendid. He had a large belly. His head was very clean. He had large ears. His hair appeared like Muñja grass. He had great strength. His mouth was small but the tongue was long. He had many curved fang-like teeth. His chin was large. His eyes and feet were reddish tawny in colour. He had thick eyebrows and a large nose. He was mysteriously secretive (Guhyaka). His neck had a bluish tinge. His feet were long and his face was big. Khaśā gave birth to such an extremely terrible son.

43-47. Khaśa gave birth to his younger brother, her second son, at the close of (the night) at dawn. He had three heads, three feet and three hands. His eyes were black. His hair stood upright (on his head). His moustache was green in colour. His body was as hard as rock. He had long hands. His voice was loud. His mouth (appeared like a groove) cut up to the ears. He had a strong and big (protruding) nose. His lips were thick. He had eight curved fang-like teeth. His face was irregular in shape. He was spike-eared. His round eyes were tawny in colour. His hair was matted. He had twin globular (masses of flesh). His shoulders were big and broad. His chest (too) was broad. The ridge of his nose was large. His belly was thin. His neck was not stout. It was red in colour. His penis and scrotum remained hanging down. She gave birth to such a younger son.

48. Immediately after their birth, they increased in size. All their limbs became efficient in their respective functions.

49. With their limbs grown in size and power immediately after their birth, they began to drag their mother. The elder one of the two was very cruel and he pulled his mother.

50. He said—“O mother, we are tormented due to hunger. In order to save ourselves we shall devour you”. But the younger one attempted to forbid him.

51. Seizing him (i.e. the elder one) with his pair of hands, he spoke to (his brother in front of) his mother—“Indeed you are the person to render service to your ancestors and preserve their welfare. Protect (at least) your own mother.”

52. At that very instant, their father appeared before them, On seeing both these (children) of deformed features, he spoke to Khaśā.

53. On seeing their father the two sons became frightened and became one. By means of their Māyā, they became merged into the limbs of their mother.

54. Then the sage said to his wife—“What is it that you have been told by these two boys? Report to me everything factually. This is your own transgression.

55. A son or a daughter will be like the mother,[5] at the time of their birth. A son will have the same (character and habit) as his mother.

56-58. Indeed water will have the same colour as the ground (on which it flows). Due to the defect in the conduct of the mothers, as well as due to their qualities, forms and features, the children are extremely influenced. But all the children become different from one another on account of their own renown.”

After addressing Khaśā like this, that incomparable holy lord gently called his sons and accorded names unto them.

Then Khaśā told him everything that had been committed by them both in regard to her.

59. He gave them those names the root meaning of which befitted their activities as reported by their mother, and as inferred by him independently.

60. The elder one had said “O mother, we shall eat (you).” (The root Yakṣ) is used in the sense of chewing and eating. Hence he became Yakṣa.

61-62a. The root Rakṣ is understood to mean “to protect”. Since your other son said “Protect this mother of yours” he will be known by the name Rākṣasa.[6]

62b-64. After observing such a peculiar action on their part towards their mother and after understanding the (inevitable) future affair (? the sage fixed these names).

The sage of cultured intellect was surprised on seeing both of them hungry. The husband of Khaśā assigned blood and suet as their diet.

On seeing them hungry the father bestowed this boon on them.

65-67. “Due to the touch of your hands, currents of blood shall wholly become blood, flesh or fat as you desire to eat.

You shall have your meals, sports and pastimes during the night. Your prey shall be Brāhmaṇas, Devas etc. You shall be very powerful during the night, but very weak during the day time.

Protect this mother of yours. This is the Dharma recommended unto you.”

After saying this to his sons Kaśyapa vanished there itself.

68. After their father had departed, those two cruel (brothers) who are terrible by nature indulged in all kinds of adverse activities. They were ungrateful and they harassed all living creatures.

69. They were extremely powerful and had great inherent vitality. They had huge bodies and were unassailable. They were conversant with Māyā (power of illusion or witchcraft). They could be invisible. Both of them could vanish even, as they were moving about.

70. Both of them could assume any form they desired. They were terrible by nature and free from all ailments. They roamed about with all sorts of activities befitting their forms and features. They harassed everyone.

71-72. They were eager to swallow Devas, sages, Pitṛs (manes), Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Piśācas (vampires), human beings, serpents, birds and animals. They used to roam about during the night. They watched even the followers of Indra becoming excited.[7]

73-76. (Defective Text) Once that Rākṣasa[8] (i.e. the younger one of the two brothers) was moving about desirous of getting some food to eat, he followed his prey by means of their sound. He was moving about like a lord during the midnight. Two Piśācas (vampires, goblins, fiends) named Aja and Śaṇḍa came across him. They were the sons of Kapi. They had great virility and strength. They were like white gourds (in shape). They were the ancestors (of all goblins). Their round eyes were tawny in colour. They were terrific. Their hairs, stood upright. They were accompanied by their daughters. They wanted to find a (suitable) husband for them. Both the girls could assume any form they desired. The Piśācas accompanied by their daughters were hungry. They wanted to eat the Rākṣasa.

77-79. They saw in front of them the Rākṣasa who could assume any form that he desired. All of them looked at one another. Each wanted to seize the other. The fathers (i.e. the Piśācas) said to their daughters, “He is faltering at every step. Catch hold of him alive and bring him here soon.”

Thereupon the girls chased him and caught hold of him. He was held firmly by the hands and brought in front of their fathers.

80-82. On seeing the Rākṣasa seized (and brought near) by their daughters, the Piśācas asked him—“(Who are you?) To whom do you belong?” And he told them everything.

On hearing the activities and the lineage of that Rākṣasa, Aja and Śaṇḍa handed over their daughters to him. Being pleased with his activities, they gave him their daughters (in marriage).

83-84. Even as the girls were crying, the Rākṣasa married them in accordance with the marital rites called Paiśāca (pertaining to the Piśācas).

Aja and Śaṇḍa then proclaimed the assets and riches of their daughters.

Śaṇḍa spoke (first)—“This splendid girl who is conducive to your welfare is Brahmadhanā (having Brāhmaṇas as her wealth?) by name. Brāhmaṇas constitute her greatest (staple) diet.”

85. Aja then announced the assets (of his daughter). “This girl with the insects clinging to all the limbs like hair is Jantudhanā by name. She is capable of seizing the riches of all creatures.”

86. The girl who was called Jantudhanā had profuse growth of hair all over her body. She was capable of producing a great roar. She gave birth to a girl Yātudhānā.

87. The girl who was called Brahmadhanā was red in colour. She was bereft of hair. She too was capable of producing a great roar. She gave birth to Brahmadhanas (or Brahmadhanā).

88. Thus the two daughters of Piśācas gave birth to children. Know them as I recount their creation of progeny.

89-90. Yātudhānā had these ten Rākṣasas as her sons viz. Heti, Praheti, Ugra, Pauruṣeya, Vaḍha, Vidyutsphūrja,[9] Vāta, Āya, Vyāghra and Sūrya (? Sarpa in verse 97).

Know that Mālyavān and Sumālī were the sons of Praheti.

91. Another son of Praheti was very prosperous. He was well-known by the name Puloman. Another son was the extremely fierce demon Madhu and Lavaṇa was his son.

92. He was endowed with great yogic power. He devoutly worshipped Mahādeva.

Ugra’s son was valorous and well known by the name Vajrahan.

93-94. Pauruṣeya had five very powerful sons who were cannibals (man-eaters) namely Krūra, Vikṛta, Rudhirāda, Medāśa and Vapāśa. They have thus been recounted with their names. Vadha had two sons of vicious activities viz. Vighna and Śamana.

95. Vidyut’s son was a Rākṣasa of vicious activities and was called Rasana. Nikumbha a Brahmarākṣasa was born of the wife of Spūrja.

96. Virodha was the son of Vāta and Janāntaka was the son of Āya. Nirānanda was the son of Vyāghra. He caused abstacles in sacrifices.

97. Cruel serpents and Rākṣasas were born in the family of Sarpa (mentioned as Sūrya in V. 90). Yātudhānas have been narrated in full. Now understand the Brahmadhānas.

98. The sons of Brahmaḍhanā were nine viz. Yajñāpeta, Dhṛti, Kṣema, Brahmāpeta, Yajñahan, Śvāta, Ambuka, Keli and Sarpa.

99-100. The following were the sisters of these Brahmadhānās. They are terrible Brahmarākṣasīs viz.—Raktakarṇī, Mahājihvā, Kṣamā and Iṣṭāpahāriṇī.

The Brahmarākṣasas were born on the earth in the family of these (Brahmarākṣasīs).

