Manibhadra, aka: Maṇibhadra, Maṇibhadrā, Māṇibhadra; 11 Definition(s)
Manibhadra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र):—One of the persons joining Śiva during the preparations of the war between Śankhacūḍa and the Devas, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53). All persons attending were remained seated on beautiful aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The war was initiated by Puṣpadanta (messenger of Śiva) who was ordered to restore the rights of the Devas. .(Source): Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
1) Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र).—A Yakṣa. He who worships this Yakṣa would get his desire fulfilled. This Yakṣa is installed in a temple near the city of Tāmralipti. If anybody commits adultery in that place Maṇibhadra would take him to the temple and keep him there for the night. Next morning he would take the couple before the King and exposing the sin would get them killed by the King.
Once a Vaiśya named Samudradatta committed adultery and another house-holder found it out and took them to the temple of Maṇibhadra and kept them there Śaktimatī, the virtuous wife of Samudradatta came to know of the mishap to her husband and the intelligent woman went to the temple with materials for worship and under the pretext of worshipping made the priest of the temple open the doors. When she entered Samudradatta felt ashamed and sat with his head bent down. Śaktimatī gave the other woman her own dress taking hers in return and sent her out as Śaktimatī without raising the least suspicion in the priest. Then she remained with Samudradatta, and when in the morning officers of the King came to take them they were surprised to find that the culprits were really husband and wife. The house-holder was punished for giving wrong information and Samudradatta was set free with his wife. (Kathāmukhalambaka, Kathāsaritsāgara). (See full article at Story of Maṇibhadra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र).—A King of the Lunar dynasty. This King had many children of his wife Kavikā. Of these seven sons learned magic from Maya. The seven palm trees which Śri Rāma broke by an arrow while on his search for Sītā were but the cursed forms of these seven sons. The Purāṇic story relating to Śrī Rāma giving them relief from the curse is narrated in the Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa of Kamba Rāmāyaṇa.
2) The seven sons of Maṇibhadra after learning magic from Maya created a huge cobra and travelled all over the world on it. One day they reached a mountain near Ṛṣyamūkācala. They saw the sage Agastya coming that way and just to tease him they coiled that cobra and hid it beneath the ground in the form of a circle and they themselves stood on it as seven palm trees in a circle and caused obstruction to the sage in his path. The sage as he came near the trees knew by his spiritual powers what trick had been played on him and said cursing, "May you stand like this for ever". The princes knew the hideousness of the curse and pleaded for redress and the sage said, "After centuries the incarnation of Viṣṇu as Śrī Rāma would come and give you salvation".
3) Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र).—General information. A Yakṣa. He was a deity of merchants and travellers. (Śloka 130, Chapter 64, Vana Parva). Other details.
(i) He stays in the court of Kubera. (Śloka 15, Chapter 10, Sabhā Parva).
(ii) Once this Yakṣa on the request of a cloud named Kuṇḍadhāra gave a boon to a brahmin. (Śloka 21, Chapter 171, Śanti Parva).
(iii) The sage Aṣṭāvakra once welcomed this Yakṣa. (Śloka 33, Chapter 19, Anuśāsana Parva).
(iv) When Arjuna went to Marutta to bring his wealth Arjuna worshipped this Yakṣa and the Yakṣa blessed him. (Śloka 7, Chapter 65, Aśvamedha Parva).
4) Māṇibhadra (माणिभद्र).—A Pārṣada of Śiva. (See under Candrasena II).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र).—A son of Rajatanābha, (Bhadrā, Vāyu-purāṇa) married Puṇyajanī who was the mother of a number of Yakṣas;1 the commander of the army of the Yakṣas living in Candraprabhā; lived on the hill adjoining Caitraratha;2 devoted to Lalitā;3 Yakṣa senāpati.4
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 120; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 152, 157.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 7-8; Matsya-purāṇa 121. 8-9.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 33. 78.
- 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 7.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Katha (narrative stories)
Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) is the name of a powerful Yakṣa according to the story “Śaktimatī and her husband” found in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 13.
Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) is the brother of Kuvera, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 121. Accordingly, as Mahendrāditya asked his messenger Anaṅgadeva: “... I am Madanamañjarī, the daughter of Dundubhi, the King of the Yakṣas, and the wife of Maṇibhadra, the brother of Kuvera. I used always to roam about happily with my husband on the banks of rivers, on hills, and in charming groves...”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Maṇibhadra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) is the name of one of the thirty-two Yakṣiṇīs mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra. In the yakṣiṇī-sādhana, the Yakṣiṇī is regarded as the guardian spirit who provides worldly benefits to the practitioner. The Yakṣiṇī (eg., Maṇibhadra) provides, inter alia, daily food, clothing and money, tells the future, and bestows a long life, but she seldom becomes a partner in sexual practices.(Source): academia.edu: Yakṣiṇī-sādhana in the Kakṣapuṭa tantra
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
(Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Manibhadra is the name of a mahāsiddha, of which eighty-four in total are recognized in Vajrayāna (tantric buddhism). His title is “the happy housewife”. He lived somewhere between the 8th and the 12th century AD.
