Paksha, Pakṣa, Pākṣa: 23 definitions
Paksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Pakṣa and Pākṣa can be transliterated into English as Paksa or Paksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Pakṣa (पक्ष) refers to a lunar phase (fortnights). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.
In a lunar month there are two pakṣas or fortnights:
- śuklapakṣa (bright fortnight),
- kṛṣṇapakṣa (dark fortnight).
Each lunar month consists of two halves going by the name of ‘pakshas’ and each half is a fortnight in the month. The Shukla-paksha or the bright-fortnight is the period of the waxing moon while Krishna-paksha or the dark fortnight is that of the waning moon.
Each of these pakshas again consists of fifteen Tithis. A Tithi is the time required by the moon to increase its distance from the sun westwardby twelve degrees of the zodiac.Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Pakṣa (पक्ष).—1. A school or faction. 2. One side of an equation; (lit., wing or side.) 3. Lunar fortnight, i.e., the period from new Moon to full Moon or from full Moon to new Moon. The period from new Moon to full Moon is called the light fortnight (or the light half of a lunar month - śuklapakṣa) and that from full Moon to new Moon is called the dark fortnight (or the dark half of a lunar month - kṛṣṇapakṣa). Note: Pakṣa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Pakṣa (पक्ष).—See under Kālamāna.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Pakṣa (पक्ष).—A lunar period of 15 days; Śukla (white) and Kṛṣṇa (dark).*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 125; 24. 56; 28. 33; III. 1. 59; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 15; 49. 130; 50. 178; 56. 3 and 30.
1b) A Maṇivara Yakṣa and son of Devajanī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 129.
1c) Of Bhārgava gotra.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 97.
1d) A son of Anu.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 13
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Pakṣa (पक्ष).—Alternative view or explanation presented by, or on behalf of, a party ; one of the two or more way of presenting a matter. The usual terms for the two views are पूर्वपक्ष (pūrvapakṣa) and उत्तरपक्ष (uttarapakṣa), when the views are in conflict. The views, if not in conflict, and if stated as alternative views, can be many in number, e. g. there are seven alternative views or Pakșas re : the interpretation of the rule इको गुणवृद्धी (iko guṇavṛddhī); cf. M. Bh. on P. I. 1.3; cf. also सर्वेषु पक्षेषु उपसंख्यानं कर्तव्यम् (sarveṣu pakṣeṣu upasaṃkhyānaṃ kartavyam) M. Bh. on P. I. 2.64.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Pakṣa (पक्ष) refers to the “phase of the moon”:—State, either śukla-pakṣa or kṛṣṇa-pakṣa, depending on whether the moon is [respectively] waxing or waning.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Pakṣa (पक्ष):—[pakṣaḥ] Implies for 1. one aspect or party of discussion 2. a specific assumption
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
pakṣa: Sanskrit for 'the inferential subject'. A term used in Advaita Vedānta.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Paksha (or pakṣa: Sanskrit: पक्ष), refers to a fortnight or a lunar phase in a month of the Hindu lunar calendar.
Literally meaning "side", a paksha is the period either side of the Full Moon Day (Purnima). A lunar month in the Hindu calendar has two fortnights, and begins with the New moon, (Amavasya). The lunar days are called tithis and each month has 30 tithis, which may vary from 20 – 27 hours.