Thus the Rākṣasas have been recounted in full. Now know the descendants of Yakṣa.[10]

101-104. Yakṣa loved Kratusthalā, one of the ten Apsaras of the class called Pañcacūḍas.[11] He was desirous of getting her. Pondering over the means thereof, he searched all the celestial gardens viz.—Vaibhrāja Surabhi, Caitraratha, Viśoka, Sumana and Nandana the most excellent grove. His desire and longing having been whetted he searched many beautiful and fascinating spots. Ultimately he saw her in Nanḍana seated amidst the other Apsaras.

In spite of his ponderings and anxious worries for acquiring her, he could not find a proper means for the same. In his form and features he was defiled (ugly), spoilt and corrupt in his activities.

105. He thought thus—“All living beings resent me because I am noxious and hurtful. Hence, how shall I acquire that lady of fascinating limbs?”

106-107. He hit upon a plan. Having found a means, he hastened to put it into practice. He assumed the form of Vasuruci, the Gandharva. Then that Guhyaka (i.e. Yakṣa) seized Kratusthalā from the midst of the Apsaras. Thinking that he was Vasuruci, she heartily and willingly accompanied him.

108-109. Even as he was being watched by the groups of Apsaras he clasped her closely and had sexual intercourse with her for the sake of a son. Although he was being observed (by them) he did not hesitate, because he was eager to obtain the celestial damsel. Thereupon a son was immediately born. He had all the limbs and sense-organs in full-fledged form.

110. He increased in size immediately in height as well as girth. He shone by means of his brilliance. “I am Nābhi(?) and I am a king,” he said and saluted his father.

111. The father said to him in reply, “You are Rajatanābha.” A son is born resembling his mother in forms and features and his father in vigour and strength.

112-113. As soon as the child was born, the Yakṣa assumed his form. Yakṣas and Rākṣasas, even when they are in disguise, resume their original form while asleep, when they are angry, frightened or extremely delighted. Then the Guhyaka smilingly said thus to the Apsaras.

114-117. “O lady of excellent face, welfare unto you. Come to my house along-with your son.” After saying this, the Yakṣa suddenly resumed his own form. On seeing it, all the Apsaras became bewildered and fled together. As she (i.e. Kratusthalā) was going on, the son followed her consoling her by means of gentle words. He took her to the midst of Gandharvas and the Apsaras and returned. On observing that she was the origin of species of Yakṣas, the groups of Apsaras said to Kratusthalā—“You are the mother of Yakṣas.” Thereafter, the Yakṣa went to his own abode accompanied by his son.

118. The holy fig tree well known by the name Rohiṇa is the place where Guhyakas lie down. It is remembered that the residence of the Yakṣas is on the Nyagrodha (Holy fig tree) named Rohiṇa.

119-120. The Yakṣa Rajatanābha is the grandfather (i.e. Ancestor) of the Guhyakas.

He married Maṇivarā, the gentle daughter of blameless limbs, of Anuhrāda, a Daitya (demon). Maṇivara, with perfect control over his sense-organs, was born of her. She gave birth to Maṇibhadra who was equal to Indra in exploits and valour.

121. The two splendid sisters named Puṇyajanī and Devajanī, the daughters of Kratusthalā became their wives.

122-126. The splendid lady Puṇyajanī gave birth to twenty-four sons of Maṇibhadra viz. Siddhārtha, Sūryatejas, Sumana, Nandana, Maṇḍūka, Rucaka, Maṇimān, Vasu. Sarvānubhūta, Śaṅkha, Piṅgākṣa, Bhīru, Asoma, Dūrasoma, Padma, Candraprabha, Meghavarṇa, Subhadra, Pradyota, Mahādyuti, Dyutimān, Ketumān, Darśanīya. and Sudarśana. These twenty-four sons were born to Puṇyajanī. Born as the sons of Maṇibhadra, all of them had meritorious characteristics. The splendid Yakṣas and Puṇyajanas are their sons and grandsons.

127-132a. The splendid lady Devajanī gave birth to Maṇivara’s sons viz. Pūrṇabhadra, Haimavān, Maṇimantra, Vivardhana, Kusu, Cara, Piśaṅga, Sthūlakarṇa, Mahāmuda, Śveta, Vimala, Puṣpadanta, Jayāvaha, Padmavarṇa Sucandra, Pakṣa, Bālaka, Kumudākṣa, Sukamala, Varḍhamāna, Hita, Padmanābha, Sugandha, Suvīra, Vijaya, Kṛta, Pūrṇamāsa, Hiraṇyākṣa, Sāraṇa and Mānasa.

These Yakṣas, the sons of Maṇivara are remembered as Guhyakas. They have fascinating forms and features. They are exquisitely dressed. They wear garlands. They have pleasing appearance. Their sons and grandsons are in hundreds and thousands.

132b-136. Khaśā had other sons too, the Rākṣasas who could assume forms as they pleased. Those who are important among them are being described. Listen to their names.[12] They are:—Lālāvi, Krathana, Bhīma, Sumālin, Madhu, Visphūrjana, Bṛhajjihva, Mātaṅga, Dhūmrita, Candrārkabhīkara, Budhna, Kapiloman, Prahāsaka, Pīḍāpara, Trinābha, the night-walker Vakrākṣa, Triśiras, Śatadaṃṣṭra, Tuṇḍakośa the Rākṣasa, Aśva, Akampana and Durmukha the night-wanderer. Thus these excellent Rākṣasas are valorous. They constitute the Gaṇas of Śiva.

137-139. They can traverse all the worlds. Their procedure is like that of the Devas. She had other children also viz seven daughters. Listen (to their names) in order viz. Ālambā, Utkacā, Utkṛṣṭā, Nirṛtā, Kapilā, Śivā and the extremely fortunate Keśinī. These are remembered as the seven sisters who created progeny from whom Gaṇas were evolved. It was from them that group of Rākṣasas was born—Rākṣasas who were ferocious in battle and destroyers of the congregations of people, as well as the splendid groups of Rākṣasas.

140-146. The group (of Rākṣasas) called Ālambeya is ferocious and cruel. Similarly, the group Autkaceya (is also cruel). The groups Autkārṣṭeya and Śaiveya are the most excellent groups of Rākṣasas. Similarly, the group named Nairṛta had been procreated by a servant of Tryambaka, the most excellent leader of Gaṇas. The Nairṛtas are Deva-Rākṣasas. They are valorous and richly endowed with heroism. Their leader is one who is endued with Yogic power, well reputed by the name Virūpaka. They are haughty and noble-souled and they form hundreds of groups and armies. Generally these (Nairṛtas) follow Śaṅkara the lord of the Universe.

The groups of Daitya-Rākṣasas called Kāpileyas have been procreated by the noble-souled king of Daityas (named) Kumbha. They have huge bodies. They are endowed with valour, vigour, enormous strength and exploit. Another group of Rākṣasas (named) Yakṣarākṣasas have been procreated by Kapila a powerful Yakṣa in Keśinī.

147-148. There was an insignificant Rākṣasī (demoness) named Nīlā. She was the daughter of Keśinī. The numerous Rākṣasas well known as Nailas have been procreated by Surasika (A person of excellent taste) belonging to the group Ālambeya. They are unconquerable and are of terrible exploits. They have divine and earthly forms and features. They roam about the entire earth.

149-151. Since their creation is multitudinous, it cannot be detailed (completely). The Rākṣasī (demoness) named Vikacā was the daughter of Nīlā. Her sons, the Vikacas, have great inherent strength and valour. They have been procreated by Virūpaka the Nairṛta here. The subjects so procreated were very terrible. Listen to their names in the proper order. They are very terrible on account of their curved fangs. They are hideous with large ears and big bellies.

152-156. Their group names are Hārakas, Bhīṣakas, Klāmakas, Reravākas, Piśācas, Vāhakas, Trāsakas and others. These are Bhūmi-Rākṣasas (earthly demons). They are slow-witted but harsh and tough in their exploits. They assume different sizes and shapes on different occasions. They roam about in places hitherto never seen. Such of them as have excellent strength and inherent vitality are remembered as Khecaras but they traverse the sky only to a very limited extent. They merely aim at flying. This universe is pervaded by hundreds and thousands of these Bhūmi-Rākṣasas and all sorts of insignificant Rākṣasa hordes. Different regions are occupied all round by different kinds of Rākṣasas.

Briefly mentioned, there were eight Rākṣasa mothers.

157-158. Their eight clans have been described in the proper order. Certain clans are called Bhadrakas (gentle) caused by the outcome of ignorant ones. They are hundreds and thousands in number. They have Pūtanā as their common mother (?). They are terrifying unto all living beings.

159-161. The Grahas are the cause of the death of children in the human world. They are Skandagraha viz. Hāsyas, Āpakas, Trāsakas and others.

