Amra, Amrā, Āmra, Āmrā: 21 definitions
Amra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Āmra (आम्र).—The mango tree in Brahmasaras, in the shape of Brahmā; he who waters the tree will lead the Pitṛs to salvation.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 6; 111. 35-36.
Āmra (आम्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.48.23) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Āmra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Āmra (आम्र) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Mangifera indica (mango) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.
Amra (अम्र) is also mentioned in the same list, but identified with Spondias mangifera, which is a synonym of Spondias pinnata, also called “Pulicha kaai” in Tamil, which means “sour fruit”
The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:
According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as āmra/amra) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Āmra (आम्र) is the name of a tree (Āma) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Pūrvā-Bhādrapadā, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Āmra], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Amrā (अम्रा) is another name for Indravāruṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth, bitter apple or desert gourd) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.70-72 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Amrā and Indravāruṇī, there are a total of twenty-nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Āmra (आम्र) refers to “mango” which is used to prepare oils (taila) from according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Taila-prakaraṇa describes the properties of the oil prepared from [viz., āmra (mango), etc.].Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā
Āmra (आम्र) refers to the medicinal plant Mangifera indica L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal. The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Āmra] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Āmra (आम्र) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Magnifera indica Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning āmra] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
1) Āmra (आम्र)—Sanskrit word for the “Mango”. This may be a plain synonym or may denote a different species of mangoes.
2) According to Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī, the āmra is a mango tree (Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 10.30.9).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Āmra (आम्र) is the name of the caitya-tree under which the parents of Ara are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.
Ara is the eighteenth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Sudarśana and his mother is Devī according to Śvetāmbara or Mitrā according to Digambara, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
1) Āmra (आम्र) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra. Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.
Different kinds of trees (eg., the Āmra tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.
2) Āmra (आम्र) refers to the “mango” (Mangifera Indica): a type of fruit (phala), according to Jain canonical texts (eg., the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra from the 3rd century B.C.). It is also known by the name Rasāla and Aṃba. Various kinds of fruits were grown and consumed by the people in ancient India. Fruits were also dried up for preservation. Koṭṭaka was a place for this operation. Besides being grown in orchards, fruits were gathered from jungles and were carried to cities for sales.
The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits (eg., Āmra fruit), vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjāṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm and quiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Āmrā (आम्रा) (or Ambikā, Kuṣmāṇḍinī, Kuṣmāṇḍī) is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Neminātha: the twenty-second of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Neminātha’s emblem is known to be a conch-shell from the Jaina canonical texts. The Śāsana-devatās who attend upon him are Yakṣa Gomedha and Yakṣiṇī Ambikā (Digambara: and Kuṣmāṇḍinī). The Chowri-bearer, in his case, is King Ugrasena. His Kevala-tree is called Mahāveṇu or Vetasa.
This Yakṣiṇī of Neminātha has the Śvetāmbara description of a Goddess, who rides a lion and bears a bunch of mangoes, nose, a child and goad. The Digambara image of the Yakṣiṇī is described as also riding upon a lion, but as bearing two hands with a bunch of mangoes and a child.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds
Āmra (आम्र) refers to “touch / proximity” and represents one of the eight types of extraordinary healing (auṣadhi), which itself is a subclass of the eight ṛddhis (extraordinary powers). These powers can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people) in order to produce worldly miracles. The Āryas represent one of the two classes of human beings according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46, the other being Mleccha (barbarians).
What is meant by extraordinary power to heal by touch or proximity (āmra-riddhi)? It is the extraordinary power of the ascetic so that his proximity or just the words cure the patient of all his sickness.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
Amra is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Amra refers to the “Mango-tree” and a bower of mango-` trees is mentioned.
Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Amra), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Amra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).Source: Shodhganga: Deforestation in Nagaland: a historical perspective
Amra is the name of a plant corresponding to Spondias mangifera, according to the author Lanukumla Ao in his thesis “Deforestation in Nagaland”, mentioning the source: Annual Administrative Report 2012-2013.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
āmra (आम्र).—m (S) The mango-tree and fruit, Mangifera Indica.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
āmra (आम्र).—m The mango-tree and fruit.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Amra (अम्र).—= आम्र (āmra) q. v.
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Āmra (आम्र).—[am gatyādiṣu ran dīrghaśca Uṇ.2.16.] The mango tree.
-mram The fruit of the mango tree.
Derivable forms: āmraḥ (आम्रः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-mraḥ) The mango tree, (Mangifera Indica.) n.
(-mraṃ) A mango. E. ama to eat, and ra aff.
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(-mraḥ) The mango tree, (Mangifera Indica.) E. am to be sick, rak Unadi affix, and a made ā.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Āmra (आम्र).—m. The mango tree, Mangifera indica, [Nala] 12, 4.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+19): Amra-pipilika, Amradi, Amradivarga, Amragandhadhrik, Amragandhaka, Amragandhiharidra, Amragupta, Amragupti, Amraka, Amrakardava, Amrakavi, Amrakuta, Amramaya, Amranisha, Amrapala, Amrapali, Amrapalika, Amrapallava, Amrapancama, Amrapanchama.
Ends with (+35): Abhinamra, Abhitamra, Adhamra, Anamra, Araktatamra, Ardramra, Atamra, Avanamra, Balamra, Bhaktinamra, Dardaramra, Darduramra, Dugdhamra, Kakamra, Kalamra, Kamra, Koshamra, Krishnatamra, Kshudragramra, Kshudramra.
Full-text (+47): Amrakuta, Rajamra, Amrapeshi, Amramaya, Amrapancama, Amraphalaprapanaka, Amrapali, Amravana, Amragandhaka, Madhvamra, Pancapallava, Ambika, Amrataka, Amrata, Amragupti, Amrakavi, Amba, Amragandhiharidra, Amrapala, Amragupta.
Search found 34 books and stories containing Amra, Amrā, Āmra, Āmrā; (plurals include: Amras, Amrās, Āmras, Āmrās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King (A Life of Buddha) (by Samuel Beal)
Varga 22. The Lady Āmrā (Āmrapālī) Sees Buddha < [Kiouen IV]
Śrī Kṛṣṇa-vijaya (by Śrī Gunaraja Khan)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 5: Treatment of various afflictions (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Cikitsasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)