A paksha has 15 tithis, which are calculated by a 12 degree motion of the Moon. The first fortnight between New Moon Day and Full Moon Day is called Shukla Paksha, the period of the brightening moon (waxing moon), and the second fortnight of the month is called Krishna Paksha, or the period of the fading moon (waning moon) .Source: Hindupedia: Pañcāṅga
Pakṣa (पक्ष).—In a lunar month there are two pakṣas or fortnights (śukla and kṛṣṇa). In each pakṣa, on each of the days like pratipad, dvitīyā and so on, there are two karaṇas. The sthira-karaṇas come only at the end of the kṛṣṇapakṣa whereas the cara-karaṇas rotate in both the pakṣas, the series of seven getting repeated. For instance, after viṣṭi also known as bhadra or kalyāṇī come bava, bālava and so on.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Pakṣa.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘two’; sometimes also ‘fifteen’. Note: pakṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pakṣa (पक्ष).—m (S) A wing. 2 A half of a lunar month, comprising fifteen days. 3 The Shraddha performed in the dark fortnight of bhādrapada to the manes of all one's male ancestors. 4 A side, part, party, division, sect (in fight, argumentation, a joint work, religion): also the cause, opinion, tenets, dogmata espoused. 5 A way or manner; one way among others; an alternative. 6 A side or flank. 7 The feather of an arrow. 8 An argument, a thesis, a position advanced, a doctrine to be maintained. 9 The subject of an inference. 10 A tribe or class. pakṣa dharaṇēṃ To espouse a side or part.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
pakṣa (पक्ष).—m A wing. A half of a lunar month comprising fifteen days. The Shráddh performed in the dark fort night of bhādrapada to the manes of all one's male ancestors. A side, party, division. Also the cause, opinion, tenets, dogmata espoused. A way; an alternative. A side or flank.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A wing, pinion; अद्यापि पक्षावपि नोद्भिद्येते (adyāpi pakṣāvapi nodbhidyete) K.347; so उद्भिन्नपक्षः (udbhinnapakṣaḥ) fledged; पक्षच्छेदोद्यतं शक्रम् (pakṣacchedodyataṃ śakram) R.4.4;3.42.
2) The feather or feathers on each side of an arrow; अनुसंततिपातिनः पटुत्वं दधतः शुद्धिभृतो गृहीतपक्षाः (anusaṃtatipātinaḥ paṭutvaṃ dadhataḥ śuddhibhṛto gṛhītapakṣāḥ) (śarāḥ) Śi.2.11.
3) The flank or side of a man or animal, the shoulder; स्तम्बेरमा उभयपक्षविनीतनिद्राः (stamberamā ubhayapakṣavinītanidrāḥ) R.5.72.
4) The side of anything, a flank; वितत्य पक्षद्वयमायतम् (vitatya pakṣadvayamāyatam) Ki.14.31.
5) The wing or flank of an army; सुपर्णपक्षानिलनुन्नपक्षम् (suparṇapakṣānilanunnapakṣam) (rākṣasarājasainyam) Rām.7.6. 69.
6) The half of anything.
7) The half of a lunar month, a fortnight (comprising 15 days; there are two such pakṣas, śuklapakṣaḥ the bright or light half, and kṛṣṇa-tamisra-pakṣaḥ the dark half); तमिस्रपक्षेऽपि सह प्रियाभि- र्ज्योत्स्नावतो निर्विशति प्रदोषान् (tamisrapakṣe'pi saha priyābhi- rjyotsnāvato nirviśati pradoṣān) R.6.34; Ms.1.66; Y.3.5; सीमा वृद्धिं समायाति शुक्लपक्ष इवोडुराट् (sīmā vṛddhiṃ samāyāti śuklapakṣa ivoḍurāṭ) Pt.1.92; Mb.3.26.5.
8) (a) A party in general, faction, side; प्रमुदितवरपक्षम् (pramuditavarapakṣam) R.6.86; Śi.2.117; तुल्यो मित्रारिपक्षयोः (tulyo mitrāripakṣayoḥ) Bg.14.25; R.6. 53;18.17. (b) A family, race; रूपान्वितां पक्षवतीं मनोज्ञां भार्यामयत्नोपगतां लभेत् सः (rūpānvitāṃ pakṣavatīṃ manojñāṃ bhāryāmayatnopagatāṃ labhet saḥ) Mb.13.57.4; किं क्रन्दसि दुराक्रन्द स्वपक्षक्षयकारक (kiṃ krandasi durākranda svapakṣakṣayakāraka) Pt.4.29.
9) One belonging to any party, a follower, partisan; विष्णुपक्षैः प्रतिच्छन्नैर्न भिद्येतास्य धीर्यथा (viṣṇupakṣaiḥ praticchannairna bhidyetāsya dhīryathā) Bhāg.7.5.7; शत्रुपक्षो भवान् (śatrupakṣo bhavān) H.1.
