Tamra, Tāmra, Tāmrā: 23 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Tamra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Tāmra (ताम्र, “Copper”) is the name for a variation of ‘metal’ (dhātu/loha) from the sub-group named Pūtiloha, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra.

Copper has 2 variations on its own:

  1. nepālaja (obtained from Nepāla-deśa, modern Nepal),
  2. mlecchaja (obtained from places other than Nepāla-deśa).
Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Tamra refers to “copper”. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5

Copper (Tāmra) is of two types:

  1. Nepālaja
  2. and Mlecchaja.

Tāmra-bhasma used in one valla dose internally cures pariṇāma-śūla, aṣṭavidha-udara-rogas, pāṇḍu-roga, śopha-roga, gulma-roga, plīha-roga, yakṛdjanya-roga, agnisāda (mandāgni), kṣayaja-roga, prameha and gradaṇī etc. and many diseases with different anupānas.

Generally Tāmra-bhasma is advised for internal use mixed with pippalī-cūrṇa and madhu. And as such it can destroy all the doṣas and the diseases produced by these. Specially copper bhasma may destroy arśas, ajīrṇajanya-rogas and jvara-rogas etc. It may also prove very good in destroying bṛddhi-roga, śvasana-janya-rogas and various types of kāsas. It is a best Rasāyana and prevents/destroys jarā and mṛtyu (senile diseases and death).

Source: PMC: Therapeutic potentials of metals in ancient India

Tamra (Copper) is another ancient metal known to human civilization. Charaka uses the term Arka in a few places which Chakrapani clarifies as synonymous with Tamra. According to the descriptions of Rasa in Vagbhata Ref. there are two forms of Tamra viz. Nepaliya and Mlechha, only the former being acceptable. Samples with characteristic metallic sheen (Snigdham), soft (Mridulam), bright reddish in color (Shonam), having high tensile strength (Ghanaghata Ksamam), heavy (Guru), and devoid of impurities (Nirvikaram) are identified as best used for medicinal purposes.

Formulations of ‘Tamra’ are useful in a wide range of diseases like Krimi, Sthaulya, Arsha, Ksaya, Pandu, Kusta, Swasa, Kasa, Amlapitta, Sotha, Sula, Yakrit Roga and Grahani dosha etc. In addition, Charaka advocates the use of Tamra Patra (copper vessels) in several pharmaceutical procedures. Normal doses mentioned for ‘Tamra Bhasma’ is 15 mg to 60 mg.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Tāmra (ताम्र).—A demon, son of Murāsura. The demon Mura had seven children named Tāmra, Antarīkṣa, Śravaṇa, Vasu, Vibhāvasu, Nabhasvān and Aruṇa. Of these Tāmra was Mahiṣāsura’s minister for a long time. The Chief Minister of Mahiṣāsura was Asilomā; Defence Minister, Cikṣura; Foreign minister, Viḍāla and Finance minister, Tāmra. Udarka was the Commander-in-chief and Bāṣkala, Trinetra and Kālabandhaka were Cabinet Ministers. He was killed along with his father Mura, by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (10th Skandha Bhāgavata and 5th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

2) Tāmrā (ताम्रा).—Daughter of Dakṣa. Tamrā was married to Kaśyapa and he begot of her five daughters named Krauñcī, Bhāsī, Śyenī, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī and Śukī. Of these Krauñcī delivered owls, Bhāsī delivered Bhāsas, Śyenī, Kites and Vultures, Dhrtarāṣṭrī, swans, geese and cuckoos, and Śukī delivered Natā and Natā in turn Vinatā. (Sarga 14, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Tāmra (ताम्र) refers to “copper”, representing the material of the liṅga of the Ādityas, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, where the Devas and Viṣṇu requested Viśvakarman for liṅgas for the achievement of the desires of all people:—“[...] at our bidding Viśvakarmā made liṅgas and gave them to the devas according to their status. [...] Goddess Lakṣmī took a crystal liṅga. The Ādityas (the twelve suns) took liṅgas made of copper (Tāmra-liṅga). The moon took a liṅga made of pearl and the god of fire took a liṅga of diamond. [...] Thus different kinds of liṅgas were given to them by Viśvakarmā which the devas and the celestial sages worship regularly. After giving the devas the various liṅgas from a desire for their benefit, Viṣṇu explained the mode of worship of Śiva to me, Brahmā”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Tāmra (ताम्र).—A son of Mura (s.v.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 59. 12.

