Shanku, Sanku, Saṅku, Śaṅku: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Shanku means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śaṅku can be transliterated into English as Sanku or Shanku, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Śaṅku (शङ्कु) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Triviṣṭapa, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Triviṣṭapa group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (e.g. Śaṅku) that are to be octangular in shape. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Śaṅku is mentioned in another list from the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 56, being part of the group named Lalita, containing 25 unique temple varieties.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śaṅku (शङ्कु).—A son of Hiraṇyākṣa. Śambara, Śakuni, Dvimūrdhā, Śaṅku and Ārya were the sons of Hiraṇyāksa (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19).

2) Śaṅku (शङ्कु).—A Yādava King who was present at the wedding of Draupadī. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 185, Verse 19).

2) He was a member of the company of Yādavas, who carried Subhadrā’s dowry at her wedding with Arjuna. He was a mahārathī also. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14 and Ādi Parva, Chapter 220).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śaṅku (शङ्कु) refers to “geese” (a goose), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On the top of the mountain near the city of Himālaya (śailarājapura), Śiva sported about for a long time in the company of Satī. [...] kinds of birds flew there, such as—Cakravāka, Kādamba, swans, geese (Śaṅku), the intoxicated Sārasas, cranes, the peacocks etc. The sweet note of the male cuckoo reverberated there”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śaṅku (शङ्कु).—A son of Ugrasena;1 a follower of Bali.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 24; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 33; Matsya-purāṇa 44. 74; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 14. 20.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 245. 31.

1b) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Satyā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 13.

1c) A son of Ūrjā and Vasiṣṭha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 42.

1d) One hundred thousand crores.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 97.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Śaṅku (शङ्कु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.90.94) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śaṅku) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Śaṅku (शङ्कु).—1. Gnomon. 2. The R sine of the altitude of a heavenly body. Note: Śaṅku is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Śaṅku (शङ्कु) in the Rigveda and later denotes a ‘wooden peg’. Thus the term is used of the pegs by which a skin is stretched out in the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa (ii, 1, 1, 10), and of the pin of hobbles (paḍbīśa). In the Chāndogya-upaniṣad it may mean ‘stalk’ or ’fibre of a leaf’.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Śaṅku (शङ्कु) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Śaṅku).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

saṅku : (m.) a stake; a spike.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Saṅku, (cp. Vedic śaṅku) a stake, spike; javelin M. I, 337; S. IV, 168; J. VI, 112; DhA. I, 69.—ayo° an iron stake A. IV, 131.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śaṅku (शंकु).—m S The gnomon or style of a dial. 2 A spike, nail, prong, pin, peg, stake, pale &c. generally. 3 A number, ten billions. 4 In modern translations. A cone. 5 The sine of the altitude of a heavenly body.

--- OR ---

sāṅkū (सांकू).—m ( H) A bridge, yet understood esp. of a bridge or a float of rude materials and hasty construction.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śaṅku (शंकु).—m The style of a dial. A spike. 10 billions. A cone.

--- OR ---

sāṅkū (सांकू).—m A bridge of rude materials.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaṅku (शङ्कु).—[śaṅk-uṇ Uṇ.1.36]

1) A dart, spear, spike, javelin, dagger; oft. at the end of comp; शोकशङ्कुः (śokaśaṅkuḥ) 'the dart of grief', i. e. sharp or poignant grief; तथैव तीव्रो हृदि शोकशङ्कुर्मर्माणि कृन्तन्नपि किं न सोढः (tathaiva tīvro hṛdi śokaśaṅkurmarmāṇi kṛntannapi kiṃ na soḍhaḥ) U.3.35; R.8.93; Ki.16.15.

2) A stake, pillar, post, pale; महासुहयः सैन्धवः पड्वीशशङ्कून् संवृहेत् (mahāsuhayaḥ saindhavaḥ paḍvīśaśaṅkūn saṃvṛhet) Bri. Up.6.1.13; निखातशङ्कुसंबद्धसैन्धवश्रेणिसंयुतम् (nikhātaśaṅkusaṃbaddhasaindhavaśreṇisaṃyutam) Siva B.2. 53.

3) A nail, pin, peg; बभूवु सप्त दुर्धर्षाः खादिरैः शङ्कुभि- श्चिताः (babhūvu sapta durdharṣāḥ khādiraiḥ śaṅkubhi- ścitāḥ) Mb.3.284.3; अयःशङ्कुचितां रक्षः शतघ्नीमथ शत्रवे (ayaḥśaṅkucitāṃ rakṣaḥ śataghnīmatha śatrave) (akṣipat) R.12.95.