Those (varieties of insignificant Rākṣasas) should be known as Kaumāras. They stay in the abodes of children. There are groups of deceitful (Māyikas) varieties of Skandagrahas. There are Lokavināyaka (those who create obstacles to the worlds), goblins named Pūtanās. Thus thousands of groups roam about on this earth.

162-163. Yakṣas (are of two kinds): those named Puṇyajanas and those who are remembered as Pūrṇabhadras.

The king of Alakā became the overlord of Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, all the Nairṛtas and those who were called Paulastyas and Agastis.

The Yakṣas drink and devour the blood, suet and flesh of human beings by means of their eyes.

164-166.[13] The Rākṣasas (drink blood etc.) by entering (the bodies of victims). The Piśācas (drink blood etc) by means of squeezing and harassing (victims).

Speaking succinctly, Daivatas (i.e. Devas) are equipped richly with all characteristics.[14] They are brilliant, powerful and masterly. They can assume any form they desire. They cannot be assailed. They are valorous. They arc bowed to by all the worlds. They are subtle, vigorous, and pure. They bestow boons. They partake of Yajñas. These foregoing characteristics pertain to the Devas as well as the Asuras.

167. It is remembered that the Gandharvas and the Apsaras are inferior to the Devas by three-fourths (of their qualities, strength etc.). The Guhyakas are inferior to the Gandharvas by three-fourths (of their qualities etc).

168-169. The Piśācas are inferior to the Rākṣasas in affluence and power three times (?) (powers, affluences to one-third of Rākṣasa).

In the same manner (the different species of living beings) are inferior to one another by three-fourths in regard to wealth, beauty of form, span of life, physical power, virtue, affluence and mastery, intelligence, power of penance, learning and exploits.

170. These four species beginning with the Gandharvas and ending with the Piśācas belong to the species of the Devas.

Welfare unto you. Hereafter, listen to the progeny belonging to the family of Krodhavaśā.

171. Krodhā gave birth to twelve daughters born of her own bosom. They became the wives of Pulaha. Understand them through their names.[15]

172-173a. They were Mṛgī, Mṛgamandā, Haribhadrā, Irāvatī, Bhūtā, Kapiśā, Daṃṣṭṛā, Ṛṣā, Tiryā, Śvetā, Saramā, and Surasā. They were all well renowned.

173b-174a. The sons of Mṛgī were the species of deer and antelopes such as Hariṇas, Mṛgas, Śaśas (rabbits), Nyaṅkus, Śarabhas, Rurus and Pṛṣatas (spotted antilppes).

174b-179. The following were born as sons of Mṛgamandā viz. Ṛkṣas(bears), Gavayas (a kind of oxen), buffaloes, camels, boars, rhinoceros and Gauramukhas (species of buffaloes).

The following were the sons of Hari (i.e. Haribhadrā) viz. various varieties of monkey such as Haris, Golāṅgūlas, Vānaras, Kinnaras, Māyus and Kimpuruṣas, the hyaenes, the lions, the tigers, the dark blue-coloured oxen, the Dvīpins, Pythons, crocodiles, cats, mice, frogs, mongooses and Valkakas(?) found in forests.1

The splendid lady gave birth to these sons of Pulaha viz. the first Haṃsa (swan), Raṇacandra, Śatamukha, Darīmukha, Harita, Harivarman the terrible and one with splendid characteristics, Prathita, Mathita, Hariṇa and Lāṅgali.

180-181. Ten heroic leading monkeys were born to Śvetā viz. Urdhvaḍṛṣṭi, Kṛtāhāra, Suvrata, Vinata, Budha, Pārijāta, Sujāta, Haridāsa, Guṇākara and the powerful Kṣemamūrti. All of them were kings.

182-183. Their sons and grandsons were very powerful and irresistible. They could not be conquered in battle by the Devas, Dānavas, human beings, Yakṣas, Bhūtas (goblins) Piśācas (ghosts), Rākṣasas and good (powerful) serpents. Their death is not brought about by means of fire, weapons poison or other means.

184. Their movement is not obstructed on the earth, sky, Pātāla (Netherworlds), water or in the wind. All of them are indestructible.

185-188.[16] The numbers of the quick and mighty monkeys are many. (Some of them) are ten thousand crores in number. Others are thousand Arbudas[17] in number and others thousands of Mahāpadmas (A very high number) and hundreds of Mahāpadmas. Some are ten Arbudas in number; others are hundred thousand crores. Others thousands of Niyutas (Ten thousand crores), others are Nikharvas[18], others ten crores of Arbudas. Others sixty crores in number, others a hundred thousand Arbudas, others a hundred crores; others ten Padmas[19] and still others nine Mahāpadmas in number. These monkeys, belonged to very noble families.

189-193. All of them are brilliant, brave and powerful. They can assume any form they desire. They have divine ornaments and dresses. They are devotees of Brahman. They maintain sacrificial fires; they perform all kinds of Yajñas, and distribute hundreds and thousands by way of monetary gifts (and sacrificial fees). They are embellished with crowns, earings, necklaces and upper arm bracelets. They are scholars in the Vedas and Vedāṅgas. They are experts in the science of polity, in discharging missiles and withdrawing them or in the activity of killing. They have preference for divine Mantras, they are honoured on account of divine Mantras; they are efficient, powerful and heroic. They strike by means of all kinds of weapons. They are gentle, they can assume divine forms and are devoid of old age and death. There are ten thousand families of such noble-souled monkeys.

194-195. Abodes were made for them by Viśvakarman himself in the mountains and caves on the four sides of mounts Meru, Hemakūṭa, Himālaya, the Nīla mountain, the Sveta mountain, the Niṣadha mountain and the Gandhamādana mountain—well in all the seven continents.

196-200. They are bedecked (endowed with) cities of various sizes and shapes. They are equally charming during all the seasons. There are gardens and parks all round. In the grounds of their abodes and in their couches exudes pleasing fragrance of flowers. They have different kinds of unguents and divine embellishments. They are bedecked in all kinds of jewels and have mental (and spiritual) achievements. Those monkeys embellished in divine ornaments (enjoy life) drinking honey and wine in the company of she-monkeys. Their liquor was accompanied by nectarine diet too. They are full of activities. They rise in power like the community of gods in the heaven. Indeed, they are the sons of important Devas and Gandharvas. They indulge in happiness and pleasure. They are righteous. They are excessively proud on account of their boons. They are experts in war. They are very powerful.

201. Among all animals they have no mean, or insignificant position. They are devotedly attached to the Devas and Brāhmaṇas. They never become pale and faded. They are truthful. They speak volubly on many matters.

202-204. Those who are endued with forbearance and those who strictly adhere to established custom, usage and conduct of life speak with restriction. They have been created by Brahmā himself to be an ornament unto the forests.

This incarnation of monkeys is the cause of devotion in all the worlds; it is virtuous in regard to Rāma’s affiairs; it destroys all sins.

It is meritorious and conducive to wealth and fame. It is fascinating and it brings about happiness. I shall glorify the same. Listen to it with alertness and attention.

205-206. A powerful son named Vyāghra was born to ūrdhva-dṛṣṭi. Vyāghra had five brothers and five sisters. The sisters were given in marriage by the brothers to the monkeys who were purified in mind and who were suitable to them. He found befitting wives for his brothers as well.

207-208. Śarabha, well renowned in the worlds, was born as the son of Vyāghra. Śarabha’s brothers were also great scholars. They were honoured for their vigour and vitality. They were kings of monkeys. They were well-established in all righteous activities. Śarabha’s son named Śuka was very strong and intelligent.

209-210. His son too, named Ṛkṣa, born of the belly (womb) of Vyāghrī was very powerful. He was an unassailable emperor. He was the leader of the herds of all monkeys. He had great splendour. He was a persistent slayer of enemies. He was a master of the technique of wielding all sorts of missiles.

211-212. Viraja, the Prajāpati, handed over (in marriage his gold-bedecked daughter endowed with many good qualities to him (i.e. Ṛkṣa) because he was such a specially gifted one. Ṛkṣa the leader of the herds of monkeys married her.

213. That girl of charming smiles was very beautiful to behold. She had limbs free from blemish. On seeing that girl of pleasing appearance Mahendra began to love her.

214. Vāli of great valour and manliness was born as her son due to her union with Mahendra. He was as valiant as Mahendra himself.

215. Similarly, the sun-god too begot of her in secret his son, a part of himself. He was Sugrīva the leader of the herds of monkeys.

216. On seeing both the sons endowed with strength, beauty of form and glorious splendour, Ṛkṣa, the leader of the herds of all the monkeys, had a great deal of delight.

217-219. He crowned his eldest son Vāli who had golden garlands (necklaces). Crowned thus and followed by Sugrīva, Vāli administered the kingdom like the lord of Devas in the heaven.

