Acara, Ācāra, Acārā, Ācaṟa: 32 definitions
Acara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Achara.
Images (photo gallery)
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Ācāra (आचार) refers to “good conduct”. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Ācāra (आचार) refers to “(worldly) conventions”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.39 (“The gods arrive at Kailāsa”).—Accordingly: “[...] Lord Śiva thus requested by Viṣṇu, and being himself eager to follow worldly conventions (laukika-ācāra-nirata) performed the same duly. Authorised by Him, I performed all the rites conducive to prosperity, assisted by the sages. The sages [...], and other sages came to Śiva. Urged by me they performed the sacred rites duly. All of them who had mastered the Vedas and Vedāṅgas performed the safety rites for Śiva and tied the auspicious thread round his wrist. [...]”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Ācāra (आचार).—A Gandharva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 11.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Ācāra (आचार).—Customary usage of putting or employing words in rules; cf. आचार्याचारात्संज्ञासिद्धिः (ācāryācārātsaṃjñāsiddhiḥ), P.I,1.1, Vārt. 4.
2) Ācāra.—Behaviour;cf. उपमानादाचारे (upamānādācāre) P.III. 1.10; cf also निवासत आचारतश्च (nivāsata ācārataśca) M.Bh. on VI.3.109.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Ācāra (आचार):—A customary conduct which is to be followed in accordance with various prescribed rules in various contexts.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Ācāra (आचार) refers to the “observance (according to śruti and smṛti)”, according to Kṣemarāja’s commentary on the Svacchandatantra verse 4.85.—Accordingly, “The mundane path is the observance (ācāra) according to śruti and smṛti. The sacred rites [consist of] such actions as bathing at a sacred site and giving away food. The meritorious acts are [the donations and setting up of] such things as wells, tanks and monasteries for ascetics”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Ācāra (आचार) or Prakriyā refers to the “practice” (e.g., practice of Tantra, Kaula).—The Tantric paradigm presents itself in the Sanskrit sources in two modalities that came to be called Tantric (tantrācāra) and Kaula (tantraprakriyā). Broadly speaking, the former in relationship to the latter is milder. The deities tend to assume a gentle form. [...] The Kaula, on the contrary, is ‘fierce’ and energetic. The main deities generally have fierce or ‘erotic’ forms, as do their attendants. Female forms are generally dominant.
2) Acārā (अचारा) refers to “unmoving”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] The seventh place (attained) by abandoning the six (Wheels) is repose, the union of (all) seven (states) [i.e., saptamelaka]. It is the abode (of all things) and supreme bliss. (The first of all, it is like) the letter A, it is Śiva’s consciousness [i.e., śivacinmaya]. Then that energy of action is the New Moon, the unmoving (acārā) and final (energy of the Moon)”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch
Acara (अचर) refers to “unmoving (things)”, according to the Viṣṇudharma verse 96.1 and 4.—Accordingly, “O Brahmin, you mentioned that this Brahma is eternal and from it this whole world [consisting of] moving and unmoving (acara) [things] arose [...]. Therefore, how could the [ever-changing] world arise from the eternal and omnipresent [Brahma], which is free from transformation and even devoid of quality?”.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (Advaita Vedanta)
Acara (अचर) refers to “whatever is motionless”, according to the Māṇḍūkyopaniṣatkārikā 3.31-32.—Accordingly, while discussing duality and mental activity: “All this duality which is [comprising of] whatever is moving and motionless (acara) is [just] a visible object of the mind. For when [the state of] no-mind of mind [arises], duality is not perceived. [Why is this?] When the mind does not conceptualize because [one has] realized the truth of the self, then, it goes to the state of no mind. Therefore, in the absence of perceivable objects, there is no perception [of duality]”.
