Vyaghra, Vyāghra: 31 definitions
Vyaghra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “tiger”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Vyāghra is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.
2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is another name (synonym) for Raktairaṇḍa: one of the three varieties of Eraṇḍa, which is a Sanskrit name representing Ricinus communis (castor-oil-plant). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 8.55-57), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Eraṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs
Vyaghra [व्याघ्र] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre from the Fabaceae (pea) family having the following synonyms: Millettia pinnata, Pongamia glabra, Derris indica, Cytisus pinnatus. For the possible medicinal usage of vyaghra, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र)—Sanskrit word for the animal “tiger”. This animal is from the group called Guhāśaya (‘which have a lair’, or, ‘cave-dwelling mammals’). Guhāśaya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—Tiger.Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) (lit. “any pre-eminently strong or noble person”) refers to the Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to “tigers”, and is used to describe the mountain Kailāsa (the auspicious excellent mountainous abode of Śiva), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.40.—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] accompanied by the gods, sages, Brahmā and others Viṣṇu went to Kailāsa, the auspicious excellent mountainous abode of Śiva. [...] Kailāsa was infested with big animals (i.e., vyāghra-ādi), tigers and others who were free from cruelty. It was of divine nature endowed with shining brilliance. It inspired great surprise and wonder”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—A son of Yātudhāna and father of Nirānanda.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 89 and 96.
1b) One of the five sons of Ūrddhvadṛṣṭi and father of Śarabha.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 205.
1d) A snake with the sun in Āvaṇi and Puraṭṭāśi.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 11.
1e) A piśāca.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 127.
1f) The Rākṣasa residing in the sun's chariot in the Bhādrapada month.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 10. 10.
1g) The Rākṣasa presiding over the month of Nabhasya.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 38; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 11.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to one of the 23 types of dohā metres (a part of mātrā type) described in the 1st chapter of the Vṛttamauktika by Candraśekhara (17th century): author of many metrical compositions and the son of Lakṣmīnātha Bhaṭṭa and Lopāmudrā.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to the animal “Tiger” (Panthera tigris).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Vyāghra] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Vyāghrā (व्याघ्रा) is the name of the Cave (guhā) associated with the sacred seat of Pūrṇagiri (pūrṇapīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly:—“Pūrṇapīṭha is called Sound. Endowed with all the energies, it is yellow and on the path on the left. (The Mother there is) Pūrṇāmbā and is the Mantrapīṭha. The three worlds bow to the famed Caryānātha (who resides here). The tree, (well) known on the surface of the earth, is called Kārañja. The mother here is called Carcikā. The cave is called Vyāghrā; (well) known in the three worlds, it bestows accomplishment to Kaulikas. Śrīnātha is there in (that) sacred seat, his nine-fold body replete;he is famed in the Middle Lineage. [...]”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to a “tiger”, according to the Kiraṇatantra chapter 49 (dealing with vratacaryā).—Accordingly, “Garuḍa spoke: ‘You have taught me, O great Lord, the activities of the Neophyte, the Putraka and the Ācārya. Tell me those of the Sādhaka’. The Lord spoke: ‘[...] This is the auspicious Raudra-vrata: imposing with a chignon of matted locks, marked by a trident and khaṭvāṅga, equipped with a clean half skull, awe-inspiring with a third eye, clothed in the skin of a tiger (vyāghra-carman-ambara), peaceful. For one firm [in this observance], the highest siddhi will arise in six months; middling [powers] in four months; the lowest [powers] will arise in three months. [...]’”.Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to a “tiger”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 9.19cd-26, while instructing to visualize Sadāśiva in order to worship the formless Amṛteśa]—“[He] resembles the swelling moon, a heap of mountain snow. Five-faced, large-eyed, ten-armed, [and] three-armed, [he] has a serpent as a sacred thread. He is covered in a garment made of tiger skin (vyāghra-carman-ambaracchada). [He] sits in the bound lotus pose atop a white lotus, [holding] a trident, blue lotus, arrow, rudrākṣa, [and] a mallet. [...]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to a “tiger”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If a hog steps over [a cord], there is [the bone of] a tiger (vyāghrāsthi) [beneath the site]. If a tiger (vyāghra) [steps over a cord], there is [the bone of] an elephant [beneath the site]. [...]”.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र, ‘tiger’) is never found in the Rigveda, but frequently occurs in the Atharvaveda, as well as the lion. This fact is legitimately regarded as an indication that the Atharvaveda belongs to a period when the Vedic Indian had approached and entered the territory of Bengal. Later, also, mention of the tiger is quite common. The Taittirīya-saṃhitā preserves a reference to the danger of waking a sleeping tiger.
