Muni: 20 definitions

Introduction

Muni means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Muni(मुनि):—Another name for Agastya (Sesbania grandiflora), a species of medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Muni (मुनि) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Muni) various roles suitable to them.

2) Muni (मुनि) is the Sanskrit name for “sages”, to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (eg., to Munis).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Muni (मुनि).—One of the seven sons of Dyutimān, who was a son of Priyavrata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Priyavrata was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Muni (मुनि).—The mother of the Yakṣas. It is stated that Kaśyapaprajāpati begot of his wife Muni, the Yakṣas. (Chapter 19, Agni Purāṇa). The Gandharvas also were born of Muni. She gave birth to sixteen Gandharvas of which the first was named Bhīmasena. (Śloka 42, Chapter 65, Ādi Parva).

2) Muni (मुनि).—Son of a Vasu named Ahar (i.e. Ahaḥ) (Śloka 23, Chapter 66, Ādi Parva).

3) Muni (मुनि).—Son of Kuru of the Pūru line of kings. Kuru begot of his wife Vāhinī five sons named Aśvavān, Abhiṣyanta, Caitraratha, Janamejaya and Muni. (Śloka 50, Chapter 94, Ādi Parva).

4) Muni (मुनि).—One of the seven sons of a King named Dyutimān. (Mārkaṇḍeya Purāṇa 5. 24).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Muni (मुनि).—A daughter of Dakṣa and one of the 13 wives of Kaśyapa; a mother goddess; mother of groups of munis and sages, Apsaras and Gandharvas;1 given to Gandha śīlā.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 26-7; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 56; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 2, 45; 146. 19; 171. 29, 60; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 55.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 466.

1b) A son of Dyutimān, after whom came the Maunideśam in Krauncadvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 23, 26; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 21, 23. Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 48.

1c) A god of Prasūta group.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 71.

1d) A son of Vaidya.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 59. 7. Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 7.

1e) A son of Pradyumna and father of Ūrjavaha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 64. 20; Vāyu-purāṇa 89. 19.

1f) One of the twenty Amitābha gods.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 17.

1g) A sage of the Raivata epoch;1 a Viśvedeva.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 9. 9.
  • 2) Ib. 203. 13; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 30.

1h) One of the wives of Kaśyapa; gave birth to Apsarasas.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 125; 21. 25.

1i) Those who delight in the ātman, after many births, and renounce even the region of Brahmā; realise the Supreme Spirit by shaking off the three dreamy stages— bhāvādvaita, kriyādvaita, and dravyādvaita.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 27. 27; VII. 15. 62-5; X. 2. 25.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Muni (मुनि) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.89.44) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Muni) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Muni also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.12, I.65, I.60.22).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Muni (मुनि) refers to “(1) Great sage (2) One who endeavours to approach the Absolute Truth by dint of mental prowess”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Muni (मुनि) refers to:—A sage, ascetic, spiritual scholar or self-realised soul. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Muni (मुनि) refers to a type of Bhikṣu: the fourth of the four stages of a layman (āśrama) according to Cāmuṇḍarāya (940–989 A.D.) in his Caritra-sāra. Muni refers to a monk who possesses supernatural knowledge (avadhi-jñāna, manaḥ-paryaya-jñāna and kevala-jñāna)

Cāmuṇḍarāya, who was a Digambara Jain, has taken over the Hindu concept of the four āśramas, which, following Jinasena, he terms brahmacārin, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, and bhikṣu (eg., Muni).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Muni.—(SII 1; IA 30; LL), a Jain monk. (IE 7-1-2), ‘seven’. Note: muni is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

muni : (aor. of munāti) knew; understood. (m.), a monk.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Muni, (cp. Vedic muni, originally one who has made the vow of silence. Cp. Chh. Up. VIII, 5, 2; Pss. of the Br. 132 note. Connected with mūka: see under mukha. This etym. preferred by Aufrecht: Halāyudha p. 311. Another, as favoured by Pischel (see under munāti) is “inspired, moved by the spirit. ” Pāli explanations (popular etym.) are given by Dhammapāla at VvA. 114 & 231: see munana) a holy man, a sage, wise man. I. The term which was specialised in Brahmanism has acquired a general meaning in Buddhism & is applied by the Buddha to any man attaining perfection in self-restraint and insight. So the word is capable of many-sided application and occurs frequently in the oldest poetic anthologies, e.g. Sn. 207—221 (the famous Muni-sutta, mentioned Divy 20, 35; SnA 518; explained SnA 254—277), 414, 462, 523 sq. , 708 sq. , 811 sq. , 838, 844 sq. , 912 sq. , 946, 1074 & passim (see Pj. Index p. 749); Dh. 49, 225, 268 sq. , 423.—Cp. general passages & explanations at Pv. II, 113; II, 133 (explained at PvA. 163 by “attahitañ ca parahitañ ca munāti jānātī ti muni”); Miln. 90 (munibhāva “munihood, ” meditation, self-denial, abrogation); DhA. III, 521 (munayo=moneyya-paṭipadāya maggaphalaṃ pattā asekha-munayo), 395 (here explained with ref. to orig. meaning tuṇhībhāva “state of silence” =mona).—II. The Com. & Abhidhamma literature have produced several schedules of muni-qualities, esp. based on the 3 fold division of character as revealed in action, speech & thought (kāya°, vacī°, mano°). Just as these 3 are in general exhibited in good or bad ways of living (°sucaritaṃ & °duccaritaṃ), they are applied to a deeper quality of saintship in kāya-moneyya, vacīmoneyya, mano-moneyya; or Muni-hood in action, speech & thought; and the muni himself is characterised as a kāya-muni, vacī° & mano°. Thus runs the long exegesis of muni at Nd2 514A=Nd1 57. Besides this the same chapter (514B) gives a division of 6 munis, viz. agāra-muni, anagāra° (the bhikkhus), sekha°, asekha° (the Arahants), pacceka° (the Paccekabuddhas), muni° (the Tathāgatas).—The parallel passage to Nd2 514A at A. I, 273 gives a muni as kāya-muni, vācā° & ceto° (under the 3 moneyyāni). (Page 538)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