1b) A monkey chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 234.

1c) A son of Satyabhāmā and Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 47. 17; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 247.

2a) Tāmrā (ताम्रा).—One of Kaśyapa's wives. Her progeny were hawks, vultures, eagles, curlews, geese, śukīs and others;1 daughter of Pulaha;2 mother of Apsarasas.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 26-27; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 2 and 30; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 325-26. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 125; 21. 14-17.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 56; 7. 445 to 448; 69. 325.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 146. 18; 171. 29 and 60.

2b) Wife of Vasudeva; her son was Sahadeva.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 16.

2c) A daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Kaśyapa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 54.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Tāmrā (ताम्रा) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.54) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Tāmrā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Tāmrā also refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.27).

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Tamrā (तम्रा) refers to one of thirteen of Dakṣa’s sixty daughters given to Kaśyapa in marriage, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Dakṣa gets married to Asikni, the daughter of Prajāpati Viraṇa and begot sixty daughters. [He gave thirteen daughters to Kaśyapa]. Kaśyapa’s thirteen wives are Aditi, Diti, Danu, Ariṣṭā, Surasā, Svadhā, Surabhi, Vinatā, Tamrā, Krodhavasā, Irā and Muni.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Tāmrā (ताम्रा) is another name for Tāmravallī, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Phyllanthus urinaria (chamber bitter or common leafflower) from the Phyllanthaceae or “leafflower” family of flowering plants, according to verse 3.122-123 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The Dhanvantari (in his nighaṇṭu) does not describe Tāmravallī, but by the synonym Tāmalkī he has described Bhūmyāmalkī (Phyllanthus urinaria) in Candanādi-varga, which does not tally with the description of Raj Nighantu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Tāmrā and Tāmravallī, there are a total of nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Tāmra (ताम्र) refers to “copper”, the calcification (bhasma) of which is mentioned as an ingredient of metallic drugs for the treatment of Kṣaya, as mentioned in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha (chapter 3) written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha (mentioning tāmra-bhasma) has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Tāmra (ताम्र) refers to “icons made of copper”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Āgamas prescribe the metals and the results. The icon made of different metals brings different results. The icon of copper (tāmra) results in the promotion of progeny. [...] According to Atri, wood is adhama, mṛd-bera is madhyama, stone is uttama and the copper is uttamottama. [...] The dhruva icon made of copper result in good progeny and promotion of puṇya (meritoriou deed), states Kāśyapa.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Tāmra (ताम्र) refers to “copper”: a metal that was typically mined, extracted and used (both domestic and industrial) in ancient India. Mining was an important industry at that time as well. The Jaina canonical texts mention about the extraction of various kinds of minerals, metals (e.g., tāmra) and precious stones. The term ‘āgara’ occurring intire texts denotes the mines which provided many kinds of mineral products. The references in the texts of various professions and trade in metallic commodities clearly show a highly developed industry of mining and metallurgy in that period.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Tāmra.—(IE; EI 8, 23), same as tāmra-śāsana; a copper-plate grant; also land granted by means of such charters. Note: tāmra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tāmra (ताम्र).—n (S) Copper. 2 Calx of copper. 3 In comp. Of a coppery-red color.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tāmra (ताम्र).—n Copper, Calx of copper. a Red.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tāmra (ताम्र).—a. [tam-rak dīrghaḥ Uṇ.2.16.]

