Viraja, Virajā, Virāja, Vīrajā: 22 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Viraja means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Virajā (विरजा):—Sanskrit name for one of the twenty-four sacred sites of the Sūryamaṇḍala, the first maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra, according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. The Khecarīcakra is the fifth and final cakra located just above the head. Each one of these holy sites (pītha) is presided over by a particular Khecarī (‘sky-goddess’). This Virajā-pītha is connected with the goddess Ambikā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

1) Virajā (विरजा) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Virajā) is named Trilocana. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

2) Viraja (विरज) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) to be assigned to the throat (gala) during the pīṭhavidhi (‘ritual of sacred sites’) according to the Tantrāloka chapter 29. This chapter of the Tantrāloka by Abhinavagupta expounds details regarding the Kula initiation ritual. Kula or Kaula is a specific tradition within Śaivism, closely related to Siddhānta and Śaktism. In the Jñānārṇava-tantra it is also mentioned as a pīṭha and is also called Kolvagiri.

Source: academia.edu: The Samādhi of the Plowed Row (Shaivism)

Virajā (विरजा) is mentioned as one of the upakṣetras, maped internally to the eight lotus petals at the top of the heart cakra, according to the Tantraloka 15.90-91.

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II) (shaivism)

Virajā (विरजा) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22). Prayāga is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Ambikā accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Anala. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the mudrā and paṭṭiśa. A similar system appears in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Virāja (विराज) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Mahābhadra and mount Supārśva, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Supārśva mountain lies on the western side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu.

2) Virajā (विरजा).—Name of a river originating from Ṛkṣa, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers. Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu.

Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Virajā (विरजा).—A cow-herdess. Once Śrī Kṛṣṇa duped Rādhā and took the cowherdess Virajā to the region of loveplays. A mischievous maid informed Rādhā of this. Rādhā ran to the dancing garden and searched for the couple. Śrī Kṛṣṇa had made himself invisible. So she could not find him. She found out Virajā. Rādhā opened her eyes wide and pretended that she was about to curse her. Virajā was terrified and she melted and became a river; full of anger Rādhā went home. (Devī-Bhāgavata, Skandha 9).

2) Viraja (विरज).—A nāga (serpent) born to Prajāpati Kaśyapa by his wife Kadrū. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Stanza 13).

3) Viraja (विरज).—One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed by Bhīma in the battle of Bhārata. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 157).

4) Viraja (विरज).—A son born from the radiance of Mahāviṣṇu. Having no desire to rule over a kingdom, he adopted penance. He had a son named Kīrtimān. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 59, Stanza 88).

5) Viraja (विरज).—One of the eight sons of Kavi, who was the son of Vaivasvata Manu. He had eight sons. They were Kavi, Kāvya, Dhiṣṇu, Śukrācārya, Bhṛgu, Kāśī, Ugra and Virajas. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 132).

6) Virāja (विराज).—A King of the Kuru dynasty. He was the grandson of Kuru and the son of Avikṣit. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 92, Stanza 54).

7) Viraja (विरज).—A particular tower in Dvārakā. Whenever Śrī Kṛṣṇa wanted to be alone he went to this tower. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Viraja (विरज).—A son of Pūrṇiman.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 14.

1b) One of the seven sons of Vasiṣṭha—sage of the Cākṣuṣa epoch;1 attained heaven by tapas.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 41; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 77; Matsya-purāṇa 9. 22.
  • 2) Ib. 143. 38.

1c) A son of Tvaṣṭri, wife Viṣūci: father of a hundred sons—Śatajit and others, besides a daughter; raised the status of Priyavrata line as Hari did for the greatness of gods.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 15. 15-16; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 70; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 40.

1d) A pupil of Jātūkarṇya.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 6. 58.

1e) A Prajāpati who offered his daughter Virajā to Ṛkṣa; father of Sudhanvan and Vairājas—pitṛs living by yoga;1 father of Naḍvalā, the queen of Cākṣuṣa Manu; a Rājaṛṣi and a tapassiddha.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 212; 8. 17; 10. 4.
  • 2) Ib. II. 30. 40; 36. 105; Vāyu-purāṇa 57. 122.

1f) A son of Sṛñjaya, brother of Vasudeva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 193.

1g) One of the four sons in the 30th kalpa of Śarva—red in colour, attire, etc.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 22. 30.

1h) A disciple of Lokākṣi, an avatār of the Lord.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 135.

1i) A son of Vāli, the avatār of the Lord.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 160.

1j) A son of Pūrṇamāsa and Sarasvatī; his wife was Gaurī; son Sudhāmā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 13; Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 10-12; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 10. 6.

1k) The name of a Lekha.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 66.

1l) The adopted son of Vastāvana.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 190.

1m) A son of Sāvarṇi Manu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 19.

