Martanda, Mārtāṇḍa: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Martanda means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Martanda in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mārtāṇḍa (मार्ताण्ड).—The Sun God; Brahmā placed the tejas of the Aṇḍam in the garbha of Aditī and when everything became stunted, the God removed it from the garbha making it into two pieces; finding the weakness of the garbha Brahmā caused it to be placed in the lap of the Sun God; hence the name;1 another ety.:—when Kaśyapa found the universe divided into two, he was in distress and said you be Martāṇḍa or Vivasvān, son of Kaśyapa and Dākṣāyanī; had seven sons; Sāvarṇi and Śanaiścara are the last;2 R. Yamunā, the daughter of;3 Nāsatya and Dasra, sons of;4 golden image of, for gift;5 maṇḍalam of.6

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 275-288; Matsya-purāṇa 2. 35.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 25.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 13. 72.
  • 4) Ib. III. 59. 25; IV. 38. 23.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 9. 3; 280. 6.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 115.

1b) Handing over the Yajus to Yajñavalkya, Brahmarateya.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 21.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mārtaṇḍa (मार्तण्ड) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.70.10) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mārtaṇḍa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Mārtāṇḍa (मार्ताण्ड) refers to a category of gopura, which is the “tower” built above the gateway of a house, palace or Buddhist monastery.

Source: Google Books: The Hindu Temple, Volume 1

Mārtāṇḍa (मार्ताण्ड) is the eighth son of Aditi, him the Boundless (=Aditi) brought forth inarticulate, a lump of bodily matter, as broad as it was high. Some however say that he was the size of a man (Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa 3.1.3.3). The shape of Mārtāṇḍa is the result of Aditi’s hybris. The ‘Maitrāyaṇīya-saṃhitā’ (1.6.12) tells the story.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Mārtāṇḍa (मार्ताण्ड) is a Sanskrit name referring to one of the eight manifestations of Asitāṅga, who is a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. Each form (e.g., Asitāṅga) has a further eight sub-manifestations (e.g., Mārtāṇḍa), thus resulting in a total of 64 Bhairavas.

When depicting Mārtāṇḍa according to traditional iconographic rules (śilpaśāstra), one should depcit him (and other forms of Asitāṅga) with golden complexion and having good looking limbs; he should carry the triśūla, the ḍamaru, the pāśa and the khaḍga. The word Śilpaśāstra refers to an ancient Hindu science of arts and crafts, dealing with subjects such as painting, sculpture and iconography.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Mārtāṇḍa (मार्ताण्ड) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Mārtāṇḍanṛsiṃha or Mārtāṇḍanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Martanda is another name for the sun god Surya, who is also known as Vivasvant. He is one of the Adityas, or sons of Aditi. His name literally means 'dead-egg'. According to [R.V.10.72], he is the eigth son of Aditi, who she cast away (presumably because he was dead). Later, she brought him back to life and to die again.

In later texts, Martanda is exclusively identified with Surya and Vivasvant. For e.g. [Maha:1.75], B.P..

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Mārtaṇḍa.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘twelve.’ Note: mārtaṇḍa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mārtaṇḍa (मार्तंड).—m The sun.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mārtaṇḍa (मार्तण्ड).—[mṛtādaṇḍājjāyate aṇ śakaṃ°]

1) The sun; अयं मार्तण्डः किं स खलु तुरगैः सप्तभिरितः (ayaṃ mārtaṇḍaḥ kiṃ sa khalu turagaiḥ saptabhiritaḥ) K. P.1; U.6.3; मारितं च यतः प्रोक्तमेतदण्डं त्वयोदितम् । तस्मान्मुने सुतस्तेऽयं मार्तण्डाख्यो भविष्यति (māritaṃ ca yataḥ proktametadaṇḍaṃ tvayoditam | tasmānmune sutaste'yaṃ mārtaṇḍākhyo bhaviṣyati) Mārk. P.

2) The Arka tree.

3) A hog.

4) The number twelve. (Also mārtāṇḍa).

Derivable forms: mārtaṇḍaḥ (मार्तण्डः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārtaṇḍa (मार्तण्ड).—i. e. mṛtaṇḍa + a, m. 1. The sun, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 140, 9; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 153. 2. A hog.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārtaṇḍa (मार्तण्ड).—[masculine] the sun or the god of the [substantive] (cf. seq.).

--- OR ---

Mārtāṇḍa (मार्ताण्ड).—[masculine] bird, [especially] the bird in the sky i.e. the sun.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Mārtaṇḍa (मार्तण्ड) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—See Pratāpamārtaṇḍa, Prāyaścittamārtaṇḍa, Mantramārtaṇḍa, Muhūrtamārtaṇḍa, Rājamārtaṇḍa.

2) Mārtaṇḍa (मार्तण्ड):—śr. Oudh. Xix, 22.

3) Mārtaṇḍa (मार्तण्ड):—śr. Oudh. Xx, 8. Xxi, 20. Xxii, 34.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mārtaṇḍa (मार्तण्ड):—m. (later form of martāṇḍa q.v.) the sun or the god of the sun, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa], etc. (often ifc. in titles of books; cf. chandoprameya-m etc.)

2) a statue of the sun-god, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

3) Name of various authors (cf. [compound])

4) [plural] the Ādityas (and therefore a symbolical Name for the number ‘twelve’), [Śrutabodha]

5) a hog, boar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Mārtāṇḍa (मार्ताण्ड):—[from mārtaṇḍa] m. ([from] mṛtāṇḍa) ‘sprung from a (seemingly) lifeless egg’, a bird, [Ṛg-veda; Brāhmaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] ‘bird in the sky’, the sun (= or [varia lectio] for, mārtaṇḍa), [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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