4) The sharp head or point of an arrow, barb; Dk.1.1.

5) The trunk (of a lopped tree), stump, pollard.

6) The pin of a dial.

7) A measure of twelve fingers.

8) A measuring-rod.

9) The sine of altitude (in astr.).

1) Ten billions.

11) The fibres of a leaf; यथा शङ्कुना सर्वाणि पर्णानि संतृण्णानि (yathā śaṅkunā sarvāṇi parṇāni saṃtṛṇṇāni) Ch. Up. 2.23.3.

12) An ant-hill.

13) The penis.

14) The skate-fish.

15) A demon.

16) Poison.

17) Sin; crime.

18) An aquatic animal, particularly, a goose.

19) Name of Śiva.

2) The Sāla tree.

21) A kind of perfume (nakhī).

22) Name of Kāma, the god of love.

Derivable forms: śaṅkuḥ (शङ्कुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅku (शङ्कु).—m.

(-ṅkuḥ) 1. The trunk of a lopped tree. 2. A javelin, a spear. 3. A pin, a stake, a pale. 4. The gnomon of a dial, usually twelve fingers long. 5. A long thin column in front of a pagoda. 6. The penis. 7. A number. 8. The small fibres of a leaf. 9. The scate fish, (Raia Sankur, Ham.) 10. A sort of perfume, commonly Nak'hi. 11. A goose. 12. An ant-hill. 13. A goblin, a demon. 14. A Gand'harba attached to Siva. 15. A name of Siva. 16. Kama. 17. Sin. 18. Fear, terror. 19. The pointed head of an arrow, a shaft. 20. A measuring rod. 21. A large number “ten billions.” 22. Poison. 23. Sine of altitude, (in astro.) E. śaki to doubt or apprehend, aff. uṇ .

--- OR ---

Saṅku (सङ्कु).—m.

(-ṅkuḥ) A hole.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅku (शङ्कु).—[śaṅk + u], (partly śak + u, cf. śakti), m. 1. Fear. 2. Śiva. 3. Kāma. 4. A demon. 5. Poison. 6. Sin. 7. A pin, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 69; a pale, a style, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 271; a stake. 8. The trunk of a lopped tree. 9. A dart, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 75, 12; a javelin, [Pañcatantra] 87, 12 (cf. [Hiḍimbavadha] 2, 4); a weapon in general. 10. A goose. 11. An ant-hill. 12. A skate. 13. A number, ten billions. 14. A tree, Shorea robusta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaṅku (शङ्कु).—[masculine] a pointed peg or wooden nail, stake, pike, beam, arrow, spear, sting (lit. & [figuratively]), [Name] of a serpent-demon etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaṅku (शङ्कु):—[from śaṅk] 1. śaṅku m. (for 2. See [column]2) fear, terror, [Horace H. Wilson]

2) 2. śaṅku m. (of doubtful derivation) a peg, nail, spike, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) a stick, [Harivaṃśa]

4) a stake, post, pillar, [Mahābhārata]

5) an arrow, spear, dart ([figuratively] applied to the ‘sting’ of sorrow, pain etc.; cf. śankā-, śoka-ś etc.), [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

6) a [particular] weapon or any weapon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) the pin or gnomon of a dial (usually twelve fingers long), [Colebrooke]

8) a kind of forceps (used for the extraction of a dead fetus), [Suśruta]

9) the fibre or vein of a leaf, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad]

10) the measure of twelve fingers, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) (in [astronomy]) the sine of altitude, [Sūryasiddhānta]

12) a [particular] high number, ten billions (compared to an innumerable collection of ants), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

13) the clapper of a bell, [Govardh.] ([cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] also the penis; poison; Unguis Odoratus; a [particular] tree or the trunk of a lopped tree; a [particular] fish [accord. to some ‘the skate fish’] or aquatic animal; a goose; a measuring rod; a Rākṣasa; Name of Śiva; of a Gandharva attendant on Śiva; of Kāma; of a Nāga; = aṃśa)

14) Name of a man [gana] gargādi

15) of a Dānava, [Harivaṃśa]

16) of a Vṛṣṇi (son of Ugra-sena), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

17) of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Harivaṃśa]

18) of a poet (= śaṅkuka q.v.), [Catalogue(s)]

19) of a. Brāhman, [Buddhist literature]

20) n. Name of a Sāman, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

21) Saṅku (सङ्कु):—(?) m. a hole, [Horace H. Wilson]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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