2a) Virajā (विरजा).—A daughter of progenitor, Viraja; wife of Ṛkṣa; loved by Mahendra, became mother of Vāli; loved by Sūrya, became mother of Sugrīva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 212-15.

2b) The mind-born daughter of Ājyapa pitṛs; queen of Nahuṣa and mother of Yayāti; belonging to the Vaiśya gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 10. 95; Vāyu-purāṇa 73. 45; 93. 12.

2c) A svara śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 55 and 96.

2d) A sacred place near Nābhikūpa in Gayā;1 no fasting or shaving here.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 106. 85.
  • 2) Ib. 105. 25.

2e) The gods of the Sāvarṇi epoch;1 Agniṣvātta— pitṛs.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 12.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 10. 75-6; IV. 1. 22.

3a) Virāja (विराज).—A son of Śamīka.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 27.

3b) A Marut gaṇa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 53.

3c) (Virāṭpuruṣa; also Samrāt and Manu)1 married Śatarūpā; sons Priyavrata and Uttānapāda and two daughters, Ākūtī and Prasūtī; the latter was given to Dakṣa and the former to Ruci to whom twins, Yajña and Dakṣiṇa were born.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 15.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 39.

3d) A mountain north of the Mahābhadra lake.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 33.

4a) Vīrajā (वीरजा).—A mind-born daughter of Ājyapa pitṛs; married Nahuṣa and became the mother of Yayāti.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 15. 23.

4b) A sage of the Cākṣuṣa epoch.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 28.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Viraja (विरज) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.13) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Viraja) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Viraja is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.14, I.35, I.89.45) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Viraja also refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.83.6).

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Virajā (विरजा) is the name of one of the seven sages (saptarṣi) in the Cākṣuṣamanvantara: one of the fourteen Manvantaras, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, “In cākṣuṣamanvantara, Manojava was the Indra, Bhāva and others who were the progeny of Āyu were said to be the deities. The seven sages were Sudhāmā, Virajā, Haviṣmān, Uttama, Budha, Atri and Sahiṣṇu”.

2) Virajā (विरजा) also refers to the daughter of Pitṛ and wife of Nahuṣa: the eldest of the five sons of Āyu (Āyus), according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, [...] Purūravas begets on Urvaśī six sons [viz., Āyu]. All these are celebrated like Semi-divine beings (devayonaya). Āyu got married to the daughter of Svarbhānu and became the father of five sons who were quite famous and well known. Nahuṣa was the eldest of them. Nahuṣa married Virajā the daughter of Pitṛ and was blessed with five sons of whom Yayāti was the most famous.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Virajā (विरजा).—the spiritual world is a manifestation of spiritual energy and is known as Vaikuṇṭhaloka, “the place where there is no anxiety”. The material world, known as Brahmāṇḍa is the creation of the external energy. Between the two creations-the material creation and the spiritual creation-is a river known as Virajā as well as a place known as Brahmaloka. Virajā-nadī and Brahmaloka are shelters for living entities disgusted with material life and inclined to impersonal existence by way of denying material variegatedness. Since these places are not situated in the Vaikuṇṭḥalokas, or the spiritual world, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu proclaims them to be external.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Vīraja (वीरज) or Vīraja-rasa is the name of an Ayurvedic recipe defined in the fourth volume of the Rasajalanidhi (chapter 6, udararoga: belly-related diseases). These remedies are classified as Iatrochemistry and form part of the ancient Indian science known as Rasaśāstra (medical alchemy). However, since it is an ayurveda treatment it should be taken with caution and in accordance with rules laid down in the texts.

Accordingly, when using such recipes (e.g., vīraja-rasa): “the minerals (uparasa), poisons (viṣa), and other drugs (except herbs), referred to as ingredients of medicines, are to be duly purified and incinerated, as the case may be, in accordance with the processes laid out in the texts.” (see introduction to Iatro chemical medicines)

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1) One of the three palaces occupied by Dhammadassi Buddha before his Renunciation. Bu.xvi.14.

2) A Pacceka Buddha. ApA.i.107; M.iii.70.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Virajā (विरजा) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). These districts are not divided into subgroups, nor are explained their internal locations. They [viz., Virajā] are external holy places, where the Tantric meting is held with native women who are identified as a native goddess. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.

