Ashva, Aśva, Aśvā, Āśva: 25 definitions
Ashva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Aśva and Aśvā and Āśva can be transliterated into English as Asva or Ashva, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna
Aśva (अश्व) falls under the category of domesticated animals (grāmya-paśu) according to the Vāyu Purāṇa.
Aśva—The horse is said to have been born of the Creator’s feet. It is included in the list of domesticated animals. We have notes references to stables for horses and to horse-riding. Horses are good gifts for Brahmins in śrāddha and they are regarded useful in sacrificis. Horses were yoked to chariots. A horse was one of the select jewels (atiśaya-ratnāni) of a cakravartin in the Tretā age. The horses of the Gāndhāra country are said to be the best amongst the species. The Aśvinī-nakṣatra is said to be favourable to the acquisition of horses.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Aśva (अश्व).—A demon. This was the same demon who later on was born as Aśoka, King of Kaliṅga. (Chapter 67, Ādi Parva, Mahābhārata).
2) Aśva (अश्व).—A maharṣi. The sage Vaśa is the son of this ṛṣi. (Sūkta 112 of Ṛgveda).
3) Aśva (अश्व).—(Horse). Horses and camels were born, in this world, of Tāmrā, wife of Kaśyapa, grandson of Brahmā. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 19).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Aśva (अश्व).—An avatār of Hari.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 40.
1b) A Satya god, and a progenitor.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 35; III. 11. 76.
1c) A son of Khaśā and a Rākṣasa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 136.
1d) A horse of the moon's chariot.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 53.
1e) A son of Citraka.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 114.
1f) A class of people similar to Caṇḍālas.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 24. 28.
Aśva (अश्व) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.24, I.65, I.61.14) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Aśva) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Aśva (अश्व) refers to one of the various kinds of articles used for donation, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the tenth chapter contains the praise and classification of donations. It narrates the characteristics of proper recipients and the results of giving different kinds of articles like Bhūmi, Vidyā, Anna, Jala, Tila, Vāsa, Dīpa, Yāna, Śayyā, Dhānya, Aśva, Śāka, Indhana, Chatra, Auṣadha, Go, etc.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Aśva (अश्व)—Sanskrit word for the animal “horse”. This animal is from the group called Grāmya (‘domestic animals’). Grāmya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Aśva (अश्व) refers to the “horse”, whose meat (māṃsa) is classified as “terrestrial” (bhūcara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as terrestrial (bhūcara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The terrestrial animals are [viz., aśva (horse)].
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Manblunder: Sri Rudram 4.1-6
Aśva (अश्व, “Horse”):—In Vedas horse has deeper meaning. “It is an image of the great dynamic force of life, of the vital and nervous energy. It is a force, a figure of prāṇa, the universal life energy (prāṇāyāma is based on this principle)” and “he who knows the summit of intelligence of the horse, becomes illumined and fit for the sacrifice.” Subtly it can be explained that Rudra presides and control our prāṇa. Thus salutations are offered to Him as the controller of prāṇa.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Aśvā (अश्वा, “mare”) refers to the first of eight yoni (womb), according to the Mānasāra. It is also known by the name Dhvajā. Yoni is the fourth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular yoni (e.g., aśvā) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). The first, third, fifth and seventh yonis are considered auspicious and therefore to be preferred, and the rest, inauspicious and to be avoided.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Asva (अस्व).—Not homogeneous: asavarṇa. cf. इवर्णादेः अस्वे स्वरे यवरलम् (ivarṇādeḥ asve svare yavaralam) Hem. I.2.21, also अस्वे (asve) Śāk.I.1.73.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Aśva (अश्व) or Turaga refers to the animal “Horse” (Equus caballus).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Aśva] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Aśva (अश्व, “horse”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. People who, in their former lives, have trussed them up, whipped them or been guilty of crimes of this kind, assume the animal form of an elephant (haja), a horse (aśva), a cow (go), a sheep (eḍaka) or a deer (mṛga).
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Aśva (अश्व, “horse”) or Aśvaratna refers to the “horse jewel” and represents the second of the “seven jewels of universal monarchs” (saptaratna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 85). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., aśva). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Google Books: Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation
Aśva (अश्व, “horse”).—One of the fourteen gems (ratna) serving the Cakravartin;—The aśva is a beautiful horse which is endowed with auspicious signs.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Aśva.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘seven’. Note: aśva is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Aśva (अश्व).—[aśnute adhvānaṃ vyāpnoti, mahāśano vā bhavati Nir.; aś-kvan Uṇ.1.149]
1) A horse; the horses are said to have 7 breeds:अमृताद् बाष्पतो वह्नेर्वेदेभ्योऽण्डाच्च गर्भतः । साम्नो हयानामुत्पत्तिः सप्तधा परिकीर्तिता (amṛtād bāṣpato vahnervedebhyo'ṇḍācca garbhataḥ | sāmno hayānāmutpattiḥ saptadhā parikīrtitā) ||
2) A symbolical expression for the number 'seven' (that being the number of the horses of the Sun) सूर्याश्वैर्मसजस्तताः सगुरवः शार्दूलविक्रीडितम् (sūryāśvairmasajastatāḥ saguravaḥ śārdūlavikrīḍitam) V. Ratn.