Suṣeṇa’s daughter named Tārā was the wife of that noble-souled (Vāli). She was highly intelligent and her face resembled the lord of stars (i.e. the moon). She gave birth to a son Aṅgada who had golden Aṅgadas (ornaments of the upper arm).

220. A son of terrible exploits was born to Aṅgada in the eldest daughter of Mainda. His name was Dhruva. He earned great renown.

221. Rumā the splendid daughter of Panasa was the wife of Sugrīva. Three sons of great renown were born to him.

222. After finding out very beautiful wives for them the powerful Sugrīva stayed beside Vālī along with his monkey followers.

223-227. The fierce (Sugrīva) stayed with his brother for many years like a Deva (a god).

Kesarī married the daughter of Kuñjarā named Añjanā. That lady of great purity and good fortune went to a park named Puṃsavana. Vāyu (the wind-god) made advances to the lady who was proud of her youth. Hanumān was born of her by her union with Vāyu the (source of) life into the entire universe. The sons of Kesarī were well known here as well as in the heaven.

The eldest among them all was Hanumān. Matimān is remembered as the son after him. Others were Śrutimān Ketumān and the intelligent Dhṛtimān. All the brothers of Hanumān were well established along with suitable and befitting wives. The sons were thus established by their father. They were blessed with sons and grandsons.

228-230. Hanumān was a Brahmacārin (observer of the vow of celibacy). He was not joined in wedlock with any woman. He was like another Garuḍa in speed and extensive expedition.

Nala the powerful and unconquerable son of Agni was born of the wife of Kanakabindu. He was a leader of monkeys.

There are other powerful monkeys of great fortune and grandeur. Of them the most important leaders of the leading monkeys should be known.

231-237. They are Tāra, Kusuma, Panasa, Gandhamādana, Rūpaśrī, Vibhava, Gavaya, Vikaṭa, Sara, Suṣeṇa, Sudhanu, Subandhu, Śatadundubhi, Vikaca, Kapila, Raudra, Pāriyātra, Prabhañjana, Kuñjara, Śarabha, Daṃṣṭrin, Kālamūrti, Mahāsukha, Nanda, Kandarasena, Nala, Vāruṇi, Cirava, Karava, Tāmra, Citrayodhin, Rathītara, Bhīma, Śatabali, Kālacakra, Anala, Nala, Yakṣāsya, Gahana, Dhūmra, Pañcaratha, Pārijāta, Mahādīpta, Sutapas, Balasāgara, Śrutāyus, Vijayākāṅkṣin, Gurusevin, Yathārthaka,Dharmacetas, Suhotra, Śālihotra, Sarpaga, Puṇḍra, Avaragātra, Cārurūpa, and Śatrujit.

238-244. (The following also are very important monkeys) viz. Vikaṭa, Kavaṭa, Mainda, Bindukāra, Asurāntaka, Mantrin, Bhīmaratha, Saṅga, Vibhrānta, Cāruhāsavān, Kṣaṇakṣaṇamitāhāra, Dṛḍhabhakti, Pramardana, Jājali, Pañcamukuṭa, Balabandhu, Samāhita, Payaḥkīrti, Śubha, Kṣetra, Binduketu, Sahasrapāt, Navākṣa, Harinetra, Jīmūta, Balāhaka, Gaja, Gavayanāman, Subāhu, Guṇākara, Vīrabāhu, Kṛtin, Kunda, Kṛtakṛtya, Śubhekṣaṇa, Dvivida, Kumuda, Bhāsa, Sumukha, Suruvu, Vṛka, Vikaṭa, Kavaka, Javasena, Vṛṣākṛti, Gavākṣa, Naradeva, Suketu, Vimalānana, Sahasvāra, Śubhakṣetra, Puṣpadhvaṃsa, Vilohita, Navacandra, Bahuguṇa, Saptahotra, Marīcimān, Godhāman, Dhaneśa, Golāṅgūla and Netravān.

245. Thus these monkeys have been enumerated in view of their real importance. Since the names are many, they cannot be described in full.

246-247a. Each of them had the strength of ten crores of elephants.

Vāli, the scorcher of foes, was the king of all the hosts of monkeys stationed in all the seven continents. He himself stayed in Kiṣkindhā.

247b-248a. That powerful Vāli once defeated Rāvaṇa. He caught hold of him with his left hand. Placing him at his side, he pressed him hard and went on meditating.

248b-249. In the course of a Muhūrta he went to the four oceans, the southern, the eastern, the western and the northern, touching meanwhile all the four sides. He had the speed of the mind and the wind but he was not exhausted. (He did not feel strain of the long travel).

250-252. Vāli of great vitality thus defeated Rāvaṇa who had made the worlds cry. As Rāvaṇa became delirious and unconscious, he released him from the grip of his arms and placed him at the root of a tree. Haughty, on account of excessive strength, he sprinkled cold water on Rāvaṇa from his head to his foot. When Rāvaṇa regained consciousness, Vāli pretended to be surprised. The lord of monkeys then spoke to the king of Rākṣasas who was very fierce in battle.

253-260. “O king of Rākṣasas, having exploits equal to those of Mahendra, you have conquered innumerable armies in battle and defeated Yama and his ministers. Varuṇa, Kubera, the moon, the sun-god, groups of Maruts, Rudras, Ādityas, Aśvins, Vasus, Daityas, Kālakeyas, Dānavas of very great power, Siddhas, Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, serpents, excellent leaders of birds, the planets, the stars, constellations, goblins, ghosts, proud of their specially increased strength, and hundreds and thousands of kings of human beings. In spite of having all these achievements and qualifications (you have been defeated by me).

In speed you are on a par with the mind and the wind. You are capable of moving the Meru. You are unconquerable like God of death. You have routed all the heroes in the worlds. You are the conqueror of the cities of enemies by means of armies (with the striking power) of the thunderbolt. You have levelled mountains by means of your armies as powerful as thunderbolt. You have agitated and stirred up the seven oceans seven times. You are a Mahāratha (a great hero who can withstand the attack of thousands of archers). You are free from excitements and are eager to gain Victory. You are proud of your strength. In spite of that, you, a powerful warrior, have been overwhelmed by me, a weak one and a monkey in particular.

261. How is it that you, in spite of being an unconquerable powerful hero, have been condemned to such a plight as this. Tell me, O leading Rākṣasa of Brāhmaṇa caste, what is the reason hereof?

262-264. Freedom from fear has been given unto you by me. Rest assured. You have nothing to fear.”

On hearing the words of Vāli, the ten-headed Rākṣasa of great valour said these words in a conciliatory tone, because he was flurried and excited on account of fear:—

“Undoubtedly, all the Devas and the Asuras have been defeated by me in battle. But a powerful man of this sort (i.e. like you) I have never come across anywhere. Therefore, I wish to have a friendly alliance with you, devoid of fear of every sort.

265-266. O heroic warrior, never will a fight ensue with you, from my side.”

On being requested thus Vāli said—“Your words shall be true.”

Having entered into the treaty (agreement) with Vāli at the outset, Rāvaṇa went to Laṅkā along with his hordes. His inner soul became extremely delighted.

267-273. After defeating the lord of the Rākṣasas at Puṣkara in battle, the powerful Vāli performed many Yajñas where food and drink were supplied in plenty and in which hundreds and thousands of monetary gifts were distributed in an increased scale. He performed Agniṣṭomas, Aśvamedhas (horse-sacrifices), Rājasūyas, Nṛmedhas (human sacrifices) and all kinds of sacrifices, accompanied by all kinds of charitable gifts. He propitiated the Devas and Devendra by means of many offerings. He propitiated Brahmā by performing Homas in the fire for many years. He was happy in the company of his younger brother Sugrīva. He had nothing to fear from any quarter. He looked after the kingdom of monkeys. He was devoted to the Brāhmaṇas. He considered Brahman to be the supreme one. He was (as it were) a bridge of righteousness. He was engaged in holy rites. He was conversant with all sacred scriptures. He sported about and enjoyed life for many years. During his Sacrifices, Nārada the celestial sage, sang this verse of praise.

“Neither in offering oblations in sacrifices nor in charitable gifts nor in quick action and exploits is there anyone in the three worlds equal to Vāli the wearer of gold necklaces.”

Śāṃśapāyana said:—

274-275. O! how powerful and excessively efficient was Vāli the son of Mahendra. He had performed thousands of Yajñas. He was extremely unconquerable. Vāli has been described as a highly intelligent emperor by you. Recount to us how Mārtaṇḍa came to be known so. O holy lord of very sacred rites, explain its etymologial derivation factually.

Sūta said:—

276-278. While the living beings were being created, Prajāpati himself brought the greatest splendour in the three worlds and deposited it within the heart of Aditi since he had great yogic power.

In the beginning, the holy lord had created an egg within her belly. The powerful foetus was within the egg.

