Vyaghra, Vyāghra: 21 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Vyaghra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “tiger”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Vyāghra is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is another name (synonym) for Raktairaṇḍa: one of the three varieties of Eraṇḍa, which is a Sanskrit name representing Ricinus communis (castor-oil-plant). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 8.55-57), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus. Certain plant parts of Eraṇḍa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), and it is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र)—Sanskrit word for the animal “tiger”. This animal is from the group called Guhāśaya (‘which have a lair’, or, ‘cave-dwelling mammals’). Guhāśaya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—Tiger.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to “tigers”, and is used to describe the mountain Kailāsa (the auspicious excellent mountainous abode of Śiva), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.40.—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] accompanied by the gods, sages, Brahmā and others Viṣṇu went to Kailāsa, the auspicious excellent mountainous abode of Śiva. [...] Kailāsa was infested with big animals (i.e., vyāghra-ādi), tigers and others who were free from cruelty. It was of divine nature endowed with shining brilliance. It inspired great surprise and wonder”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—A son of Yātudhāna and father of Nirānanda.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 89 and 96.

1b) One of the five sons of Ūrddhvadṛṣṭi and father of Śarabha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 205.

1c) The tiger, said to have eaten Garga's cow;1 its skin, the dress of Śiva.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 20. 10.
  • 2) Ib. 217. 5; 259. 6.

1d) A snake with the sun in Āvaṇi and Puraṭṭāśi.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 11.

1e) A piśāca.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 127.

1f) The Rākṣasa residing in the sun's chariot in the Bhādrapada month.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 10. 10.

1g) The Rākṣasa presiding over the month of Nabhasya.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 38; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 11.

1h) Born of Hari and Pulaha; a vānarajāti and son of Jāmbavān;1 could be killed as wild animals.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 176, 304, 319; 51. 9.
  • 2) Ib. IV. 6. 50; 29. 41.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to one of the 23 types of dohā metres (a part of mātrā type) described in the 1st chapter of the Vṛttamauktika by Candraśekhara (17th century): author of many metrical compositions and the son of Lakṣmīnātha Bhaṭṭa and Lopāmudrā.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) refers to the animal “Tiger” (Panthera tigris).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Vyāghra] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र, ‘tiger’) is never found in the Rigveda, but frequently occurs in the Atharvaveda, as well as the lion. This fact is legitimately regarded as an indication that the Atharvaveda belongs to a period when the Vedic Indian had approached and entered the territory of Bengal. Later, also, mention of the tiger is quite common. The Taittirīya-saṃhitā preserves a reference to the danger of waking a sleeping tiger.

The destructive character of the animal is often alluded to, the man-eater (puruṣād) being also mentioned. Like the lion, the tiger passes as a symbol of strength. This idea is illustrated by the fact that the king at the Rājasūya (‘royal consecration’) steps on a tiger’s skin to win himself the strength of the animal. Cf. also Śārdūla, Petva.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र, “tiger”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. If pride (abhimāna) and anger abound, they [people] take the form of a savage beast [for example], tiger (vyāghra).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

1) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Vyāghrī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Vyāghra] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is also the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Vyāghrī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jalacakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the jalacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Vyāghra] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife..

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—m (S) A tiger.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—m A tiger.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—[vyājighrati, vyāghrā ka]

1) A tiger.

2) (At the end of comp.) Best, pre-eminent, chief; as in नरव्याघ्र, पुरुषव्याघ्र (naravyāghra, puruṣavyāghra).

3) The red variety of the castor-oil plant.

-ghrī A tigress; व्याघ्रीव तिष्ठति जरा परितर्जयन्ति (vyāghrīva tiṣṭhati jarā paritarjayanti) Bh.3.19.

Derivable forms: vyāghraḥ (व्याघ्रः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—m.

(-ghraḥ) 1. A tiger. 2. (In composition,) Best, pre-eminent, (at the end of a compound.) 3. A variety of the castor-oil plant, (the red variety.) 4. A tree, (Galedupa arborea.) f. (-ghrī) A prickly sort of nightshade, (Solanum jacquini.) E. vi and āṅ before ghrā to smell, Unadi aff. ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—i. e. vi-ā-ghrā, I. m. 1. A tiger, [Pañcatantra] 157, 25. 2. As latter part of comp. words, Best, preeminent, e. g. puruṣa-, m. An eminent man (literally, A tiger-like man), [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 19. Ii. f. ghrī, The female of a tiger, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 3, 39.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र).—[masculine] tiger, first or best of (—°); [feminine] vyāghrī tigress. — Abstr. † [feminine], tva† [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a common abridgment for Vyāghrapad.

2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—Vedamāhātmya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vyāghrā (व्याघ्रा):—[=vy-ā-√ghrā] [Parasmaipada] -jighrati, to scent out, scent or smell at ([probably] to explain vyaghra below), [Patañjali on Pāṇini 3-1, 137], [vArttika] 1.

2) Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—[from vyā-ghrā] m. a tiger (not in [Ṛg-veda], but in [Atharva-veda], often mentioned with the lion; [according to] to [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 30, 26], Śārdūlī is the mythical mother of tigers; but in Vahni-Purāṇa they are said to be the offspring of Kaśyapa’s wife Daṃṣṭrā; cf. citra-vy), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] any pre-eminently strong or noble person, ‘a tiger among men’ (cf. ṛṣabha, siṃha)

4) [v.s. ...] Pongamia Glabra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a red variety of the castor-oil plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a Rākṣasa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] of a king, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

8) [v.s. ...] of various authors (also abridged [from] vyāghra-pad), [Catalogue(s)]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—[vyā+ghra] (ghraḥ) 1. m. A tiger; a castoroil tree. f. () A prickly nightshade. (In comp.) Best.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—ohne Avagraha [Prātiśākhya zur Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 5, 37.]

1) m. Tiger (im [Ṛgveda] nicht genannt, im [Atharvavedasaṃhitā] häufig neben dem Löwen) [Amarakoṣa 2, 5, 1. 3, 4, 1, 11.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 5, 4.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1285.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 456.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 85.] [Halāyudha 2, 71. 78.] [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 14, 9. 19, 10.] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 4, 3, 1. 36, 6. 6, 38, 1. 110, 3. 140, 1. 12, 1, 49. 2, 43. 19, 46, 5.] dvīpin [49, 4.] yathā vyā.hraṃ su.taṃ bo.hayati (vgl. den schlafenden Löwen wecken) [Taittirīyasaṃhitā 5, 4, 10, 5. 6, 2, 5, 5.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 12, 7, 1, 8.] [Chāndogyopaniṣad 6, 9, 3.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 11, 112. 12, 43. 67.] [Mahābhārata 1, 5568. fgg. 3, 2402. 15718. 12, 4273. fgg.] [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 33, 21.] [Raghuvaṃśa 9, 63.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 48, 76. 51, 19. 68, 17. 86, 28.] [WEBER, KṚṢṆAJ. 221.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 10, 22. 4, 6, 20.] [Hitopadeśa 113, 10.fg.] Die Urmutter der Tiger ist śārdūlī [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 30, 26.] ein königliches Thier [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 4, 8, 4. 7.] (uttamo si) vyā.hraḥ śvapadāmiva [8, 5, 11.fg.] Daher als Bild edler Männlichkeit [Yāska’s Nirukta 3, 18.] [Śāntanācārya’s Phiṭsūtrāṇi 2, 17.] [?am Ende eines comp. Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 56. Amarakoṣa 3, 2, 8. Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1440. Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha Medinīkoṣa] nara [Mahābhārata 1, 5909. 6038. 3, 2179. 2414. 2625.] [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 49, 20.] puruṣa [Mahābhārata 3, 2249. 2780. 3001. 15718.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 32, 27.] manuja [104, 16.] — b) Pongamia glabra Vent. und rothblühender Ricinus (raktairaṇḍa) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] (statt karaṇḍa ist in [Medinīkoṣa] mit [Śabdakalpadruma] karañja zu lesen). — c) Nomen proprium verschiedener Manner: Verfasser eines Dharmaśāstra [Oxforder Handschriften 270,b,47. 279,b,9. 356,a,30.] ein Fürst [TĀRAN. 3. -] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 8, 1304. fgg.] —

2) f. vyāghrī a) Tigerin: yathā vyāghrī haretputrāndaṃṣṭrābhirna ca pīḍayet [ŚIKṢĀ 20] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 4, 268.] [Spr. (II) 2370.] vyāghrīva tiṣṭhati jarā [(I) 2917.] [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 2, 9, 34. 3, 53, 46. 62, 37.] mṛgyāḥ paribhavo vyāghryāmityavehi tvayā kṛtam [Raghuvaṃśa 12, 37.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 8, 4, 48, Scholiast] ein Jātaka Buddha's [VYĀḌI] beim Schol. zu [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 233.] [JĀTAKAMĀLĀ 3.] — b) Solanum Jacquini [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 3, 12.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1157.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha 2, 464.] — c) Nomen proprium einer buddh. Göttin [KĀLACAKRA 5, 114.] — Das Wort wird auf ghrā mit vyā (das sonst nicht vorkommt) zurückgeführt [Yāska’s Nirukta 3, 18.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 1, 137, Scholiast] Wir würden uns eher für eine Herleitung von 1. ghar mit vyā (der Gesprenkelte) entscheiden. Vgl. nirvyāghra, puruṣa, puṣkara, vaiyāghra und vaiyāghrya .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vyaghra in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र):—(nm) a tiger; -[carma] tiger skin; ~[nakha] claw of a tiger; ~[mukha/mukhī] having a tiger-like face; terrible.

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