Pundra, Puṇḍra, Puṇḍrā: 17 definitions



Pundra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र) is another name for Mādhavī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Hiptage benghalensis (hiptage) from the Malpighiaceae family, which is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine). It is used throughout literature such as the Carakasaṃhitā and the Suśrutasaṃhita.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र).—An ancient King in Bhārata. (Śloka 224, Chapter 1, Ādi Parva).

2) Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र).—An ancient region of Bhārata. The region comprised then the present district of Mālada, certain portions on the east coast of river Kosī and certain portions of Dinājpur. King Pāṇḍu conquered Puṇḍra. (Chapter 112, Ādi Parva). The people of Puṇḍra came to the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira with presents. The Pauṇḍrakavāsudeva mentioned in the Bhāgavata was the King of Puṇḍra. Karṇa and Arjuna conquered this country at different times. (Chapter 52, Sabhā Parva; Chapter 8, Karṇa Parva; Chapter 82, Āśvamedhika Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र).—A Kṣetraja son of Bali, born of Dīrghatamas and Bali's wife; a Bāleyakṣatra.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 5; Matsya-purāṇa 48. 25; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 28, 85.

1b) A pupil of Yājñavalkya.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 29.

1c) A Vānara chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 237.

1d) A son of Sugandhī and Vasudeva; became king.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 71. 186; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 182.

1e) A son of Vasudeva, became Jarā, a hunter;1 became king.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 46. 21-22.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 182.

1f) A city between Hemakūṭa and Himālaya which is snowfed;1 under Devarakṣita.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 22. 53; Vāyu-purāṇa 51. 48.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 64.

2a) Puṇḍrā (पुण्ड्रा).—A river of the Kuśadvīpa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 73.

2b) A tribe; a Janapada of the East.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 45.

2c) —(c)—an eastern country named after Bali's son, Puṇḍra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 54; III. 73. 109; 74. 33, 87, 197; IV. 29. 131; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 16.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.13.19, II.27.20, II.31.11, II.48.15, III.48.18, VI.10.49, VI.10.56, VI.46.49, VIII.17.2) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Puṇḍra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र) is the name of a country pertaining to the Oḍramāgadhī local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. It is also known by the name Pauṇḍra. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned that this local usage (adopted by these countries) depends on the verbal style (bhāratī) and the graceful style (kaiśikī).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Puṇḍravardhana, it is locates in the district of Māldā in East Bengal.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र) is the name of an ancient kingdom, according to chapter 4.2 [vāsupūjya-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as Vasupūjya and Jayā spoke to Vāsupūjya:—“All the existing kings, among men and the Vidyādharas, who are of good family, capable, heroic, wealthy, famous, possessing the fourfold army, known for guarding their subjects, free from blemish, faithful to engagements, always devoted to dharma, in Madhyadeśa, Vatsadeśa, [... the Puṇḍras, ...] these now, son, beg us constantly through messengers, who are sent bearing valuable gifts, to give their daughters to you. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र) or Puṇḍradeśa is the name of a country mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

According to Wilson, the ancient kingdom of Puṇḍradeśa included the districts of Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Rangpur, Malda, Bogra and Tirhut. Puṇḍravardhana, as the name suggests, was a settlement of the Puṇḍras. The first reference to the Puṇḍras is found inthe Aitareya-brāhmaṇa.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

puṇḍra (पुंड्र).—m S A mark made on the forehead with sandal &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र).—[puṇḍ-bhedane rak Uṇ 2.13]

1) A kind of sugarcane (red variety).

2) A lotus in general.

3) A white lotus

4) A mark or line (on the fore-head) made with sandal &c., sectarial mark; उत्थं तत् पुण्ड्रमूर्ध्वं जनिमरणतमः खण्डनं मण्डनं च (utthaṃ tat puṇḍramūrdhvaṃ janimaraṇatamaḥ khaṇḍanaṃ maṇḍanaṃ ca) Viṣṇupād Stotra 43.

5) A worm.

6) The Atimukta creeper.

-ṇḍrāḥ (pl.) Name of a country and its inhabitants.

Derivable forms: puṇḍraḥ (पुण्ड्रः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र).—n.

(-ṇḍraṃ) 1. A red variety of the common sugarcane, (Saccharum officinarum.) 2. The name of a Daitya or infernal being, considered as incarnate in Sisupala. 3. A mark or line made on the forehead with Sandal, &c. 4. A sort of creeper, (Gærtnera racemosa.) 5. A worm. 6. A white lotus. 7. The name of a country, the greater part of Bengal and part of Behar. m. plu.