279-283. It increased excessively. The Devas became devoid of splendour on coining to know that the foetus had been evolved wholly out of their own brilliance which had been taken away. They became afraid and said to Prajāpati—“How shall this be to us, (What will become of us)? O lord, the strength and brilliance of this (foetus) evolved by you is excessive. How can we exist? O perpetual one surely we shall be finished. There is no doubt that all living beings here, both mobile and immobile will become burnt before long. O excellent Brāhmaṇa, consider over this (point), withdraw the strength and splendour deposited within the egg so that it will be conducive to our welfare. The renown and potentiality of the splendour burns all round rapidly.

284-288. After reflection, the lord Prajāpati pulled it off. He infused strength in the egg. Then the child was within the egg. They say that what was the infused strength is the egg (?) The brilliance is considered to be the child. When it was taken out of the belly it resembled a dead lump. Thereupon, Prajāpati examined it, and split the egg into two. Placing the two pieces (side by side), he saw in one of them the foetus overwhelmed by weakness. It was however full of brilliance. At once he lifted it up and placed it in the lap of Aditi. He said—“He has the state of being born of Aditi. Since he was born dead (Mṛta) as an egg (Aṇḍa) Savitṛ (the sun) is called Mārtaṇḍa by the learned men.[20]

289. Prapitāmaha (the great grandfather, Brahmā) created more brilliance in it. It is considered that what were the two egg-shells, had got very great power (i.e. the strength of the egg-shells was great).

290. The lord placed them separately in her navel and gave them to Irāvatī. With a wish for procreation, he stuffed them into her belly:

291. Thereupon, four lordly elephants were born to Irāvatī. They were very powerful and they became the befitting vehicles of Devas. They were honoured by the worlds.

292. They were Airāyaṇa, Kumuda, Añjana and Vāmana. I shall describe them unto you in detail later on.

293-296. Lord Savitṛ (sun) who directly blazes with his rays, is very important in this world on account of his superior and unlimited strength and brilliance. It is Savitṛ who illuminates this universe that had been devoid of light. O Brāhmaṇas, the exterior of Lokāloka is enveloped in darkness. The proof for this has been fully stated by me factually O excellent Brāhmaṇas. This had been heard by me from the holy noble-souled lord Vyāsa, the son of Parāśara. Formerly, this had been narrated by Sanatkumāra as well as Vāyu. After reflecting deeply, this has been recounted by others too in different ways.

297. The merit that one acquires after listening to the nectar-like Purāṇas is conducive to the achievement of all objects. (He who listens to it) roams about fearlessly even after undergoing a hundred transmigrations into other species.

298-299a. If the story of the birth of Mārtaṇḍa is in anyone’s house, if the story is narrated in anyone’s house, understand that he is one who has no equal. His children will never die prematurely.

299b-300.[21] Ṛkṣā was the sister of Ṛkṣa a very powerful monkey. She gave birth to the renowned Jāmbavān as a result of her union with Prajāpati. He was accepted as one among themselves by heroes. He was a highly intelligent king of bears.

301. His daughter Jāmbavatī was born of Vyāghrī. That lady of lotus-like eyes was given in marriage to Vāsudeva (i.e. Śrīkṛṣṇa) by her father.

302-304. Other children too, very powerful sons were born to the king of bears. They were Jayanta, Sarvajña, Mṛgarāṭ, Saṅkṛti, Jaya, Mārjāra, Balibāhu, Lakṣaṇajña, Śrutārthakṛt, Bhoja, Rākṣasajit, Piśāca, Vanagocara, Śarabha, Śalabha, Vyāghra and Siṃha. They had hundreds and thousands of sons and grandsons.

305-307. Only the group of the Ṛkṣas (bears) is honoured by the Devas and the Dānavas.

Mārjāras (cats) are (were), the extremely powerful sons of Mārjāra and Vādī (?) They are (were) hundreds and thousands in number. All of them are (were) endowed with virility. They are the preceptors of Śarabhas and other beasts of prey. They have great strength. They taste the flesh of mice, birds, Pṛṣatas (spotted antelopes) etc. They are engaged in moving quickly and leaping about. They harass all animals.

308. They stay in villages, parts of forests, hollows of trees, caves, houses and inner apartments of abodes.

309. They move about by means of different modes of walking; they are clever, they are seen in villages; they move about in forests. They stay (in both the places) naturally.

310a. They can move about during days and nights as well as in twilight.

310b-311. They are (of various colours. Some are) of the colour of blue (black) clouds, some brownish red in colour; some are red and some are squint-eyed. Some are black in colour, some are tawny in colour. Others are of various colours with lines (and spots).

They are terrible with claws and curved teeth for their weapons. They can utter cries like peacocks.

312. Two sons were born to Saramā. They were brave and extremely unbearable. They were Śyāma and Śabala. They are remembered as the attendants of Yama.

313. Their sons were unassailable. They were blessed with sons and grandsons. Their race became well renowned for ever among Sārameyas (Dogs).

314-318. At present, the animals of the same species are very strong. They have hideous forms. They give trouble to men belonging to every caste and community. They can have a residence attached to the villages also (i.e. they can be domestically trained and kept in villages).

He who listens to the origin of the animals with curved teeth and he who narrates the same, need not have any fear from animals with curved fangs nor from thieves, nor from anything else. The decision is (i.e. it is certain) that death will come to them immediately (and not in a lingering manner).

He does not get involved in imprisonment. He does not get an ignominious birth. He does not get mixed up with other castes. He attains the merit based on the Vānaprastha stage in life (i.e. of the forest hermit) resorted to by sages. He will be richly endowed with divine wealth and strength. He does not err from perfect wisdom and knowledge. He is born in the divine wombs (becomes a god).

319-320. There are eleven species (varieties of monkeys) viz.—Dvīpins, Śarabhas, Siṃhas, Vyāghras, Nīlas, Śalyakas, Ṛkṣas, Mārjāras, Lohaṃsas (?), Vānaras and Māyus. These are considered to be the eleven species of monkeys. The leader of all these is the valiant king Vāli.

321. In the course of the battles between the Devas and the Asuras, he was the violent slayer of the terrible and powerful Asuras who would rather get slain (than submit), because they were perpetually self-respecting.

322-323. It was for the destruction of the haughty hordes (or, the strength of the haughty) that this host (of monkeys) had been created formerly by the noble-souled Brahmā, the sustainer of the worlds. This group had been intended by him as one that would render help to Mahendra.

Thus the monkeys have been recounted. Understand (the progeny) of Irāvatī.

324.[22] Bhauvana (i.e. Viśvakarman, the architect of the gods) brought together the two egg-shells of the sun. Holding them with both of his hands, he sang the Rathantara (a Sāman Mantra).

325. Even as the Sāman mantra was being sung, Bhauvana hastened to Irāvatī and gave them to her for the purpose of sons.

326. Since he was the son of Irāvatī he is remembered as Airāvata. Since he was the vehicle of the king of the Devas that king of elephants was the first and the foremost.

327-333. Airāvata the glorious elephant has the lustre of white clouds. He has four tusks (teeth) (Here the text is defective). Añjana is an elephant with golden colour. It has only a single tusk (?) Bhadra the vehicle of Bali has six tusks.

The she-elephant of Airāvata is Abhramu. They had four sons viz.—Añjana, Supratīka, Vāmana and Padma the fourth one. Abhramu gave birth to four powerful sons who became the elephants of the (four) quarters (who belong to the species) of Bhadra, Mṛga, Manda and Saṃkīrṇa variety. He is the vehicle of Yama. Supratīka belongs to the Bhadra variety. He is the vehicle of the lord of waters (Varuṇa). Padma belongs to the manda variety. He is white in colour. He is the elephant (vehicle) of Ailavila (i.e. Kubera). (Vāmana) is dark-coloured and belongs to the Mṛga variety. He is the vehicle of Pāvaki (? Kārttikeya). Eight sons were born to him. Viz—Padma, Uttama, Padmagulma, Agaja, Vātagaja, Gaja, Capala and Ariṣṭa (lit. one whose name is Ariṣṭa). Elephants equipped with lofty stature are born in his family.

334. Those elephants arc tawny-coloured with white hairs and nails. They have various other colours also.

I shall recount in due order other elephants also born of Sāman.

335-336. Kapila and Puṇḍarīka of good name and fame were born of Rathantara Supratīka and Pramardana became well-renowned after them both.

Elephants belonging to his race are remembered to be very strong and suspicious of others. They are heroic (brave). Their head and teeth (tusks) are very big. Their hairs and nails are very pure (white).

337. Puṣpadanta was the son of Bṛhatsāman(?) Ṣaḍdanta (having six tusks), Padmapucchavān and Tāmraparṇa were his sons. They move about in herds. They have tusks.

