Kshetra, aka: Kṣetra, Kṣētra; 20 Definition(s)
Kshetra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Kṣetra and Kṣētra can be transliterated into English as Ksetra or Kshetra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Kṣetra is the physical body and kṣetrajña is the soul. Kṣetra is made up of thirty six tattvas (some take only twentyfour) or principles. Kṣetra is gross and kṣetrajña is subtle. Kṣetra is perishable, whereas the knower of Kṣetra, kṣetrajña is eternal and imperishable.Source: Manblunder: Lalitha Sahasranama
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
1) Kṣetra (क्षेत्र) refers to a “temple”, and in a broader sense represents “devotional place” or “residence of God”. It is one of commonly used names for a temple, as found in Vāstuśāstra literature such the Mayamata and the Mānasāra.
2) Kṣetra (क्षेत्र) is a Sanskrit technical term denoting a “residence” in general, according to the lists of synonyms given in the Mayamata XIX.10-12 and the Mānasāra XIX.108-12, both populair treatises on Vāstuśāstra literature.Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र).—The ceremony of installation of image and inauguration of the temple establishes the dwelling of the deity in the kṣetra, “ordered site”. By this, the perception of divine presence in the location is officially pronounced and made accessible to the wider populace in the mode of darśana, the mutual “seeing” of devotee and deity. Darśana marks the culmination of devotional worship in Śaivism.Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र).—Sacred spots. In Malayālam it means Temples also. General information. The temples of India are reflections of the outward form or body of man. As the soul lives in the body of man, God dwells in the temples. The stone, rock, marble, metals etc. are equal to the bones of the body of a man. Two types of temples. Temples are of two types. One type is the Grāmadevatā temples. These are temples in which goddess Bhadrakālī is consecrated and worshipped for the protection of villages and cities. The second type is of special temples. These are temples specially meant for a particular god or goddess. Thus there are temples for Viṣṇu, Śiva, Gaṇapati and so on. Grāmadevatā temples. Worship of Bhadrakālī existed in India from very early times. When Mohanjodaro and Harappa were excavated idols of Devī (goddess) more than 4000 years old, were obtained from there. During the prevalence of Buddhism in India the goddesses Yaksī and Hāritī were worshipped in India. Later when Hinduism was revived these goddesses took their places in it as the goddesses of Hindu Purāṇas and epics. The Kālī temples of Ujjayinī and Calcutta are famous. In the Cidambara temple also the main deity is Kālī. The legend is that Paramaśiva defeated Kālī in a dance. In Mysore Cāmuṇḍī (Kālī) is worshipped as chief goddess or family goddess. Kāmākṣī in Kāñcī, Mīnākṣī in Madura (South India), Mūkāmbikā in North Karṇāṭaka and so on are the gentle and peaceful forms of Kālī. Devas (gods). In many of the temples in South India, Munīśvaran and Karuppan are the grāmadevatās (village gods). In some places Bhairava also is worshipped as grāmadevatā. In certain other places Vīran, Irulan, Kāreṭṭi, Noṇḍi and Pañcaruli are worshipped. Śāstā or Ayyappan has a prominent place among the village gods. Importance is attached to Śāstā or Ayyappan mostly in Kerala and Tamil Nāḍu. (See full article at Story of Kṣetra from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र).—(avyaktam) and kṣetrajña are Brahmā; the union of these two leads to the eternal being; also aviṣaya and viṣaya.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 3. 37; Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 34-6, 111-14.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र).—Closed figure. Note: Kṣetra is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र) refers to “land”, as defined in the first chapter (ānūpādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia).
Accordingly, the five classifications of land (kṣetra) are defined according to the concept of the five elements known as Pañcabhūta (Pañcamahābhūta):
- pārthiva-kṣetra (earthen land),
- āpya-kṣetra (watery land),
- taijasa-kṣetra (bright land),
- vāyavīya-kṣetra (aerial land),
- āntarikṣa-kṣetra (heavenly land).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)
1) Kṣetra (क्षेत्र, “holy city”):—A Kṣetra is a sacred ground where Mokṣa can be obtained. The Garuda Purana enumerates seven cities as sources of Mokṣa:
- Māyā (Haridwar),
- Kāsi (Varanasi),
- Avantikā (Ujjain), and
- Dvārāvatī (Dvārakā).
2) A Kṣetra (Sanskrit: क्षेत्र "field, area, tract of land") denotes a holy precinct or temenos. The Kurukshetra specifically is the "field" or "precinct" where the Pandavas and Kauravas fought a religious war as told in the Bhagavad Gita section of the Mahabharata. In common parlance, kshetra may denote a place where there is a temple or where there is held to have been a person or event of sacred, religious or dharmic importance. As sacred precincts, both yantras and mandalas are kshetras.