muni (मुनि).—m (S) A holy sage; a pious and learned person having attained the nature of the gods by rigid abstraction and mortification. 2 An ascetic, an austere devotee.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

muni (मुनि).—m A holy sage. An ascetic.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Muni (मुनि).—[man-in ucca Uṇ.4.122]

1) A sage, a holy man, saint, devotee, an ascetic; मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः (munīnāmapyahaṃ vyāsaḥ) Bg.1. 37; दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः । वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थित- धीर्मुनिरुच्यते (duḥkheṣvanudvignamanāḥ sukheṣu vigataspṛhaḥ | vītarāgabhayakrodhaḥ sthita- dhīrmunirucyate) || 2.56; पुण्यः शब्दो मुनिरिति मुहुः केवलं राजपूर्वः (puṇyaḥ śabdo muniriti muhuḥ kevalaṃ rājapūrvaḥ) Ś.2.15; R.1.8;3.49.

2) Name of the sage Agastya.

3) Of Vyāsa; Mb.6.119.4.

4) Of Buddha.

5) of Pāṇini.

6) Name of several plants (piyālu, parāśara and damanaka).

7) The internal conscience (according to Kull. on Ms.8.91 'the Supreme Spirit').

8) The mango-tree.

9) The number 'seven'. -pl. The seven sages.

Derivable forms: muniḥ (मुनिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muni (मुनि).—m.

(-niḥ) 1. A holy sage, a pious and learned person, endowed with more or less of a divine nature, or having attained it by rigid abstraction and mortification; the title is applied to the Rishis, the Brahmadikas, and to a great number of persons distinguished for their writings, considered as inspired, as Panini, Vyasa, &c. 2. An ascetic, a devotee. 3. An Arhat or Jaina deified teacher. 4. The saint Agastya. 5. The Palaśh tree, (Butea frondosa.) 6. Another tree, (Buchanania latifolia.) E. man to be revered, Unadi aff. in, and u substituted for the radical vowel.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muni (मुनि).—i. e. man + i (u for a, by the influence of the preceding labial), I. m. 1. A holy sage, endowed with divine inspiration, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 3. 2. An ascetic, [Pañcatantra] 34, 13. 3. The saint Agastya, Vyāsa, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 49. 4. The name of two plants. Ii. f. , A female saint.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muni (मुनि).—[masculine] impulse or a man driven by (inward) impulse; an inspired saint or seer; ascetic, devotee, hermit, monk, [especially] one who has taken the vow of silence; [plural] the seven stars of the Great Bear (cf. ṛṣi).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Muni (मुनि) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a lexicographer, probably Kātyāyana. Kṣīrasvāmin on Amarakośa.

2) Muni (मुनि):—and munīndra a designation of Bharata. Sāhityadarpaṇa p. 93. 200.

3) Muni (मुनि):—Quoted by Utpala in Spandapradīpikā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Muni (मुनि):—m. ([according to] to [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 122 fr.] √man) impulse, eagerness (?), [Ṛg-veda vii, 56, 8]

2) ([probably]) any one who is moved by inward impulse, an inspired or ecstatic person, enthusiast, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa]

3) a saint, sage, seer, ascetic, monk, devotee, hermit ([especially] one who has taken the vow of silence), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc. (with hṛdayeṣu sthitaḥ, the internal monitor or conscience, [Manu-smṛti viii, 91])

4) a Brāhman of the highest (eighth) order, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

5) Name of a son of Kuru, [Mahābhārata]

6) of a son of Dyuti-mat, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

7) of Vyāsa, [Kirātārjunīya]

8) of Bharata, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

9) of Agastya, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) of a Buddha or Arhat, [Lalita-vistara]

11) of Pāṇini etc. (cf. -traya)

12) of other nien, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

13) of various authors, [Catalogue(s)]

14) of various plants (Agati Grandiflora, Buchanania Latifolia, Butea Frondosa, Terminalia Catappa, the mango-tree and Artemisia Indica), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [plural] ‘the celestial Munis’, Name of the seven stars of Ursa Major (and there fore a symbolical Name for the number ‘seven’), [Varāha-mihira; Sūryasiddhānta; Śrutabodha]

16) Munī (मुनी):—[from muni] f. a female Muni (also ī), [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 122 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

17) [v.s. ...] Name of a daughter of Dakṣa (and wife of Kaśyapa), mother of a class of Gandharvas and Apsaras (cf. mauneya), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

18) Muni (मुनि):—n. Name of a Varṣa (called after a royal Muni), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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