338. Elephants with lips hanging down, beautiful to behold, are born in his race. Their skin, tongue and trunk are dark-coloured. Their faces (heads) are large and stout.

339. Vāmadeva, Añjana, Śyāma and Vāmana were born of Sāman. His wife is Añjanā and Nīlavān and Lakṣaṇa are the sons.

340. Elephants of the following type are born in his family. They are very enormously big and fierce. Their necks and heads are beautiful. They are broad-chested and swift. They are fettered from below (i.e. by means of feet).

341. With the removal of his deformity Supratīka attained the same form as that of Sāman. He had three sons viz.—Praharī, Sampāti, and Pṛthu.

342-343. Elephants of the following type are born in. his family. They are lofty. They have long palates and lips. Their hairs are well arranged. In sexual intercourse they arc extremely gentle.

Through (the power of) Sāman, Añjanāvatī gave birth to Añjana the son of Añjanā. They had two other sons also remembered as Pramāthi and Puruṣa.

344-345a. Elephants of the following type were born in his family. Their heads are remarkably divided into two (Here partition of the head is referred to). They resemble the glossy clouds. They are pleasing to look at. Their bodies are well-built. They have the luster of lotus. They have proportionate girth of the body, globular in shape. They are brave and they have stout and large faces.

345b-347a. Through the power of Sāman, Kumudadyuti (one having lustre of lily) gave birth to Kumuda, the son of Candramas (the moon-god).

His two sons Mahāpadma and Ūrmimālin were born of Piṅgalā. Understand that the elephants born in his race are of the following type:—They resemble mountains and clouds. They are excellent and powerful. They are enlightened (intelligent). They are fond of fighting with other elephants.

347b-348a. For the sake of their victory in the battle between the Devas; and the Asuras the Suras made use of these elephants. When their purpose was served, the elephants mentioned before were let off by the Devas. They then went in different directions.

348b-349a. The Devas gave unto Lomapāda the king of Aṅga and the author of Sūtras (Aphorisms) such of those elephants as are born in the family of these and are well-trained and tamed.

349b-351. The etymological derivation of the various names of elephants is as follows:[23] The elephant is called Dvirada because it has two tusks (Rada); the word Hastin is derived from Hasta (hand i.e. the trunk); the word Karin is derived from Kara (hand i.e. the trunk). The word Dantin is derived from Dantas (tusks); the elephant is called Vāraṇa because it defends and guards (Vāraṇāt) the soldiers in the battle; it is called Gaja because it trumpets (Garjanāt); it is called Kuñjara because it roams about among the hedges and bushes (Kuñjas); it is called Nāga because there is nothing which it cannot reach (Na-Agamya); it is caīīed Mātaṅga because it runs about intoxicated; it is remembered as Dvīpa because it drinks by means of the two hollows in its trunk (the mouth). It is called Sāmaja because it is born of Sāman. Thus is the procedure of the etymological derivation.

352-353a. The turning away of their tongues (i.e. inability to speak or cessation of the power of speech) has been mentioned as originating from the curse of Agni (fire-god). The fact that an elephant cannot be aware of its own inherent strength and that its scrotum lies hidden within its body—these two should be known as resulting from the curse of the Suras.

353b-354. Elephants of diverse inborn strength are born of the daughters of Devas, Dānavas, Gandharvas, Piśācas, serpents and Rākṣasas.through their union with the Diṅnāgas (elephants of the quarters). Hence is the existence, nativity and etymological derivation of their names. This should be understood.1

355-356a. The king of these (elephants) is Abhramu. It should be understood that the habitat of Añjana of a single tusk (Ekamūla?) is that forest region north of the Kauśikī and the Gaṅgā extending as far as the ocean.

356b-357a. The region to the north of the Vindhya and south of the Gaṅgā along with the Keru (Kāruṣa) region where the Gaṅgā bifurcates the domain of Supratīka.

357b-358a. The region west of Utkala and the area west of the Kāverī is remembered as the forest of Vāmana son of Ekasūkā (?)

358b-359a. The region west of the Lohita, the area west of the river Sindhu as far as the mountain nearby is mentioned as the forest of Padma.

359b-370. Bhūtā gave birth to the Bhūtas (goblins) who are the attendants and followers of Rudra. They are (i.e. the following are their various characteristic features) stout, lean, tail, dwarfs, short ones, upright ones, those with hanging ears, those with suspended lips, those with long dangling tongues, those with small bellies, single-eyed, ugly ones, those with hanging hips, those with stout calves, black ones, white (fair) ones, blue ones, white-faced ones, red-faced ones, those of tawny colour, those of assorted colours, smoke-coloured ones, those who have reddish noses, those with hairs like Muñja grass, those with hairs standing on. ends, those with serpents as their sacred thread, those with many heads, those with no feet, those with a single head, those with no heads, fierce ones, hideous ones of disproportionate limbs, those with matted hairs, hump-backed ones, crooked ones, those of dwarfish stature, those who resort to excellent lakes, oceans, mountains, rivers and their banks, those with single ear, those with large ears, spike-eared ones, those with no ear, those with curved fangs, those with claws, those without teeth, those without tongues, those with, single hand, those with two hands, those with three hands, those without hands, those with a single leg, those with two legs, those with three legs, those with many legs, those with great Yogic power, those with great inherent might, those with very good minds, those with great power, those who can go anywhere, those who have no obstacles, those having the knowledge of Brahman, those who can assume any form they wish, terrible ones, cruel ones, pure ones, those who consider liquor very pure, very virtuous ones, those with false teeth, those with big tongues, those without hair, those with deformed faces, those who eat with their hands, those who gulp down with their mouths, those who eat with heads (?) those with skulls, those having bows, those who wield hammers, those who hold swords and spears, those who have only the quarters for their clothes (i.e; naked ones), those with variegated dresses, those with garlands and unguents of diverse kinds, those who take in rice, those who habitually eat meat, those who drink liquor and those who drink Soma juice.

371. Some of them are very terrible and they walk about during twilight hours; some of them are very gentle and they walk about during the midnight, the terrible ones among them stalk at night.

372. All of them meditate upon lord Bhava as the greatest God, in their minds. None of these has a wife or sons. All of them are celibate. They have sublimated their sexual instinct.

373. There are hundred thousand Bhūtas with yogic powers in their souls. They are the attendants of Bhava.

(Thus) all the Bhūtas[24] have been mentioned.

374. Kūṣmāṇḍas[25] were born of Kapiśā again and again in the form of twins. They are Piśācas with tawny colour.

375. On account of their tawny colour (we can infer) that all the Piśācas are flesh-eaters. These pairs (of Piśācas) have the Ṣoḍaśa (sixteen) variety as their first set. Their family exists (even today).

376-380. I shall mention their names and the features of their family. (The following are the sixteen pairs,[26] one male and the other female) Chagala and Chagalā; Vakra and Vakramukhī, Duṣpūra and Pūraṇā; Sūcī and Sūcīmukha; Vipāda and Vipādī; Jvālā and Aṅgāraka; Kumbhapātra and Kumbhī, Pratunda and Pratundikā, Upavīra and Vīrā; Ulūkhala and Ulūkhalī; Akarmaka and Karmakī; Kuṣaṇḍa and Kuṣaṇḍikā; Pāṇipātra Pāṇipātrī; Pāṃśu and Pāṃśumatī; Nitunda and Nitundī; Nipuṇa and Nipuṇī; Bālāda and Keṣaṇādī and Praskanda and Skandikā.

381-383. The sixteen[27] groups of the Piśācas are mentioned. The sixteen families are, viz:—Ajāmukhas, Vakramukhas, Pūraṇas, Skandins, Vipādas, Aṅgārikas, Kumbhapatras, Pratuṇḍakas, Upavīras, Ulukhalikas, Akarmakas, Kuṣaṇḍikas, Pāṃśus, Pāṇipātras, Naituṇḍas, Nipuṇas, Sūcimukhas and Uccheṣaṇadas. These are the sixteen families.

384. Thus the members of the families of Kūṣmāṇḍas have been recounted. Those male Piśācas and the female Piśācas are born in the family.

385. Infinite is their series of sons and grandsons. They are loathsome and hideous. Henceforth understand the characteristic features of those Piśācas.

386. Those Piśācas[28] called Ajāmukhas have hairs all over their body. Their eyes are round. They have curved fanglike teeth and clawlike nails. Their limbs are crooked and oblique. They diffuse harshness.

387. The Piśācas called Kuṣaṇḍikas have no ear. They are devoid of hair and garments. They (sometimes) wear skins and hides as garments. They are fond of food that always consists of meat.

388. It should be known that Piśācas called Vakras can assume any form they wish. They walk crookedly. All their limbs, hands and feet are bent and crooked. Their habits and opinions are fradulent.