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
Ācāra (आचार) refers to “right action”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Then, the bodhisatva, the great being, Gaganagañja addressed himself to the Lord: [...] (36) [How do the Bodhisattvas] know the way of right action and behaviour (ācāra-cāritra), obtain the light being freed from darkness, understand the self-originated knowledge, not being dependent on any other, and speedily attain the gnosis of omniscience from the great vehicle? [...]’”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Acara (अचर) refers to the fifth of the “ten wrathful ones” (daśakrodha) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 11). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., daśa-krodha and Acara). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra
Ācāra (आचार) refers to one of the twelve limbs of the internal-corpus (aṅga-praviṣṭa). The Aṅgapraviṣṭa refers to one of the two types of scriptural knowledge (śruta), which refers to one of the five types of knowledge (jñāna). according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.20, “scriptural knowledge (śruta) preceded by sensory knowledge (mati) is of two, or of twelve (e.g., ācāra) or of many kinds”.Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Acara (अचर) refers to “immobile” (beings), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The doctrine protects all [beings] that are mobile and immobile (cara-acara) with regard to the occurrence of misfortune. It also comforts [them] completely with a stream of the liquid ambrosia of happiness. The rain clouds, wind, sun, moon, earth, ocean and Indra—those, which are protected by the doctrine, are of service to the whole world”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Ācāra.—(IE 8-5; EI 30), a custom or customary law. (EI 20), religious practice, being regarded as five in number. Cf. navanavaty-ācāreṇa (LP), ‘99 per cent’, i. e. ‘cer- tainly’. Note: ācāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
ācāra : (m.) conduct; behaviour; practice.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Ācāra, (ā + car) way of behaving, conduct, practice, esp. right conduct, good manners; adj. (-°) practising, indulging in, or of such & such a conduct. — Sn.280 (pāpa°); J.I, 106 (vipassana°); II, 280 (°ariya); VI, 52 (ariya°); SnA 157; PvA.12 (sīla°), 36, 67, 252; Sdhp.441. —an° bad behaviour Vin.II, 118 (°ṃ ācarati indulge in bad habits); DhA.II, 201 (°kiriyā). Cp. sam°.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
acara (अचर).—a (S) Fixed, stationary, not locomotive.
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ācāra (आचार).—m (S) Conduct conformable to the śruti & smṛti (religious and legal institutes). Pr. dōna prahara ā0 nantara anācāra (All religious exactness up to 12 o'clock; then all licentiousness.) Used where one rigidly pays his devotions and performs the appointed rites, and then gives himself up to sensual indulgence. According to some, the observance of the prescribed religious duties, if accomplished before noon, is ācāra; if postponed until the afternoon, is but anā- cāra. 2 Conduct or deportment gen. 3 Endless compounds are formed: as kulācāra, dēśācāra, vṛddhācāra, lōkācāra, śiṣṭācāra, sadācāra, kadācāra, durācāra. Also ācāra-prāpta-yukta-śīla-priya-vēttā- or jña, ācārānugata, ācārānurūpa &c. Many are valuable; and those of less obvious signification will occur in order.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
acara (अचर).—a Fixed.
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ācāra (आचार).—m Conduct conformable to śruti and smṛti.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Immovable; चराचरं विश्वम् (carācaraṃ viśvam) Kumārasambhava 2.5. चराणामन्नमचराः (carāṇāmannamacarāḥ) Manusmṛti 5.29.
2) (Astr.) Epithet of the zodiacal signs वृषभ, सिंह, वृश्चिक (vṛṣabha, siṃha, vṛścika) and कुम्भ (kumbha),
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Ācāra (आचार).—[ācāra-bhāve ghañ]
1) Conduct, behaviour, manner of action or of conducting oneself; सदाचारः (sadācāraḥ) good conduct; नीच° (nīca°) &c.; लोकाचारविवर्जिताः (lokācāravivarjitāḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.4 ignorant of the ways of the world.
2) Good conduct or behaviour; न शौचं नापि चाचारो न सत्यं तेषु विद्यते (na śaucaṃ nāpi cācāro na satyaṃ teṣu vidyate) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 16.7; Manusmṛti 1.19,5.4,3.165.
3) A custom, usage, practice; तस्मिन्देशे य आचारः पारंपर्यक्रमागतः (tasmindeśe ya ācāraḥ pāraṃparyakramāgataḥ) Manusmṛti 2.18; Y. 1.343.
