Tamra, aka: Tāmra, Tāmrā; 13 Definition(s)

Introduction

Tamra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Tāmra (ताम्र, “Copper”) is the name for a variation of ‘metal’ (dhātu/loha) from the sub-group named Pūtiloha, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra.

Copper has 2 variations on its own:

  1. nepālaja (obtained from Nepāla-deśa, modern Nepal),
  2. mlecchaja (obtained from places other than Nepāla-deśa).
Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Tamra refers to “copper”. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Copper (Tāmra) is of two types:

  1. Nepālaja
  2. and Mlecchaja.

Tāmra-bhasma used in one valla dose internally cures pariṇāma-śūla, aṣṭavidha-udara-rogas, pāṇḍu-roga, śopha-roga, gulma-roga, plīha-roga, yakṛdjanya-roga, agnisāda (mandāgni), kṣayaja-roga, prameha and gradaṇī etc. and many diseases with different anupānas.

Generally Tāmra-bhasma is advised for internal use mixed with pippalī-cūrṇa and madhu. And as such it can destroy all the doṣas and the diseases produced by these. Specially copper bhasma may destroy arśas, ajīrṇajanya-rogas and jvara-rogas etc. It may also prove very good in destroying bṛddhi-roga, śvasana-janya-rogas and various types of kāsas. It is a best Rasāyana and prevents/destroys jarā and mṛtyu (senile diseases and death).

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5

Tamra (Copper) is another ancient metal known to human civilization. Charaka uses the term Arka in a few places which Chakrapani clarifies as synonymous with Tamra. According to the descriptions of Rasa in Vagbhata Ref. there are two forms of Tamra viz. Nepaliya and Mlechha, only the former being acceptable. Samples with characteristic metallic sheen (Snigdham), soft (Mridulam), bright reddish in color (Shonam), having high tensile strength (Ghanaghata Ksamam), heavy (Guru), and devoid of impurities (Nirvikaram) are identified as best used for medicinal purposes.

Formulations of ‘Tamra’ are useful in a wide range of diseases like Krimi, Sthaulya, Arsha, Ksaya, Pandu, Kusta, Swasa, Kasa, Amlapitta, Sotha, Sula, Yakrit Roga and Grahani dosha etc. In addition, Charaka advocates the use of Tamra Patra (copper vessels) in several pharmaceutical procedures. Normal doses mentioned for ‘Tamra Bhasma’ is 15 mg to 60 mg.

Source: PMC: Therapeutic potentials of metals in ancient India
Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

1) Tāmra (ताम्र).—A demon, son of Murāsura. The demon Mura had seven children named Tāmra, Antarīkṣa, Śravaṇa, Vasu, Vibhāvasu, Nabhasvān and Aruṇa. Of these Tāmra was Mahiṣāsura’s minister for a long time. The Chief Minister of Mahiṣāsura was Asilomā; Defence Minister, Cikṣura; Foreign minister, Viḍāla and Finance minister, Tāmra. Udarka was the Commander-in-chief and Bāṣkala, Trinetra and Kālabandhaka were Cabinet Ministers. He was killed along with his father Mura, by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (10th Skandha Bhāgavata and 5th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

2) Tāmrā (ताम्रा).—Daughter of Dakṣa. Tamrā was married to Kaśyapa and he begot of her five daughters named Krauñcī, Bhāsī, Śyenī, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī and Śukī. Of these Krauñcī delivered owls, Bhāsī delivered Bhāsas, Śyenī, Kites and Vultures, Dhrtarāṣṭrī, swans, geese and cuckoos, and Śukī delivered Natā and Natā in turn Vinatā. (Sarga 14, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Tāmra (ताम्र).—A son of Mura (s.v.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 59. 12.

1b) A monkey chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 234.

1c) A son of Satyabhāmā and Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 47. 17; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 247.