In Hinduism, Tirtha and Kshetra are two terms denoting sites of pilgrimage. The Indian subcontinent is full of Tirthas and Kshetras.
3) Buddhism has two analogues to the kshetra, the Pure Land or buddhakṣetra and the refuge tree.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to “field of activities”, the body of the conditioned soul.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र) is one of the Pīṭhādis (group of districts) present within the Vākcakra (‘circle of word’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Bhūcarī (‘a woman going on the ground’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra.
The Pīṭhādi named Kṣetra within the Vākcakra contains the following four districts or seats:
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र, “land”) refers to one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Kṣetra is listed in Śvetāmbara sources such as Devagupta’s Nava-pada-prakaraṇa with Laghu-vṛtti (58), and in Digambara sources such Cāmuṇḍarāya’s Caritrasāra (p. 7).
Land (kṣetra) is of three types:
- setu-kṣetra—land irrigated artificially by norias (araghaṭṭa) or other means;
- ketu-kṣetra—dry farming land depending on rain;
- miśra—irrigated land which also receives rain.
1) Kṣetra (क्षेत्र, “abode”) refers to “place /abode or field touched”, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.8. The present abode /area/volume occupied by an entity at present is called its abode (kṣetra).
Accordingly, “the categories (padārtha) and their details are undefrstood in detail in terms of existence, number (enumeration), place or abode (kṣetra), extent of space touched (pervasion), continuity /time, interval of time, thought-activity, and reciprocal comparison”.
2) Kṣetra (क्षेत्र, “place”) refers to a category of both anugāmi (following) and ananugāmi (preceding), according to Tattvārthasūtra 1.21. Anugāmi and Ananugāmi refer to a type of guṇapratyaya: a category of knowledge (jñāna) obtained by clairvoyance (avadhi-jñāna).
What is meant by kṣetra-anugāmi clairvoyance? This clairvoyant knowledge goes from one place to another with the owner. What is meant by kṣetra-ananugāmi (clairvoyant knowledge that does not follow its owner to another place)? It is the clairvoyance knowledge that does not go with the owner from one place to another.
3) Kṣetra (क्षेत्र, “spatial-range”).—The province in which the mind of others can be cognized by telepathy (manaḥparyaya) is called its spatial-range (kṣetra). according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.25, “Telepathy (manaḥparyaya) and clairvoyance (avadhi) differ with regard to purity (viśuddhi), spatial-range (kṣetra), and species of the knower and the nature of the objects identified by them”.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र, “space”) or Kṣetrariddhi refers to “extraordinary power to enhance a space of small capacity to a space with extraordinarily large space” and represents one of the eight types of ṛddhi (extraordinary powers), that can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people): one of the two classes of human beings, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46.—Some ascetics attain extraordinary powers to produce worldly miracles. Such attainments are called ṛddhi. There are eight types of such extraordinary powers (eg., Kṣetra).
Kṣetra-ṛddhi (extraordinary power of enhancing space) is of two types namely:
- space enhancing (achinna-riddhi),
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). Kṣetra originally meant an agricultural field, in which sense its use survives, kṣetra came to be used as a place-name suffix as we find in the word Kurukṣetra. As a suffix in composition it signified simply a ‘field’ for the word preceding it. For example Karmakṣetra, Dharmakṣetra, Raṇakṣetra, Siddhakṣetra, Sureśvarīkṣetra.
Kṣetra is changed into:
- chatra as Ahikṣetra, Ahichatra
- cchatra as Ahikṣetra, Ahicchatra.
In Prakrit kṣetra changes to kheṭṭa meaning ‘a land for agriculture’, country, village and city, etc.