389. The Piśācas called Nituṇḍakas are portly and potbellied. They have snout-like noses. Their bodies, heads and arms are very short. Their staple diet is gingelly seeds. They relish blood.

390. The Piśācas called Arkamarkas (or Akarmakas as in V. 379 above) have the forms of monkeys. They are garrulous. They move about leaping and galloping. They are fond of eating cooked rice and staying on trees.

391. The Piśācas called Pāṃśus discharge dust from their limbs. They keep their arms lifted up. Their hairs stand up erect. Their eyes appear as though they have been taken out. They take to anything as their abode.

392. The Piśācas called Upavīras have their permanent abode in burning grounds. They resemble bees. They are dry. They are armed with tridents and wear bark garments.

393. The Piśācas called Ulūkhalas have motionless eyes and large tongues with which they constantly lick the sides of their mouth. Mortars constitute their ornaments. They are roguish. They scatter jewels as if in a continuous stream.

394. The Piśācas called Pāṇipātras have the oblations offered by people as their food. They have stout heads like those of elephants and camels. Their calves are plump and curved.

395. The Piśācas called Kumbhapātras eat invisible foodstuffs. They are subtle, hairy and tawny-coloured. They walk about sometimes visible and sometimes invisible.

396. The Piśācas called Nipuṇas move about without associates (i.e. singly). Their mouths appear to be divided extending upto their ears. Their brows hang down and their noses are thick.

397. The Piśācas called Pūraṇas are fond of vacant horses and apartments. They, are stout and short in stature. Their hands and feet cover up their snouts. Their eyes are directed towards the ground.

398. The Piśācas called Bālādas frequently resort to the lying-in-chamber. Their hands and feet are directed backwards. They have the velocity of the wind and they run backwards.

399. The Piśācas called Vipādakas drink blood during battles. They are naked. They don’t have any abode. Their penis, scrotum and the calves hang down dangling.

400. The Piśācas called Skandins and others called Uccheṣaṇādins (those who habitually eat food remnants) are also to be known. Thus the sixteen varieties of Piśācas have been recounted.

401-406a.[29] Observing the Piśācas of these sorts in such a pathetic condition, Brahmā, out of mercy and sympathy, granted some boons to those mean-minded ones. They can vanish among the subjects (i.e. common people). They can assume any form they wish. They can move about at dawn and dusk (the two periods of twilight). He assigned to them abodes as well as means of sustenance. Houses that tumble down, vacant houses, houses with very little water, houses that are demolished, houses occupied by persons of improper conduct, houses that have not been swept, houses that have not been scrubbed clean and smeared (with cowdung); houses that are devoid of consecratory rites, the highways, the side-streets, the parks, the quadrangles, doorways, the attics and upper storeys, the exits, transit passages, roadways, rivers, holy centres, the trees in chapels and monasteries and trunk roads—(these are assigned as their abodes by Brahmā). The Piśācas occupy all these spots.

406b-408. Persons devoid of virtue and righteousness have been laid down as their means of sustenance by the gods. The Piśācas are the presiding deities where (fraudulent) activities are pursued by the people of mixed castes and stages of life, blacksmiths, sculptors and other artisans who indulge in fraudulent means and (illegal) distillation (of liquors), thieves, traitors guilty of breach of trust and many others who (wish to) earn by illegitimate means.

409-410. The following are mentioned as the oblations and offerings to these during the junctions of Parvans (i.e. dawn, dusk etc.) of festival days (viz—honey, liquor, meat, cooked rice mixed with curd, powdered gingelly seeds, wines and other intoxicating beverages, incenses, cakes made of turmeric powder, food-stuff's made of gingelly seeds and cooked rice mixed with jaggery, black cloth and continuous (permanent) incense mixed with flowers.1

411. After assigning all these to the Piśācas, Brahmā gave all the goblins and Piśācas an overlord viz—the trident-bearing Giriśa.

412. The beautiful lady, Damṣṭrā gave birth to lions and tigers as her sons. Leppards and other carnivorus beasts of prey are also her sons.

413. Understand completely the creation of progeny of Ṛṣā also. She had five daughters. Listen to their names from me.

414. They should be known as follows:—Mīnā, Amīnā, Vṛttā, Parivṛttā and Anuvṛttā. Listen to their progeny.

415. Crocodiles with thousand fangs, the species of fish known as Pāṭhīnas, Timis and Rohitas, these and others are mentioned as Maina group (i.e. children of Mīnā). They are very vast (in number).

416. Grahas (Alligators) should be known classified into four groups viz—Madguras, Śaṅkus, Ugras and Śiśumāras. It was Amīnā who gave birth to these.

417. Vṛttā gave birth to (different species of) tortoises and many other aquatic creatures and diverse kinds of conchs.

418. Anuvṛttā gave birth to the various forms of frogs, of black does and Śambūkas (bivalve shells and noxious insects).

419-420. Parivṛttā gave birth to various products of oyster shells, cowrie shells, conchs, geese, sparrows and varieties of leeches.

Thus the race of Ṛṣā with its five branches has been recounted.

421. They say that there is an extensive line of living beings procreated by Tiryā. They are the products of sweat (or warm vapour).

422. O Brāhmaṇas, lice, nits etc are born of the bodies moistened by sweat. The creatures called Uśana are born of the dirt and residue of human sweat.

423. There are many groups of ants of different species; there are worms with many feet; there are varieties of products of conchs and stones smaller than pins.

424. These and others are the numerous groups of earthly (creatures) born of sweat. Many of these creatures are born of waters heated by the sun etc. as well as from rain.

425-426. Many of them are born of the bodies of deer and other animals also. The flies and other slimy creatures are born of slimy marshy regions. The Tittiris (? Partridges) and Puttikas (white ants) are born of dirt. They are blue and variegated in colours. They are vast and extensive (in number). These creatures are born of waters as well as sweat.

427. The creatures Naladas (? varieties of shrimps) of many feet are the worms born of the water stagnating near the roots of the Kāśa grass. They are stated to be of three kinds—Siṃhalas, Romalas (hairy) and Picchilas (Slimy).

428. These and other groups and species are remembered as born of water as well as sweat. Similarly, worms are born from the pods of black gram and green gram and other pulses.

429-430. Creatures are born of the fruits Bilva, Jambū (Rose apple), Āmra (mango), and Pūga (areca palm). They are born of green gram, jack tree and rice. They are born of grains placed in the hollows of trees and allowed to dry there. They are born of other things also but not always or even for a long time.

431. Creatures are born of horses etc. and poisons etc. If cowdung is put (into pits etc) and left there for many days creatures are born of it.

432. Worms are born, O Brāhmaṇas, wholly from timber and wooden logs. Scorpions are born of dry cowdung, produced by sweat.

433-435. Creatures are born of cows, buffaloes and other animals. They are born of fishes too. Creatures of diverse kinds are born of heaped rice. Various species of creatures are born of the pack of quails etc. Similarly, leeches and other subtle species of creatures are born. Subtle Śūkas (poisonous insects) are born of pigeons and ospreys and other birds too. Other species of worms are born as the products of flies.

436. Offsprings of mosquitoes and black bees generally live in stagnating water and slushy mud.

437. Clusters of seven varieties of nits (? Puttikā-Putra saptakas) are born of cows. (Defective text). Vyālas (? serpents) are remembered as Maṇicchedas (?). Thus insects produced from foetus with no enveloping membrane have been recounted.

438-439. Indeed, the offshoots of Śataveri (? sorrel) are born of dry cow-dung. Thus the numerous groups of Saṃsvedaja (i.e. born of sweat) have been succinctly mentioned by me. This is remembered as being born as a result of acts in the previous birth. As for the other beings born of Nairṛti they are remembered as upasargajas (born of paroxyson due to poison by devils).

440-441. Some Bhūtas (living beings) are born of the womb (sexual reproduction). Some are remembered as Autpattikas (?) It should be known that almost all the Devas arc usually Upapattijas. Some Devas are born of the womb. Some Devas are born of some cause.

Saramā gave birth to two sons viz.—Dullolaka and Laloha.

442-443. The four ones Sṛmara and others should be known as their children.

Dullola’s eight children are Śyāmas (dark-coloured), Śabalas (of variegated colours), Lohitas (red), Añjanas (black as collyrium), Kṛṣṇa (black), Dhūmra (smoke-coloured), Aruṇa (pink in colour) and Kadrukas (tawny-coloured).

Surasā gave birth to the hundred serpents having more than one head.

444-447. Takṣaka is the king of Sarpas (variety of serpents). Vāsuki is the king of Nāgas (snakes).

Thus this set belonging to the family of Krodhavaśā is mostly of Tāmasa quality.

This is the bosom creation of Pulaha, Understand (the creation) of Tāmrā.