2a) Tāmrā (ताम्रा).—One of Kaśyapa's wives. Her progeny were hawks, vultures, eagles, curlews, geese, śukīs and others;1 daughter of Pulaha;2 mother of Apsarasas.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 26-27; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 2 and 30; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 325-26. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 125; 21. 14-17.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 56; 7. 445 to 448; 69. 325.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 146. 18; 171. 29 and 60.

2b) Wife of Vasudeva; her son was Sahadeva.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 16.

2c) A daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Kaśyapa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 54.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Tāmrā (ताम्रा) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.54) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Tāmrā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Tāmrā also refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.27).

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Tāmrā (ताम्रा) is another name for Tāmravallī, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Phyllanthus urinaria (chamber bitter or common leafflower) from the Phyllanthaceae or “leafflower” family of flowering plants, according to verse 3.122-123 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The Dhanvantari (in his nighaṇṭu) does not describe Tāmravallī, but by the synonym Tāmalkī he has described Bhūmyāmalkī (Phyllanthus urinaria) in Candanādi-varga, which does not tally with the description of Raj Nighantu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Tāmrā and Tāmravallī, there are a total of nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Tāmra (ताम्र) refers to “copper”: a metal that was typically mined, extracted and used (both domestic and industrial) in ancient India. Mining was an important industry at that time as well. The Jaina canonical texts mention about the extraction of various kinds of minerals, metals (eg., tāmra) and precious stones. The term ‘āgara’ occurring intire texts denotes the mines which provided many kinds of mineral products. The references in the texts of various professions and trade in metallic commodities clearly show a highly developed industry of mining and metallurgy in that period.

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

tāmra (ताम्र).—n (S) Copper. 2 Calx of copper. 3 In comp. Of a coppery-red color.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tāmra (ताम्र).—n Copper, Calx of copper. a Red.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tāmra (ताम्र).—a. [tam-rak dīrghaḥ Uṇ.2.16.]

1) Made of copper.

2) Of a coppery red colour, red; ततोऽनुकुर्याद्विशदस्य तस्यास्ताम्रौष्ठपर्यस्तरुचः स्मितस्य (tato'nukuryādviśadasya tasyāstāmrauṣṭhaparyastarucaḥ smitasya) Ku.1.44; उदेति सविता ताम्रस्ताम्र एवास्तमेति च (udeti savitā tāmrastāmra evāstameti ca) Subhāṣ.

-mraḥ A kind of leprosy with red spots.

-mram 1 Copper.

2) A dark or coppery red.

3) A coppery receptacle; ताम्रलोहैः परिवृता निधयो ये चतुः- शताः (tāmralohaiḥ parivṛtā nidhayo ye catuḥ- śatāḥ) Mb.2.61.29.

-mrī A copper pot having a small hole at the botton used in measuring time by placing it in a water-vessel.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 122 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

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Tamralipta
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Tamrapatra
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Tāmrapaṭṭa (ताम्रपट्ट).—n. (-ṭṭaṃ) A copper-plate, such as Hindu grants of land, &c. are fr...
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Tāmrākṣa (ताम्राक्ष).—mfn. (-kṣaḥ-kṣī-kṣaṃ) Red-eyed. m. (-kṣaḥ) The Koil or Kokila, the Indian...
Tamrashikhin
Tāmraśikhin (ताम्रशिखिन्).—m. (-khī) A cock. E. tāmra copper, śikhā a crest, and ini affix. see...
Tamravalli
Tāmravallī (ताम्रवल्ली).—f. (-llī) Bengal madder, (Rubia manjith.) 2. A medicinal plant used as...
Tamrakrimi
Tāmrakṛmi (ताम्रकृमि).—m. (-miḥ) A kind of red insect. E. tāmra red, and kṛmi a worm. indragopa...
Tamramukha
Tāmramukha (ताम्रमुख).—a. copper-faced. (-khaḥ) 1 a Frank or European; 2) the Moghals. Tāmramuk...
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Tāmrakuṭṭa (ताम्रकुट्ट).—m. (-ṭṭaḥ) A brazier or copper-smith. E. tāmraṃ kuṭṭayati kuṭṭa-aṇ upa...
Tamranakha
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