The destructive character of the animal is often alluded to, the man-eater (puruṣād) being also mentioned. Like the lion, the tiger passes as a symbol of strength. This idea is illustrated by the fact that the king at the Rājasūya (‘royal consecration’) steps on a tiger’s skin to win himself the strength of the animal. Cf. also Śārdūla, Petva.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
1) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र, “tiger”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. If pride (abhimāna) and anger abound, they [people] take the form of a savage beast [for example], tiger (vyāghra).
2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to a “tiger”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “pure wisdom (anāsravaprajñā) always considers (anupaśyati) universal impermanence (sarvānityatā) and because it considers impermanence it does not produce the fetters (saṃyojana), thirst (tṛṣṇā), etc. It is like a sheep (eḍaka) that is kept near a tiger (vyāghra): even if it has good grass and good water, it does not get fat. In the same way, even though they experience pure happiness (anāsravasukha), the saints nevertheless contemplate impermanence (anityatā) and emptiness (śūnya) and that is why they do not produce the ‘fat’ of desire (rāgameda)”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
1) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Vyāghrī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Vyāghra] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.
2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is also the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Vyāghrī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jalacakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the jalacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Vyāghra] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife..Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to an “enormous man”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “In the Mandala, an obscured Himalaya, abiding seated in lotus posture, [..] the skin of a rutting elephant two-arms’ length of an enormous man (vyāghra-hastadvaya), a glittering ax, sharp cutting knife, flaming banner, staff, noose, broad chest, lopped off Brahma heads, with firewood, with a skull bowl, with shining arms, and beautiful pride, [...] a helper for crossing over together, the dreadful wilderness of saṃsāra, routing Māra, Śrī Vajrasattva, homage”.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to “tigers”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Snakes, fire, poison, tigers (vyāghra), elephants, lions, demons and kings, etc. do not hurt those whose selves are settled in the doctrine. On the earth even the lord of the snakes with a thousand trembling mouths is not able to describe clearly the entire power of the doctrine”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—m (S) A tiger.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—m A tiger.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—[vyājighrati, vyāghrā ka]
1) A tiger.
2) (At the end of comp.) Best, pre-eminent, chief; as in नरव्याघ्र, पुरुषव्याघ्र (naravyāghra, puruṣavyāghra).
3) The red variety of the castor-oil plant.
-ghrī A tigress; व्याघ्रीव तिष्ठति जरा परितर्जयन्ति (vyāghrīva tiṣṭhati jarā paritarjayanti) Bhartṛhari 3.19.
Derivable forms: vyāghraḥ (व्याघ्रः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ghraḥ) 1. A tiger. 2. (In composition,) Best, pre-eminent, (at the end of a compound.) 3. A variety of the castor-oil plant, (the red variety.) 4. A tree, (Galedupa arborea.) f. (-ghrī) A prickly sort of nightshade, (Solanum jacquini.) E. vi and āṅ before ghrā to smell, Unadi aff. ka .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—i. e. vi-ā-ghrā, I. m. 1. A tiger, [Pañcatantra] 157, 25. 2. As latter part of comp. words, Best, preeminent, e. g. puruṣa-, m. An eminent man (literally, A tiger-like man), [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 19. Ii. f. ghrī, The female of a tiger, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 3, 39.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—[masculine] tiger, first or best of (—°); [feminine] vyāghrī tigress. — Abstr. tā† [feminine], tva† [neuter]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a common abridgment for Vyāghrapad.