These mahāsiddhas (eg., Manibhadra) are defined according to the Abhayadatta Sri (possibly Abhayākaragupta) tradition. Its textual origin traces to the 11th century caturāsiti-siddha-pravṛtti, or “the lives of the eighty-four siddhas”, of which only Tibetan translations remains. Manibhadra (and other Mahāsiddhas) are the ancient propounders of the textual tradition of tantric or Vajrayana Buddhism.(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayana
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Manibhadra was the daughter of a wealthy family in Agarce. As was their custom, she was betrothed at the age of 13 to a man of her own caste, but lived with her parents until old enough to take up her wifely duties. One day, while in her mother’s kitchen, the guru Kukkuripa came to her house begging for food. She welcomed him and served him with her own hands, then asked why he chose to be as he is now and not lead a comfortable life with a family. At that, the yogin laughed and explained the preciousness of a human birth as an opportunity to make spiritual progress and to free himself from the wheel of rebirth. Manibhadra’s faith was kindled and her trust of the yogin made her beg for him to show her the way to liberation. The yogin told her she could find him in the cremation grounds if she wanted more information, which was what she did that night.
Manibhadra levitated into the sky and remained there for 21 days, giving instruction to the people of Agarce. Then she bid farewell to her family and friends, and was assumed bodily into the Paradise of the Dakinis.
etymology: མ་ཎི་བྷ་དྲཱ།; Maṇibhadrā;
Manibhadra: “The Happy Housewife”;
Mahasiddha Manibhadra: “She of the Broken Pot”, or / The Model Wife”
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) is the Sanskrit rendering of Māṇibhadda, a Yakṣa chief obiedient to Vaiśramaṇa (god of wealth, also known as Kubera), Bhagavatī-sūtra, also known as The Vyākhyāprajñapti (“Exposition of Explanations”). The Bhagavatī-sūtra is the largest of twelve Jain āgamas and was composed by Sudharmāsvāmī in the 6th century.
2) Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) is the name of a Yakṣa mentioned in the Tattvārtha-bhāṣya amongst a list of thirteen. The Tattvārtha-bhāṣya is a commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra, an ancient and foundational Jain text written in the 2nd century by Umāsvāti. It contains philosophy accepted as authoritative by both the Digambara and the Śvetāmbara sects of Jainism.
3) Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) refers to a class of yakṣa deities according to both the Śvetāmbara and the Digambara traditions. The yakṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The assigned color of yakṣas is black and their caitya-vṛkṣa (sacred tree) is the “banyan tree” (vaṭa).
The deities such as the Maṇibhadras are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.
4) Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र).—One of the nine peaks (kūṭa) of the Vaitāḍhya mountains, which is situated in the center of Bhārata (parallel to the Himavān). The name dakṣiṇārdhabharata is derived from the similarly named deity presiding over it. Bhārata is one of the seven regions (kṣetra) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) is the name of a sacred spot visited by Mahāvīra during his 27th year as Kevalī.—Leaving Nālandā the Lord moved towards Videha and wandering, sat at Maṇibhadra caitya in Mithilā. King Jitaśatru came there. The Lord gave sermon to a large gathering. The Lord gave sermon to a large gathering. Indrabhūti and other monk disciples asked questions regarding the Sun's movement in the orbit, expanse of the rays of the Sun and shadow, the waxing and waning of the Moon, the reasons for planetary oppression, birth of a meteor, beginning of an era, etc. The Lord spent that year’s cāturmāsa Mithilā.(Source): HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra
Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) refers to one of the two Indras (lords) of the Yakṣa class of “peripatetic celestial beings” (vyantara), itself a main division of devas (celestial beings) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.6. Pūrṇabhadra and Maṇibhadra are the two lords in the class ‘treasure-keeper’ peripatetic celestial beings.(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Maṇibhadra (मणिभद्र) or Maṇibhadrakṣetra is a place-name classified as a kṣetra and mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 52. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. This field belongs to Maṇibhadra literally meaning ‘the excellent jewel’. Maṇibhadra has been the name of a brother of Kubera and king of the Yakṣas (the tutelary deity of travellers and merchants).(Source): archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
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Search found 12 books and stories containing Manibhadra, Maṇibhadra, Maṇibhadrā or Māṇibhadra. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 19: The Vyantaras < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 11: Origin of Dhūmaketu’s enmity < [Chapter VI - Marriage of Kṛṣṇa with Rukmiṇī and others]
The Mahabharata - Third Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 37 - Destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice < [Section 2.2 - Rudra-saṃhitā (2): Satī-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 17 - The greatness of Jyotirliṅga Mahākāla < [Section 4 - Koṭirudra-Saṃhitā]
Chapter 33 - March of The Victorious Lord Śiva < [Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa]
The Mahabharata - Second Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 10 - On the description of Maṇi Dvīpa < [Book 12]
The Nilamata Purana (by Dr. Ved Kumari)