3) A race of men (horselike in strength); काष्ठतुल्यवपुर्धृष्यो मिथ्याचारश्च निर्भयः । द्वादशाङ्गुलमेढ्रश्च दरिद्रस्तु हयो मतः (kāṣṭhatulyavapurdhṛṣyo mithyācāraśca nirbhayaḥ | dvādaśāṅgulameḍhraśca daridrastu hayo mataḥ) ||
-śvau (du.) A horse and a mare.
-śvāḥ horses and mares. [cf. L. equus; Gr. hippos; Zend aspa; Pers. asp.]
Derivable forms: aśvaḥ (अश्वः).
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Aśvā (अश्वा).—A mare.
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1) Indigent, poor (nāsti svaṃ dhanaṃ yasya) स्मृत्यनुरोधादस्वा स्यात् (smṛtyanurodhādasvā syāt) ŚB. on MS.6.1.2.
2) Not one's own.
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Āśva (आश्व).—a. (-śvī f.) [अश्वस्येदम् अण् (aśvasyedam aṇ)]
1) Belonging to or coming from a horse, equestrian; आश्वं कफहरं मूत्रं कृमि- दद्रुषु शस्यते (āśvaṃ kaphaharaṃ mūtraṃ kṛmi- dadruṣu śasyate) Suśr.
2) Drawn by horses (as a chariot).
-śvam 1 A number of horses.
2) A chariot drawn by horses.
3) The state or action of a horse (aśvasya bhāvaḥ karma vā Sk.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Aśva (अश्व).—(-aśva), see gajāśva.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-śvaḥ) 1. A horse. 2. A set or cast of men horse-like in strength. du. (-śvī) A horse and a mare. f.
(-śvā) A mare. E. aśa to pervade, kvan Unadi affix, and ṭāp fem. aff.
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(-svaḥ-svā-svaṃ) Not one’s own. E. a neg. sva own.
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(-śvaḥ-śvī-śvaṃ) Relating to a horse, drawn by horses, equestrain, &c. n.
(-śvaṃ) 1. A number of horses. 2. A chariot drawn by horses. E. aśva a horse, and aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Aśva (अश्व).—[aś + va] (see vb. śo). I. m. A horse, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 96. Ii. f. vā, A mare, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 415.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Aśva (अश्व).—[masculine] horse, a man’s name; [feminine] ā mare.
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Āśva (आश्व).—[adjective] belonging to or coming from horses.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Aśva (अश्व):—1. aśva m. (2. rarely 3 [Ṛg-veda]) (√1. aś, [Uṇādi-sūtra]) ifc. f. a horse, stallion, [Ṛg-veda] etc.
2) the horse (in the game of chess)
3) the number ‘seven’ (that being the number of the horses of the sun)
4) the archer (in the Zodiac), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka]
5) a particular kind of lover (horse-like in strength), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) Name of a teacher (with the patron. Sāmudri), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiii]
7) of a son of Citraka, [Harivaṃśa 1921]
8) of a Dānava, [Mahābhārata i, 2532]
9) Aśvā (अश्वा):—[from aśva] f. ([gana] ajādi q.v.) a mare, [Ṛg-veda] etc.
10) Aśva (अश्व):—[Zend] aspa; [Latin] equus; [Greek] ἵππος, etc.
11) 2. aśva [Nominal verb] [Parasmaipada] aśvati, to behave like a horse, [Pāṇini 3-1, 11 [Scholiast or Commentator]]
12) Asva (अस्व):—[=a-sva] mfn. having no property, [Mahābhārata]
13) Āśva (आश्व):—mf(ī)n. ([from] aśva), belonging to a horse, equestrian, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Suśruta]
14) drawn by horses (as a chariot) [commentator or commentary] on [Pāṇini]
15) n. a number of horses, [Pāṇini]
16) the state or action of a horse [commentator or commentary] on [Pāṇini]
17) Name of several Sāmans.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Aśva (अश्व):—und aśua —
1) m. — a) Ross , Pferd , insbes. Hengst. Auch collect. vat Adv. wie ein Ross. aśvaśata n. [Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 13,4,2,5.] aśvaprokṣaṇa n. [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtra 20,6,7.] saṃjñapana n. [10.] Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā — b) Bez. der Zahl sieben. — c) Springer im Schachspiel [Pañcadaṇḍacchattrabandha 14.] — d) der Schütze im Thierkreise [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 17,9.] — e) *Bez. eines best. Liebhabers. — f) Nomen proprium — α) eines Lehrers mit dem Patron. Sāmudri [Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 13,2,2,14.] — β) eines Sohnes des Citraka. — γ) eines Dānava. —
2) f. aśvā Stute.
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Asva (अस्व):—Adj. besitzlos [Mahābhārata 12,246,22.] Davon Nom.abstr. tva n. [Kathāsaritsāgara 121,35.]
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1) Adj. — a) dem Pferde gehörig , vom Pf. kommend. — b) *von Pferden gezogen. —
2) n. — a) *Pferdetrupp. — b) *Nom.abstr. von aśva. — c) Name verschiedener Sāman.
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Āsva (आस्व):—2. Imper. von ^2. ās [33,22.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Aśva (अश्व) [Also spelled asv]:—(nm) a horse; ~[medha] ([yajña]) the horse sacrifice—a celebrated ceremony dating back to the Vedic period, performed by a monarch desirous of becoming a [cakravartī].
See also (Relevant definitions)