Hara, aka: Hāra; 19 Definition(s)

Introduction

Hara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

[Hara in Shilpashastra glossaries]

Hara (हर):—Sixth of the eleven emanations of Rudra (ekādaśa-rudra), according to the Viśvakarma-śilpa. He keeps in his right hands the mudgara, ḍamaru, śūla, aṅkuśa, gadā, sarpa and akṣamālā, (the object in the remaining hand is not mentioned); and in the left hands, paṭṭiśa, tomara, śakti, paraśu, tarjanī, ghaṭa, khaṭvāṅga and paṭṭikā (?).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

Hāra (हार) means a necklace and is seen in many different patterns. In the earlier periods, it is somewhat short and forms a broad band made up of several pieces.

(Source): Google Books: Elements of Hindu iconography
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[Hara in Shaivism glossaries]

Hara (हर), one of the fifty Rudras according to the Caryāpāda section of the Makuṭāgama (one of the 28 Saiva Siddhanta Agamas).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Hara (हर) is the Sanskrit name of a deity presiding over Hariścandra, one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, which is one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas and presiding deities (eg., Hara) is found in the commentary on the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Hara (हर) is the name of a deity who received the Kāmikāgama from Trikala who in turn, received it from Praṇava through the mahānsambandha relation, according to the pratisaṃhitā theory of Āgama origin and relationship (sambandha). The kāmika-āgama, being part of the ten Śivabhedāgamas, refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgamas: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu.

Hara obtained the Kāmikāgama from Trikala who in turn obtained it from Praṇava who in turn obtained it from Sadāśiva through parasambandha. Hara then, through divya-sambandha transmitted it to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Kāmikāgama to human beings (Manuṣya). (also see Anantaśambhu’s commentary on the Siddhāntasārāvali of Trilocanaśivācārya)

(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana

[Hara in Purana glossaries]

Hara (हर):—One of the Eleven Rudras (ekādaśa-rudra), according to the Agni-purāṇa. The Agni Purāṇa is a religious text containing details on Viṣṇu’s different incarnations (avatar), but also deals with various cultural subjects such as Cosmology, Grammar and Astrology.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Agni Purāṇa

Hāra (हार)—One of the Heavenly ornaments according to the Vāyu Purāṇa. Used by the people of the Kuru land. The Śūras are called hārakāḥ.

(Source): Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

1) Hara (हर).—A famous Dānava, born to Kaśyapa of his wife Danū. He was reborn as King Subāhu. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 23).

2) Hara (हर).—One of the eleven Rudras. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 208, Verse 19).

3) Hara (हर).—A synonym of Śiva.

4) Hāra (हार).—A region of Purāṇic fame. Nakula subjugated the King of Hāra by a simple command without any resort to arms, and the King attended Yudhiṣṭhira’s Rājasūya with presents. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 54).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Hara (हर).—Also Kālarūpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 26; 23. 33; 24. 10; 25. 45; 26. 3; 32. 30; 38. 4; 73. 2.

1b) One of the eleven Rudras.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 5. 29; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 122.

1c) Śiva;1 with 18 hands;2 an ascetic according to Kaṃsa.3

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 14.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 22. 14.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 4. 4; 23. 3; 33. 25.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Hara in Natyashastra glossaries]

1) Hara (हर) is a Sanskrit word referring to Śiva. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.88-95, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).

As such, Brahmā assigned Hara to the remaining characters (eg., excluding the hero, heroine and jester). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.

2) Hāra (हार) refers to “necklaces” and is classified as āropya, or “ ornaments that to be put round”, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Āropya is one of the four types of ornaments (ābharaṇa).

Ābharaṇa (‘ornaments’, eg., hāra) is a category of alaṃkāra, or “decorations”, which in turn is a category of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, the perfection of which forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Itihasa (narrative history)

[Hara in Itihasa glossaries]

Hara (हर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.24) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Hara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[Hara in Shaktism glossaries]

Hara (हर) or Haratantra refers to one of the twenty-eight Gāruḍatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Hara belonging to the Garuḍa class.

(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Hara in Jainism glossaries]

Hāra (हार) is the shorter name of Hāradvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Hārasamudra (or simply Hāra), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Hāra is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

[Hara in India history glossaries]

Hara or Ahara is one of the terms designating an ‘administrative division’ used in the inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh.—In the inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh the term ahara is not met with, instead hara is used. The earliest occurrence is Satavahani-hara which is also the earliest administrative unit mentioned in the inscriptions of region. In the succeeding period the Salankayanas and the Brihatphalayanas continued to use the same hara appellation, e.g., Kudra-hara or Kudura-hara. The Eastern Chalukyas from the seventh to the nineth century used hara as an integral part, not as a suffix of the unit, e.g., Gudrahara-Vishaya. Ahara occurs as a divisional appellation in the inscriptions of Gujarat (Kapur-ahara), of Maharashtra (Govardhana-ahara) and in the North-Konkan (Ikharaki-ahara).

(Source): Shodhganga: A study of place names of Nalgonda district
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[Hara in Pali glossaries]

hara : (m.) the God Isvara. || hāra (m.), a string (of pearls, etc.); a necklace.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Hara, (adj.) (-°) (fr. hṛ) taking, fetching; vayo° bringing age (said of grey hairs) J.I, 138; du° S.I, 36. (Page 729)

— or —

Hāra, (fr. harati) 1. that which may be taken; grasping, taking; grasp, handful, booty. In cpd. °hārin taking all that can be taken, rapacious, ravaging J.VI, 581 (of an army; Kern, Toev. I.133 wrong in trsln “magnificent, or something like it”). Of a river: tearing, rapid A.III, 64; IV, 137; Vism.231.—2. category; name of the first sections of the Netti Pakaraṇa Nett 1 sq., 195. (Page 731)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[Hara in Marathi glossaries]

hara (हर).—m (S) A name of Shiva or Mahadeva.