1) A class, multitude, host, any number of adherents; as अरि°, मित्र° (ari°, mitra°).
11) One side of an argument, an alternative, one of two cases; पक्षे (pakṣe) 'in the other case, on the other hand' पूर्व एवाभवत् पक्षस्तस्मिन्नाभवदुत्तरः (pūrva evābhavat pakṣastasminnābhavaduttaraḥ) R.4.1;14.34. cf. पूर्वपक्ष (pūrvapakṣa) and उत्तरपक्ष (uttarapakṣa).
12) A case or supposition in general; as in पक्षान्तरे (pakṣāntare).
13) A point under discussion, a thesis, an argument to be maintained.
14) The subject of a syllogism or conclusion (the minor term); संदिग्धसाध्य- वान् पक्षः (saṃdigdhasādhya- vān pakṣaḥ) T. S., दधतः शुद्धिभृतो गृहीतपक्षाः (dadhataḥ śuddhibhṛto gṛhītapakṣāḥ) Śi.2.11 (where it means 'a feather' also).
15) A symbolical expression for the number 'two'.
16) A bird.
17) A state, condition.
18) The body.
19) A limb of the body.
2) A royal elephant.
21) An army; Mb.2. 16.7.
22) A wall.
24) Rejoinder, reply.
25) A mass, quantity (when in composition with words meaning 'hair'); केशपक्षः (keśapakṣaḥ); cf. हस्त (hasta).
26) Place, position.
27) A view, notion, idea.
28) The side of an equation in a primary division.
29) The ash-pit of a fire-place.
3) Proximity, neighbourhood.
31) A bracket.
32) Purity, perfection.
33) A house.
34) The sun (according to Sāyaṇa); सा पक्ष्या नव्यमायु- र्दधाना (sā pakṣyā navyamāyu- rdadhānā) Rv.3.53.16.
Derivable forms: pakṣaḥ (पक्षः).
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Pākṣa (पाक्ष).—a. (-kṣī f.) [पक्षे भवः अण् (pakṣe bhavaḥ aṇ)]
1) Belonging to a lunar fortnight, fortnightly.
2) Relating to a party.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pakṣa (पक्ष).—m. (-kṣa-) 1. The half of a lunar month or fortnight, comprising fifteen days. 2. A wing, a feather; (it is also neuter in this sense.) 3. The feather of an arrow. 4. Partisan. 5. friend. 6. A side, a flank. 7. An army, forces. 8. A house. 9. An argument, a thesis, a position advanced, doctrine to be maintained. 10. Contradiction, opposition, rejoinder, reply. 11. The subject of an inference. 12. Alternative. 13. A tribe, a class. 14. The ash pit of a fire place. 15. A royal elephant. 16. (In composition with words signifying “hair”.) Quantity, as keśapakṣa much or abundant hair. 17. A bird. 18. A bracelet. 19. Purity, perfection. 20. A limb, a member. 21. A tail. 22. (In Arithmetic,) Side of an equation in a primary division. 23. Condition. 24. A wall. 25. A party. 26. The subject of a syllogism or inference. E. pakṣ to take, aff. ac or paṇa to transact business, Unadi aff. sa, and ka substituted for the radical final.