2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—Vedamāhātmya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vyāghrā (व्याघ्रा):—[=vy-ā-√ghrā] [Parasmaipada] -jighrati, to scent out, scent or smell at ([probably] to explain vyaghra below), [Patañjali on Pāṇini 3-1, 137], [vArttika] 1.
2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—[from vyā-ghrā] m. a tiger (not in [Ṛg-veda], but in [Atharva-veda], often mentioned with the lion; [according to] to [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 30, 26], Śārdūlī is the mythical mother of tigers; but in Vahni-Purāṇa they are said to be the offspring of Kaśyapa’s wife Daṃṣṭrā; cf. citra-vy), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.
3) [v.s. ...] any pre-eminently strong or noble person, ‘a tiger among men’ (cf. ṛṣabha, siṃha)
4) [v.s. ...] Pongamia Glabra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] a red variety of the castor-oil plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] Name of a Rākṣasa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
7) [v.s. ...] of a king, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
8) [v.s. ...] of various authors (also abridged [from] vyāghra-pad), [Catalogue(s)]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—[vyā+ghra] (ghraḥ) 1. m. A tiger; a castoroil tree. f. (nī) A prickly nightshade. (In comp.) Best.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vaggha.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—(nm) a tiger; -[carma] tiger skin; ~[nakha] claw of a tiger; ~[mukha/mukhī] having a tiger-like face; terrible.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] the large, fierce. wild cat Panthera tigris of Felidae family; a tiger.
2) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.
3) [noun] a red variety of the castor plant ( =Ricinus communis?).
4) [noun] the tree Pongamia glabra of Papilionaceae family; Indian beach.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+49): Vyaghra-ekamru, Vyaghrabala, Vyaghrabha, Vyaghrabhata, Vyaghrabhuti, Vyaghracarmamaya, Vyaghracarman, Vyaghracarmman, Vyaghracharmman, Vyaghradala, Vyaghradamshtra, Vyaghradani, Vyaghradanshtra, Vyaghradatta, Vyaghradeva, Vyaghradi, Vyaghradini, Vyaghragana, Vyaghragiri, Vyaghragriva.
Full-text (+155): Vyaghrata, Vyaghranayaka, Vyaghrasya, Vyaghrapadasmriti, Vyaghrapuccha, Vyaghrarupa, Vyaghrasena, Vyaghragriva, Upavyaghra, Vyaghradamshtra, Vyaghra-carman, Vyaghradala, Vyaghrapada, Vyaghrana, Vyaghradani, Vyaghrasmriti, Vyaghrapatsmriti, Vyaghravadhu, Vyaghrashvan, Vyaghradatta.
Search found 29 books and stories containing Vyaghra, Vyāghra, Vyāghrā, Vya-ghra, Vyā-ghrā; (plurals include: Vyaghras, Vyāghras, Vyāghrās, ghras, ghrās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Animal Kingdom (Tiryak) in Epics (by Saranya P.S)
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 12.42-44 < [Section VIII - States of Existence due to the Three Qualities]
Verse 3.216 < [Section XIV - Method of Feeding]
Verse 2.6 < [Section III - Sources of Knowledge of Dharma]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 4.11.7 < [Chapter 11 - The Story of the Gopīs that were Residents of...]
Verse 2.23.33 < [Chapter 23 - The Killing of Śaṅkhacūḍa During the Rāsa-dance Pastime]
Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 3.4.23 < [Part 4 - Parenthood (vātsalya-rasa)]
Verse 1.2.112 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Chaitanya Bhagavata (by Bhumipati Dāsa)