(-ṇḍrāḥ) The inhabitants of that country. E. puḍi to rub, aff. rak .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र).—m. 1. pl. The name of a people and their country, the greater part of Bengal and part of Behar. 2. A kind of sugar-cane. 3. (and n.), A mark or line made on the forehead with sandal.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र).—[masculine] [Name] of an ancient hero; [plural] [Name] of a people.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र):—m. Name of a son of the Daitya Bali (ancestor of the Puṇḍras), [Mahābhārata]

2) ([plural]) of a people and their country (the modern Bengal and Behar), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) of a son of Vasu-deva, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

4) sugar-cane (or a red variety of it), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Gaertnera Racemosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Ficus Infectoria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Clerodendrum Phlomoides, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) a white lotus-flower, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) a worm, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) mn. a mark or line made on the forehead with ashes or colouring substances to distinguish Vaiṣṇavas [from] Śaivas etc., a sectarian mark, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]; Religious Thought and Life in India 66; 67] (cf. ūrdhva-p, tri-p)

11) n. Name of a mythical city between the mountains Hima-vat and Hemakūṭa, [Vāyu-purāṇa]

12) Pundra (पुन्द्र):—[wrong reading] for puṇḍra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र):—(ṇḍraṃ) 1. n. Red kind of sugarcane; name of a demon; mark on the forehead; a creeper; a worm; Bengal.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र):—

1) m. eine Art Zuckerrohr [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 5, 29.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1194.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 439.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 60.] puṇḍrekṣu [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 500.] —

2) m. pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes und des von ihm bewohnten Landes (das Land des Zuckerrohrs; vgl. gauḍa), das heutige Bengalen und Bihār, [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 1, 7.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Lassen’s Indische Alterthumskunde I, 140. fg. 271. 556. fg.] [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 7, 18.] [Mahābhārata 1, 4221. 4453. 2, 584. 1096. 1872. 6, 358] [?(Viṣṇupurāṇa 190). 8, 236. 14, 832. Rāmāyaṇa 4, 41, 18. Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 5, 70. 9, 15. 10, 14. 16, 3. Viṣṇupurāṇa 176. Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 57, 45.] sūtairmāgadhapuṇḍraiśca gīyamānaḥ [Harivaṃśa 15851.] Der Name des Landes wird auf einen gleichnamigen Sohn Bali's zurückgeführt [Mahābhārata 1, 4219. 8, 875.] [Harivaṃśa 1685.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 444.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 9, 23, 4.] Vielleicht ist auch [Mahābhārata 1, 228] puṇḍraḥ st. pundraḥ zu lesen. Nach dem [Vāyupurāṇa] [?(s. Viṣṇupurāṇa 231, Nalopākhyāna 4)] Name einer mythischen, zwischen Himavant und Hemakūta gelegenen Stadt. —

3) m. Gaertnera racemosa (atimuktaka, vāsantī) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —

4) m. = puṇḍarīka weissblühender Lotus [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —

5) m. ein best. Baum, = hrasvaplakṣa [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] —

6) Mal, Sectenzeichen (= tilaka [nach [Śabdakalpadruma] soll tilaka in [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] Name eines Baumes sein], citra, lalāma) [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 23, 145.] [Halāyudha 5, 69.] m. [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 653.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa Nalopākhyāna] [Halāyudha 2, 386.] [Scholiast] zu [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 20, 1, 34. 38.] Vgl. tri, ūrdhva (auch [PADMA-Pāṇini’s acht Bücher] in [Oxforder Handschriften 14,b,17]). Vgl. puṇḍhra . —

7) m. Wurm [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —

8) m. Nomen proprium eines Daitya [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] oxyt. [UJJVAL.] zu [Uṇādisūtra 2, 13.] — Vgl. catuḥpuṇḍra, pauṇḍra, pauṇḍraka, pauṇḍrika .

--- OR ---

Pundra (पुन्द्र):—[Mahābhārata 1, 228] wohl fehlerhaft für puṇḍra .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Puṇḍra (पुण्ड्र):——

1) m. — a) Nomen proprium — α) Pl. eines Volkes im heutigen Bengalen und Bihār. — β) eines Sohnes des Daitya Bali , des Urahnen der Puṇḍra 1)a)α) [Mahābhārata 1,1,234.] . — γ) eines Sohnes des Vasudeva [VP.².4,110.] — b) *Zuckerrohr. Vgl. purṇdrekṣu. — c) *Gaertnera racemosa [Rājan 10,95.] — d) *Ficus infectoria [Rājan 11,127.] — e) Clerodendrum phlomoides [Rājan 10,42.] — f) *eine weisse Lotusblüthe. — g) *Wurm.

2) (*m.) n. Sectenzeichen.

3) n. Nomen proprium einer mythischen Stadt.

--- OR ---

Pundra (पुन्द्र):—[Mahābhārata 1,228.] Fehlerhaft für puṇḍra.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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