Six well known daughters were born of Tāmrā. Viz.—Gṛdhrī, Bhāsī, Śukī, Krauñcī, Śyenī and Dhṛtarāṣṭrikā.

From Aruṇa, Gṛdhrī gave birth to two sons of great strength and vitality, viz.—Sampāti and Jaṭāyu the most excellent ones among birds.

Vijayas, Dvirāsyas and Prasahas (?) were the sons of Sampāti.

448-454. Jaṭāyu’s sons are the herons, Vultures, Karṇikas (? variety of vultures).

The wives of Garuḍa were the other five viz.—Bhāsī[?], Krauñcī, Śukī, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī and Śyenī. I shall recount to you the children born of them.

Śukī gave birth to six well reputed sons of Garuḍa, viz—Sukha, Sunetra, Viśikha, Surūpa, Surasa and Bala. Their sons and grandsons number fourteen thousand. They are noble-souled and very great devourers of snakes. A number of places have been pervaded (inhabited) by them because of the expansion of the race, due to the creation of sons and grandsons. I shall mention them in due order. They are—the whole of Śālmali Dvīpa, the mountain Devakūṭa, Maṇimanta, the lord of mountains with a thousand peaks, Varṇamāla, Sukeśa the mountain with a hundred peaks, the Kaurara with five peaks and the mountain Hemakūṭa. The peaks of these mountains have been thickly inhabited by those noble-souled sons of Garuḍa who have the velocity of violent gusts of the wind and who shine brilliantly due to numerous rubies.

455-456. The following are remembered as the sons of Bhāsī Viz.—Bhāsas (vultures), owls, crows, cocks, peacocks doves, partridges, different types of birds of prey such as Vādhrīṇasa, Krauñca, Śyena, sparrows and cranes and also other birds that eat flesh.

457-460. Dhṛtarāṣṭrī, the beautiful lady, gave birth to swans of various types, the ruddy geese and all types of aquatic birds.

O excellent Brāhmaṇas, Śyenī gave birth to a number of sons. Her sons and grandsons are infinite in number. The sons of Garuḍa have been mentioned. Now listen to the progeny of Irā.

Irā gave birth to three lotus-eyed daughters. They became the mothers of plants, trees and creepers. They were Latā, Alatā and Vīrudhā.

461-462. Latā gave birth to plants that bore fruits through flowers. Alatā gave birth to big trees that bear fruits by means of blossoms.

The children of Vīrudhā are hedges, creepers, winding plants, grasses and varieties of bamboos. The race stops here.

463. These scions of the family of Kaśyapa consisting of the mobile and immobile beings, have been explained. The whole universe is stretched (i.e. thickly covered) with their sons and grandsons.

464-465a. This part of a section of creation has been mentioned by me. The Creative activity pertaining to Marīci’s son (i.e. Kaśyapa) has been succinctly recounted to you.

It is impossible to explain (the creation) in full detail even in hundreds of years.

465b-466. Aditi was habitually righteous. Diti was habitually strong.

Surabhi was habitually a performer of austere penance. Danu habitually practised Māyā (whichcraft and magic of illusion). Muni habitually smelt fragrant things. Krodhā was habitually studious.

467. Ariṣṭā habitually indulged in singing. Khaśā habitually followed cruel pursuits. Kadrū was habitually fiery in temper (and indulged in angry outbursts). Krodhā habitually-engaged herself in cleanliness.

468. Vinatā was habituated to moving about on vehicles. Tāmrā habitually indulged in slaughter. Irā was obliging in nature (and indulged in activities of blessing). Anāyu was engaged in eating.

469-470. These were the habits of all those Lokamātṛs (mothers of the worlds). The sons of lord Kaśyapa were more or less like their respective mothers since their birth. In virtue, habit, intellect forbearance, beauty of form, and strength, they closely resembled their mothers. They were righteous or otherwise (on the same basis). They had Rajas, Sattva and Tamas qualities predominant in them (as mothers).

471. They were Devas, Asuras, Gandharvas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, serpents, Piśācas, animals, deer birds and creepers.

472-473. Since the Devas and others were born of the daughters of Dakṣa who were human beings, they know that Devas and others have their source of origin in human beings.

Since the entire birth of the Devas is in human beings in all the Manvantaras, human beings are the most excellent ones.

474-475. Men are those who aspire for virtue, wealth, love and salvation, Therefrom are born Suras and Asuras who are the category Arvāksrotas (in whom current of nutriment flows downward). They are born among human beings again and again for the achievement of specific objects. Thus the origin of the different races has been enumerated in detail.

476-478. The (story) of Suras, Asuras, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, Piśācas, Garuḍa, serpents, birds, tigers, peacocks, herbs, worms, insects, locusts, minute creatures aquatic beings, animals, and glorious Brāhmaṇas, is characterised by merit. It causes prosperity. It contributes to welfare and happiness. It must be heard always and comprehended by persons devoid of malice and jealousy.

479. He who regularly reads about the race of the noble souls in the honoured assembly of Brāhmaṇas attains good progeny, plenty of wealth and splendid goal after death.”

Footnotes and references:

1.

VV. 1-29 enumerate the children of Muni, viz the clans of Gandharvas and the 14 groups of Apsaras with their sub-groups like Laukika, celestial, their kins and descendants. It is note-worthy that ten Apsaras were the expounders of Brahman and were Pañcacūḍas (having five plaits of hair). Apsaras born of different gods are enumerated in VV 20-24.

2.

For Bd.P. text V.26b and 27a. Vā. P. 69-63 reads:

Saṃprayoge tu kāntena mādyanti madirāṃ vinā /
Tāsām āpyāyate sparśād ānandaśca vivardhate //

“When contacted by (their) lover, they become inebriated and inflamed with passion without (embibing) spirituous liquor. By their very touch one feels satisfaction and the joy enhances”.

30b is obscure. For: Vyavahāryāṇi sarvāṇi ṛju-sannihitāni ca but Vā.P. 69.67 reads:—Havyavāhāni sarvāṇi dikṣu sannihitāni ca. “Fires are deposited in all quarters.”

3.

VV. 31-37 enumerate the children of Kadru viz. serpents.

4.

VV. 38-72 describe how the clans of Yakṣas and Rākṣasas came into being from Khaśā.

5.

Vā.P. 69. reads: Mātulaṃ bhajate putraḥ, Pitṛn bhajati kanyakā. “The son takes after his maternal uncle while the daughter does so after the father.”

6.

Etymology of Yakṣa and Rākṣasa.

7.

Vā.P. 69.111 states that Indra gave them boon of not killing and kept them.

8.

VV. 73-101 describe the marital relation between Piśācas and Rākṣasas and their progeny out of 8 forms of marriage. Paiśāca is the lowest form.

9.

Vidyut and Sphūrja are given as separate persons in verse 95 below. But then the number of Yātudhānā’s sons becomes eleven and not ten.

10.

VV. 101-131 describe the progeny of Semi-divine clans Yakṣas, Puṇyajanas, Guhyakas.

11.

Vide V. 15 above.

12.

VV. 132-151 enumerate the leading figures in Rākṣasa clans such as Ālambeya, Kāpileyas and others (born from Khaśā’s daughters). Some clans are followers of god Śiva.

13.

152-166 enumerate the different clans of Bhūmi-Rākṣasas and of Kaumāra Grahas.

14.

VV. 166-170 describe the gradations (in descending order) of the divine and semi-divine beings.

(i) Devas and Asuras.
(ii) Gandharvas and Apsaras.
(iii) Guhyakas (Yakṣas) and Rākṣasas.
(iv) Piśācas.

15.

VV. 171-179 describe the creation of the animal-world through the daughters of Krodhā.

16.

VV. 185-273 give again the special treatment of Vānaras (monkeys) in 319-323. It shows the influence of Rāmāyaṇa as the history of Vāli and Sugrīva is narrated succinctly here.

17.

Arbuda—One hundred millions.

18.

Nikharva—One thousand millions.

19.

Padma—One thousand billions.

20.

This explains how the sun came to be called Mārtaṇḍa.

21.

299-304 enumerate the important members of the Species of bears.

22.

VV. 324-358 describe the different types of elephants, their characteristics and their favourite haunts.

23.

VV. 349-351 give the etymologies of various names of the elephants.

24.

Belief in goblins and the concepts about their 16 tribes are described in VV. 359-373.

25.

374-384 describe the goblins called Kūṣmāṇḍas. They are mixed up with Piśācas.

26.

Actually eighteen pairs are mentioned.

27.

As above, eighteen groups of Piśācas arc given here.

28.

VV. 386-400 describe the various tribes of Piśācas mentioned in VV. 381-383 above.

29.

VV. 401-411 describe the then current superstitions about Piśācas.

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