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hara (हर).—a S That seizes, takes away, carries off. In comp as dhanahara, kīrttihara, sukhahara, duḥkhahara, yaśōhara, kaphahara, pittahara, vātahara, jvarahara Thief, robber, rogue &c. 2 In arithmetic. That divides, the divisor: also the denominator of a fraction.

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hara (हर).—a ( P) Every. Used freely with words; as hara ghaḍī, hara vakhata, hara rastā, hara gāṃva, hara jāgā &c. In some of the instances of the use of this word the sense seems to be slightly different from that given here. Such instances will be found in their order.

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hara (हर).—&c. See hāra, hārajīta &c. Note. Of some of the compounds or derivatives of hāra Loss or Line (e. g. haraṇēṃ, harapaṇēṃ, haraviṇēṃ, harīṃ, harēmōharēsa, harōhara) the preferable form is hara whilst of others it is hāra; but as the preferableness is in different localities differently determined, notice, greater or less, is taken of both forms.

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harā (हरा).—m A large basket of a particular form and of loose texture. Pr. vāḷakācā harā āṇi tākācā ḍērā (phāra divasa rāhata nāhīṃ); or harā vārā dēvhārā tākācā ḍērā (dōna divasācā). The figure of these four perishable or ephemeral things is significant of Transitoriness. harā (Basket) is here taken for Basket-full of watermelons or fruits.

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hāra (हार).—m (S) A necklace; a garland or wreath; a string (of gems, beads, flowers &c.) 2 f A line or row.

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hāra (हार).—f (S Taking, or hṛ To seize.) Loss. v yē, basa. 2 Defeat (in battle, gambling &c.) v . 3 m Taking from, seizing, robbing, rape. 4 In arithmetic. Divisor. hāra khāṇēṃ -ghēṇēṃ and, with direct or inverse construction, -jāṇēṃ To sustain loss or defeat, to lose. hāra jāṇēṃ with direct construction and dat. of o. is To allow or to undergo defeat by or inferiority unto. hāra ghēṇēṃ -patakaraṇēṃ -mānaṇēṃ To accept or agree to loss. Pr. hāra mānalī jhagaḍā tuṭalā; also hāra mānalī paṇa jhagaḍā tuṭō Peace! peace! peace upon any sacrifice or concession. hārīṃ jāṇēṃ with dat. of o. To succumb or dub unto; to acknowledge defeat by.

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hārā (हारा).—m (Or harā) A large basket made of bamboo slips.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

hara (हर).—a Every. That takes away. m A name of śiva.

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harā (हरा).—m A large basket of a particular form and of loose texture.

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hāra (हार).—m A necklace; a garland. f A row. Loss. Defeat. Robbing. Divisor (in arithmetic). hāra ghēṇēṃ-patakaraṇēṃ-mānaṇēṃ Accept or agree to loss. hārīṃ jāṇēṃ Succumb. hāra khāṇēṃ-ghēṇēṃ-jāṇēṃ To sustain defeat.

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hārā (हारा).—m A large basket made of bamboo slips.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Hara in Sanskrit glossaries]

Hara (हर).—a. (-rā, -rī f.) [हृ-अच् (hṛ-ac)]

1) Taking away, removing, depriving one of; as in खेदहर, शोकहर (khedahara, śokahara).

2) Bringing, conveying, carrying, taking; अपथहराः (apathaharāḥ) Ki.5.5; R.12.51.

3) Seizing, grasping.

4) Attracting, captivating.

5) Claiming, entitled to; as in रिक्थहर (rikthahara) &c.; परिहृतमयशः पातितमस्मासु च घातितोऽर्धराज्यहरः (parihṛtamayaśaḥ pātitamasmāsu ca ghātito'rdharājyaharaḥ) Mu.2.19.

6) Occupying; समादिदेशैकवधूं भवित्रीं प्रेम्णा शरीरार्धहरां हरस्य (samādideśaikavadhūṃ bhavitrīṃ premṇā śarīrārdhaharāṃ harasya) Ku.1.5.

7) Dividing.

-raḥ 1 Śiva; श्रुताप्सरोगीतिरपि क्षणेऽस्मिन् हरः प्रसं- ख्यानपरो बभूव (śrutāpsarogītirapi kṣaṇe'smin haraḥ prasaṃ- khyānaparo babhūva) Ku.3.4,67;1.5; Me.7.

2) Name of Agni or fire.

3) An ass.

4) A divisor.

5) The denominator of a fraction.

6) The act of seizing, taking.

7) A seizer, ravisher.

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Hāra (हार).—[hṛ-karmaṇi ghañ]

1) Taking away, removal, seizing.

2) Conveying.

3) Abstraction, deprivation.

4) A carrier, porter.

5) A garland or necklace of pearls &c.; a necklace in general; हारोऽयं हरिणाक्षीणां लुठति स्तन- मण्डले (hāro'yaṃ hariṇākṣīṇāṃ luṭhati stana- maṇḍale) Amaru.1; पाण्ड्योऽयमंसार्पितलम्बहारः (pāṇḍyo'yamaṃsārpitalambahāraḥ) R.6.6;5.52; 6.16; Me.74; Ṛs.1.4;2.18.

6) War, battle.

7) (In math.) The denominator of a fraction.

8) A divisor.

9) (In prosody) A long syllable.

Derivable forms: hāraḥ (हारः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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