Analogous to kheṭṭa is the word ‘kheḍa’ or ‘kheṭa’ which means ‘a city surrounded by rivers and mountains’. Kheṭa meaning ‘a small hamlet’ is also found in Pāṇini (VI. 2. 126). The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra defines ‘kheṭa’ as the half of a city and the grāma as the half of a ‘kheṭa’. According to Monier Williams kheṭa means a village, residence of peasants and farmers, small town (half of a pura).Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Kṣetra.—(EI 24), a department or committee. (SII 1), a sacred place. Cf. Varāha-kṣetra. Note: kṣetra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
kṣētra (क्षेत्र).—n (S) A field. 2 A pure or sacred spot; a place of pilgrimage; a spot viewed as the field or dwelling-place of the gods. 3 A place, a spot, a superficies, a portion of space. 4 A body, a thing considered as having the geometrical dimensions, any extended figure. 5 An aggregate of twelve Shaligram. 6 The body (of a man or an animal) considered as the field of the indwelling and working of the soul. 7 The wife of; considered as the field of her husband. 8 (With implication of kṣētra as the Belly.) A total abstinence (for a time) from food, a perfect fast. v paḍa, hō, ghāla. Note. kṣētra is never used of religious fasting. 8 Plane figure, geometry. 9 A diagram. 10 (As a field of sacred things or a scope for worship--) An aggregate of 24 śāligrāma or 11 bāṇa or 21 gaṇapati from the river narmadā, or of 12 sūrya (i. e. sūryakānta) and of 8 dēvī (i. e. suvarṇamukhī).Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kṣētra (क्षेत्र).—n A field. A sacred spot. A place. A diagram.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र).—[kṣi-ṣṭran] A fiield, ground, soil; चीयते बालिशस्यापि सत्क्षेत्रपतिता कृषिः (cīyate bāliśasyāpi satkṣetrapatitā kṛṣiḥ) Mu.1.3.
2) Landed property, land.
3) Place, abode, region, repository; कपटशतमयं क्षेत्रमप्रत्ययानाम् (kapaṭaśatamayaṃ kṣetramapratyayānām) Pt.1.191; Bh.1.77; Me.16.
4) A sacred spot, a place of pilgrimage; क्षेत्रं क्षत्रप्रधनपिशुनं कौरवं तद्भजेथाः (kṣetraṃ kṣatrapradhanapiśunaṃ kauravaṃ tadbhajethāḥ) Me.5; Bg.1.1.
5) An enclosed spot of ground, portion or space, superficies, circuit.
6) Fertile soil.
7) Place of origin; Bhāg.2.6.1.
8) A wife; अपि नाम कुलपतेरियमसवर्णक्षेत्रसंभवा स्यात् (api nāma kulapateriyamasavarṇakṣetrasaṃbhavā syāt) Ś.1; Ms.3.175; वृद्धस्तु व्याधितो वा राजा (vṛddhastu vyādhito vā rājā) ... क्षेत्रे बीजमुत्पादयेत् (kṣetre bījamutpādayet) Kau. A.1.17.
9) The sphere of action, the body (regarded as the field of the working of the soul); योगिनो यं विचिन्वन्ति क्षेत्राभ्यन्तर- वर्तिनम् (yogino yaṃ vicinvanti kṣetrābhyantara- vartinam) Ku.6.77; Bg.13.1,2,3.
1) The mind.
11) A house; a town.
12) A plane figure, as a triangle.
13) A diagram.
14) A sign of the zodiac.
15) (in chiromancy) A certain portion marked out on the palm; क्षेत्रं मृजां च विधिवत्कुशलोऽवलोक्य सामुद्रविद्वदति यातमनागतं च (kṣetraṃ mṛjāṃ ca vidhivatkuśalo'valokya sāmudravidvadati yātamanāgataṃ ca) Bṛ. S.68.1.
Derivable forms: kṣetram (क्षेत्रम्).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kṣetra (क्षेत्र).—(field, always nt. in Sanskrit, and so khetta in Pali acc. to PTSD), rather often has masc. endings and modifiers: SP 9.4 (end of verse) kṣetrāḥ; 24.3 (verse) kṣetra (n. pl.) tathātra kecid…tathaiva kecit; Laṅk 12.17— 13.1 (prose) te ca kṣetrāḥ sanāyakāḥ; LV 280.9 (verse) sphuṭāḥ kṣetrā hy acintiyāḥ; 280.12 (verse) sarve te… kṣetrāḥ (most mss. kṣa°, see s.v. kṣatra); this substitute kṣatra with masc. endings LV 354.22; 357.4. See buddha- kṣetra.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-traṃ) 1. A field. 2. The body. 3. A wife. 4. A pure or sacred spot, a place of pilgrimage, as Puri, &c. 5. Plane figure, geometry. 6. A diagram. E. kṣi to dwell, &c. affix ṣṭran.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 58 books and stories containing Kshetra, Kṣetra, Kṣētra, Kshētra, Ksētra, Ksetra; (plurals include: Kshetras, Kṣetras, Kṣētras, Kshētras, Ksētras, Ksetras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 5 - Avyakta and Brahman < [Chapter XIV - The Philosophy of the Bhagavad-gītā]
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Preceptors of Advaita (by T. M. P. Mahadevan)
(i) Kāmākṣī < [58. (various)]
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Vedānta-sūtras Part I (by George Thibaut)