4) An established usage, fixed rule of conduct in life, customary law, institute or precept (opp. vyavahāra in law); आचार्य आचाराणाम् (ācārya ācārāṇām) K.56; Manusmṛti 1.19; oft. as the first member of comp. in the sense of 'customary', 'usual', 'as is the custom', 'according to form', 'as a formality'; °पुष्पग्रहणार्थम् (puṣpagrahaṇārtham) M.4; see °धूम, °लाज (dhūma, °lāja) below; परिकर्मन् (parikarman) Ś.2.
5) (a) Any customary observance or duty; °प्रयतः (prayataḥ) V.3.2; गृहाचारव्यपदेशेन (gṛhācāravyapadeśena) Uttararāmacarita 3. (b) A form, formality; आचार इत्यवहितेन मया गृहीता (ācāra ityavahitena mayā gṛhītā) Ś.5.3; Mv.3.26. (c) The customary salutation or bow, usual formality; आचारं प्रतिपद्यस्व (ācāraṃ pratipadyasva) Ś.4; V.2; अविषयस्तावदाचारस्य (aviṣayastāvadācārasya) Mv.2.
7) A rule (of conduct).
Derivable forms: ācāraḥ (आचारः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Acāra (अचार).—probably m.c. for Sanskrit acara, unchanging, constant: acāra-cārikāṃ, unchanging (constant) course (of the Buddha, for countless aeons) Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 5.13 (verse). To be sure there is a Sanskrit noun cāra, movement, of which this might be a compound with a-; but no such [compound] is recorded in Sanskrit or MIndic.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. An established rule of conduct, an ordinance, an institute, a precept. 2. Custom, practice, usage. E. āṅ before car to go, ghañ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ācāra (आचार).—i. e. ā-car + a, m. 1. Rule of conduct, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 69. 2. Good custom, good conduct, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 6, 16. 3. Conduct, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 10, 24. 4. Sacred usage, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 10. 5. Use, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 100. 6. Rule. Mahābhārata 3, 166.
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Acara (अचर).—adj., 1. immoveable, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 29. 2. not to be trodden, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 12302.
Acara is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms a and cara (चर).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Acara (अचर).—[adjective] immovable, firm.
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Ācāra (आचार).—[masculine] conduct, (good) behaviour; custom, usage, ordinance, institute; [ablative] in tas.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Acara (अचर):—[=a-cara] or a-carat ([Ṛg-veda]) mfn. immovable.
2) [v.s. ...] impassable, [Harivaṃśa]
3) Ācara (आचर):—[=ā-cara] [from ā-car] See dur-ācara.
4) Ācāra (आचार):—[=ā-cāra] [from ā-car] a m. (ifc. f(ā). , [Yājñavalkya i, 87, etc.]) conduct, manner of action, behaviour, good behaviour, good conduct, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
5) [v.s. ...] custom, practice, usage, traditional or immemorial usage (as the foundation of law), [ib.]
6) [v.s. ...] an established rule of conduct, ordinance, institute, precept
7) [v.s. ...] a rule or line, [Mahābhārata iii, 166]
8) [v.s. ...] = ācārika below, [Suśruta]
9) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) agreeing with what is taught by the teacher, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
10) [=ā-cāra] b etc. See ā-√car.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Acara (अचर):—[tatpurusha compound] m. f. n.
(-raḥ-rā-ram) Immoveable. E. a and cara.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ācāra (आचार):—[ā-cāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Precept; conduct.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Acara (अचर) [Also spelled achar]:—(a) immovable; constant, invariable; (nm) an invariant, invariable.
2) Acāra (अचार) [Also spelled achar]:—(nm) pickles: —[ḍālanā] lit. to prepare pickles, said while aiming scoffs at unwarranted preservation or saving of a thing.