Virajā is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Ambikā accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Anala. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the mudrā and paṭṭiśa and their abode (residence) is mentioned as being the āmra-tree. Viraja is mentioned in the Saṃpuṭatantra as being associated with the cūta-tree.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

viraja : (adj.) stainless; free from defilement.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Viraja, (adj.) (vi+rajo) free from defilement or passion, stainless, faultless Vin. I, 294 (āgamma maggaṃ virajaṃ); Sn. 139, 520, 636, 1105 (see exegesis at Nd2 590); Pv III, 36 (=vigata-raja, niddosa PvA. 189); DhA. IV, 142, 187; DA. I, 237. Often in phrase virajaṃ vītamalaṃ dhamma-cakkhuṃ udapādi “there arose in him the stainless eye of the Arahant, ” e.g. Vin. I, 16; S. IV, 47.—virajaṃ (+asokaṃ) padaṃ “the stainless (+painless) element” is another expression for Nibbāna, e.g. S. IV, 210; A. IV, 157, 160; It. 37, 46; Vv 169; similarly ṭhānaṃ (for padaṃ) Pv. II, 333 (=sagga PvA. 89). (Page 633)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viraja (विरज).—a. Free from dust or passion; pure; विधूतकल्मषाः स्थानं विरजेनात्मनैव हि (vidhūtakalmaṣāḥ sthānaṃ virajenātmanaiva hi) Bhāg.1.15.48;8.8.45.

-jaḥ An epithet of Viṣṇu.

-jā 1 Dūrvā grass; Mb.13. 136.25.

2) Name of the wife of Nahuṣa.

3) The Kapittha-tree.

4) Name of a river; मुण्डनं चोपवासश्च सर्वतीर्थेष्वयं विधिः । वर्जयित्वा गयां गङ्गां विशालां विरजां तथा (muṇḍanaṃ copavāsaśca sarvatīrtheṣvayaṃ vidhiḥ | varjayitvā gayāṃ gaṅgāṃ viśālāṃ virajāṃ tathā) ||

--- OR ---

Virāja (विराज).—a. See विराज् (virāj)

-jaḥ A particular form of a temple; Hch.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Viraja (विरज).—(compare also Virajas), (1) name of two former Bud-dhas in the same list: Mahāvastu iii.231.11; 234.6 (prose); (2) name of a former Buddha, of the kṛta age (see 364.6): Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 364.14 (verse; he was of the Kātyāyana gotra); 365.6 (verse); (3) nt., °jaṃ, name of the Buddhakṣetra of the future Buddha Padmaprabha: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 65.8 (prose); in 68.2 (verse) it is called the lokadhātu Virajā (f.), or (v.l.) °jo (m.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viraja (विरज).—m.

(-jaḥ) Vishnu. f.

(-jā) Free from dust.

--- OR ---

Virajā (विरजा).—f.

(-jā) 1. A plant, commonly kavitthānī 2. A sort of grass, commonly Durba.

--- OR ---

Virāja (विराज).—m. (-rāṭ) 1. A man of the regal or military class. 2. Splendour, beauty. 3. The body. 4. The first progeny of Brahma, who having divided himself into male and female, produced from the female, Viraj; Viraj then by himself produced the first Manu or Swayambhuva who was the progenitor of the Prajapatis, and the secondary framer of the visible world: in other places Viraj is the same as Brahma, and assumer of the androgynous form in his own person. E. vi severally or separately, &c., rāj to shine, aff. kvip .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viraja (विरज).—[adjective] dustless, passionless, pure.

--- OR ---

Virāja (विराज).—[adjective] shining, resplendent.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viraja (विरज):—[=vi-raja] [from vi] a See sub voce

2) [=vi-raja] b mf(ā)n. (3. vi+raja for rajas) free from dust, clean, pure (also [figuratively] ‘free from passion’), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] free from the menstrual excretion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Marut-vat, [Harivaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] of a son of Tvaṣṭṛ, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] of a son of Pūrṇiman, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] of a pupil of Jātūkarṇya, [ib.]

8) [v.s. ...] of the world of Buddha Padma-prabha, [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka]

9) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) of a class of gods under Manu Sāvarṇi, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

10) Virajā (विरजा):—[=vi-rajā] [from vi-raja] f. Panicum Dactylon (= dūrā), [Mahābhārata] (= kapitthānī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])

11) [v.s. ...] of the wife of Nahuṣa (spiritual daughter of a class of Pitṛs called Su-svadhas or Sva-svadhas), [Harivaṃśa]

12) [v.s. ...] of a mistress of Kṛṣṇa (who was changed into a river), [Pañcarātra]

13) [v.s. ...] of a Rākṣasī, [Catalogue(s)]

14) Viraja (विरज):—[=vi-raja] n. Name of a place of pilgrimage, [Mahābhārata]

15) Virāja (विराज):—[=vi-rāja] [from vi-rāj] mfn. shining, brilliant, [Pañcarātra]

16) [v.s. ...] m. a [particular] form of a temple, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

17) [v.s. ...] a [participle] Ekāha, [Vaitāna-sūtra]

18) [v.s. ...] a species of plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] Name of a Prajā-pati, [Harivaṃśa]

20) [v.s. ...] of a son of A-vikṣit, [Mahābhārata]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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