1) Made of copper.

2) Of a coppery red colour, red; ततोऽनुकुर्याद्विशदस्य तस्यास्ताम्रौष्ठपर्यस्तरुचः स्मितस्य (tato'nukuryādviśadasya tasyāstāmrauṣṭhaparyastarucaḥ smitasya) Ku.1.44; उदेति सविता ताम्रस्ताम्र एवास्तमेति च (udeti savitā tāmrastāmra evāstameti ca) Subhāṣ.

-mraḥ A kind of leprosy with red spots.

-mram 1 Copper.

2) A dark or coppery red.

3) A coppery receptacle; ताम्रलोहैः परिवृता निधयो ये चतुः- शताः (tāmralohaiḥ parivṛtā nidhayo ye catuḥ- śatāḥ) Mb.2.61.29.

-mrī A copper pot having a small hole at the botton used in measuring time by placing it in a water-vessel.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāmra (ताम्र).—mfn.

(-mraḥ-mrī-mraṃ) Of a coppery red colour. n.

(-mraṃ) 1. Copper. 2. A kind of sandal, represented as of a dark red colour, and smelling like a lotus. 3. A dark or coppery red. m.

(-mraḥ) A leprosy with large red spots. f. (-mrī) A copper or metallic cup of prescribed capacity, and perforated by a small hole at the bottom, answering the purpose of an hour glass: it is put into a vessel of water; the water gradually filling it, and the cup sinking, marks the time that has elapsed. E. tam to desire, Unadi affix rak, and the vowel made long; or tāmra copper, aṇ and ṅīṣ affixes, implying analogy or derivation.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tāmra (ताम्र).— (vb. tam, cf. tamas), I. adj. 1. f. , Of a coppery-red colour, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 34, 13. 2. f. , Of copper, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 21, 17. Ii. n. 1. Copper, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 114. 2. A sort of sandal, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 83, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tamra (तम्र).—[adjective] obscuring or choking.

--- OR ---

Tāmra (ताम्र).—1. [adjective] copper-coloured, dark-red ([abstract] † [feminine], tva† [neuter]); [masculine] a kind of leprosy; [neuter] copper or a copper vessel.

--- OR ---

Tāmra (ताम्र).—2. [feminine] ī made of copper; [feminine] ī a kind of clepsydra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tamra (तम्र):—[from tam] a mf(ā)n. oppressing, darkening, [x, 73, 5].

2) b See [column]2.

3) Tāmra (ताम्र):—mf(ā)n. (√tam, [Uṇādi-sūtra]) of a coppery red colour, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xvi] ([Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 7]), [Mahābhārata] etc. (tāmrā tvac, the 4th of the 7 membranes with which an embryo is covered, [Suśruta iii, 4, 2])

4) mf(ī)n. made of copper, [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 21, 17; Suśruta; Manu-smṛti vi, 53/54; Bhaviṣya-purāṇa, khaṇḍa 1 & 2: bhaviṣya-purāṇa & bhaviṣyottara-purāṇa]

5) m. a kind of leprosy with large red spots, [Karmavip.]

6) Name of a son of Naraka Bhauma, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 59, 12]

7) = -dvīpa, [Mahābhārata ii, 1172; Romakasiddhānta]

8) n. = -tā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) copper, [Kauśika-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.

10) a coppery receptacle, [Mahābhārata ii, 61, 29]

11) = -dru, [Horace H. Wilson] (cf. [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 83, 17])

12) Tāmrā (ताम्रा):—[from tāmra] f. Rubia Munjista, [Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]

13) [v.s. ...] a red kind of Abrus, [ib.]

14) [v.s. ...] a kind of pepper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] Name of a daughter of Dakṣa (one of the wives of Kaśyapa and mother of various birds), [Mahābhārata i, 2620; Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa iii; Bhāgavata-purāṇa vi, 6, 25 ff.; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Mahābhārata iii, 12909; vi, 335]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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