3) Ācāra (आचार) [Also spelled aachar]:—(nm) conduct; custom, practice; ethos; behaviour; ~[bhraṣṭa] fallen, degenerated, debased; ~[vāna] of good conduct, virtuous;-[vicāra] manners and morals; -[vyavahāra] conduct and character; ~[hīna] characterless, immoral; hence ~[hīnatā] (nf).
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
Acara (अचर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Acara.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
Acara (ಅಚರ):—[adjective] not moving; stationary.
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1) [noun] that which does not move; an inert object.
2) [noun] (math.) an expression or a quantity that is unaltered by a particular procedure; an invariant.
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1) [noun] the keeping of or acting according to, a law, duty, custom, ceremony; an established usage; a custom observed or to be observed.
2) [noun] a rule of religious life.
3) [noun] a good conduct, behaviour or manner.
4) [noun] ಆಚಾರವಿಚಾರ [acaravicara] ācāra vicāra (pl.) religious or social conventions collectively, carried on by tradition and enforced by social disapproval of any violation; customs; ಆಚಾರ ಹೇಳುವುದು, ಬದನೆಕಾಯಿ ತಿನ್ನುವುದು [acara heluvudu, badanekayi tinnuvudu] ācāra hēḷuvudu, badane kāyi tinnuvdu they talk like philosopher, but live like fools; ಆಚಾರಕೆಟ್ಟರೂ ಆಕಾರ ಕೆಡಬಾರದು [acarakettaru akara kedabaradu] ācāra keṭtarū ākāra keḍabāradu having become corrupt, at least enjoy the benefit of corruption.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+116): Acara-patra, Acara-sthiti-patra, Acarababu, Acarabheda, Acarabhrashta, Acarabhrashtate, Acarabhrashte, Acarabhrashti, Acaracakrin, Acaracandrika, Acaracandrodaya, Acaracarin, Acaracarini, Acaracaritra, Acaracaturdashiparishishta, Acaracintamani, Acaradarpana, Acaradarsha, Acaradarshana, Acaradarshika.
Ends with (+478): Abhinnacara, Abhracara, Abhyacara, Abhyagatacara, Acarapacara, Adaraupacara, Adayacara, Adhakacara, Adhamacara, Adhyacara, Adhyaksha-pracara, Adityacara, Adyacara, Aganitacara, Agastyacara, Agracara, Ahnikacara, Ajjacara, Ajjhacara, Ambaracara.
Full-text (+304): Duracara, Acarahina, Acaracakrin, Acarabhrashta, Acarabheda, Shishtacara, Acaravedi, Acaramaya, Acaravinan, Acaranga, Acaravarjjita, Kadacara, Atyacara, Acarakkallan, Acaraviruddha, Acaravarjita, Acaravyapeta, Acaramayukha, Acaravat, Acaradipa.
Search found 68 books and stories containing Acara, Ācāra, Acāra, Ā-cara, Ācara, A-cara, Acārā, Ā-cāra, Ācaṟa; (plurals include: Acaras, Ācāras, Acāras, caras, Ācaras, Acārās, cāras, Ācaṟas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.1.42 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya (renunciation)]
Verse 2.3.171 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
Verse 2.3.144 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 10.54.2 < [Sukta 54]
Rig Veda 1.187.3 < [Sukta 187]
Rig Veda 1.114.3 < [Sukta 114]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 13.16 < [Chapter 13 - Prakṛti-puruṣa-vibhāga-yoga]
Verse 16.7 < [Chapter 16 - Daivāsura-sampada-yoga]
Verse 14.21 < [Chapter 14 - Guṇa-traya-vibhāga-yoga]
Atithi or Guest Reception (study) (by Sarika. P.)
Part 5 - Major Dharmaśāstra works < [Chapter 5 - The Dharmaśāstra Literature]
Part 6 - Content of Dharmaśāstras < [Chapter 5 - The Dharmaśāstra Literature]
Part 8 - Nibandhas (digests) < [Chapter 5 - The Dharmaśāstra Literature]
Animal Kingdom (Tiryak) in Epics (by Saranya P.S)
Hanuman Nataka (critical study) (by Nurima Yeasmin)