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(-kṣaḥ-kṣī-kṣaṃ) 1. Belonging to a half month. 2. Relating to a side or party, &c. E. pakṣa, and aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pakṣa (पक्ष).—m. 1. A wing; also n., Mārk. P. 9, 15. 2. The feathers of an arrow. 3. A flank, a side, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 5, 72. 4. Half. 5. The half of a lunar month, comprising fifteen days, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 66. 6. Party, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 18, 13 Gorr. (he who sides with Bharata). 7. A partisan, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 16. 8. A friend, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 3013. 9. A class, a host, a troop, Mahābhārata 13, 3315; [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 7124. 10. Place, condition, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 99, 32. 11. Alternative, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 4, 10. 12. Opinion, Mahābhārata 2, 2266. 13. The subject of an inference, Bhāṣāp. 67.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pakṣa (पक्ष).—[masculine] wing, feather, flank or side, half, [especially] of the month, a fortnight; party, faction, troop, class; one of two cases, alternative (pakṣe on the other hand, —° with regard to); supposition, statement, thesis, the subject of a syllogism; action, law-suit. Abstr. tā† [feminine], tva† [neuter]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pakṣa (पक्ष):—[from pakṣ] m. (ifc. f(ā or ī). ) a wing, pinion (in one passage n.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] a symbol. Name of the number two, [Varāha-mihira; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]
3) [v.s. ...] a feather, the feathers on both sides of an arrow (cf. gārdhra-p)
4) [v.s. ...] the fin of a fish (cf. nis-tvak-p)
5) [v.s. ...] the shoulder
6) [v.s. ...] the flank or side or the half of anything, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
7) [v.s. ...] the side or wing of a building, [Atharva-veda]
8) [v.s. ...] the wing or flank of an army, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
9) [v.s. ...] the half of a lunar month (the first half from new moon to full moon was called pūrva or āpūryamāṇa, later śukla or śuddha; the other half apara or apa-kṣīyamāṇa, later kṛṣṇa or tāmisra; each fortnight consists of 15 Tithis or lunar days called prathamā, dvitīyā etc.), [Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira] etc.
10) [v.s. ...] a side, party, faction
11) [v.s. ...] multitude, number, troop, set, class of beings
12) [v.s. ...] partisan, adherent, follower, friend (śatru- ‘the enemy’s side’ or ‘a partisan of the enemy’; mahā-, ‘one who has many adherents’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
13) [v.s. ...] side id est. position, place, stead (kṣe ifc. instead of or by way of), [ib.]
14) [v.s. ...] quantity (See keśa-)
15) [v.s. ...] one of two cases or one side of an argument, an alternative (kṣe, ‘on the other hand’, with atra, ‘in this case’, pakṣāntare, ‘in the other case’), [Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]
16) [v.s. ...] a point or matter under discussion, a thesis, a particular theory, a position advanced or an argument to be maintained (cf. pūrva-, uttara-)
17) [v.s. ...] an action or lawsuit, [Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]]
18) [v.s. ...] (in logic) the proposition to be proved in a syllogism, [Tarkasaṃgraha; Bhāṣāpariccheda]
19) [v.s. ...] any supposition or view, motion, idea, opinion (mukhyaḥ pakṣaḥ, ‘an excellent idea’ [Śakuntalā [Scholiast or Commentator]]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
20) [v.s. ...] the sun, [Sāyaṇa on Ṛg-veda iii, 53, 16]
21) [v.s. ...] Name of sub voce men, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
22) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) a primary division or the side of an equation in a primary division
23) [v.s. ...] the wall of a house or any wall, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
24) [v.s. ...] an army, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
25) [v.s. ...] favour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
26) [v.s. ...] contradiction, rejoinder, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
27) [v.s. ...] the ash-pit of a fire-place, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
28) [v.s. ...] a royal elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
29) [v.s. ...] a limb or member of the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
30) [v.s. ...] the feathers of the tail of a peacock, a tail, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
31) [v.s. ...] proximity, neighbourhood, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
32) [v.s. ...] a bracelet, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
33) [v.s. ...] purity, perfection, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
34) [v.s. ...] mfn. = pācaka, bādhaka, [Sāyaṇa on Ṛg-veda vi, 47, 19.]
35) [v.s. ...] cf. Ogerm. fahs; [Anglo-Saxon] feax.
36) Pākṣa (पाक्ष):—mf(ī)n. ([from] pakṣa) belonging to a half month
37) relating to a side or party, [Horace H. Wilson]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Pakṣa (पक्ष) [Also spelled paksh]:—(nm) side; party; flank; aspect; a fortnight; a wing; ~[ka] an aerofoil; ~[kāra] a party; ~[grahaṇa] taking a side; ~[dhara] a supporter; partisan, partial; ~[poṣaṇa] advocacy, championing of a cause; -[vipakṣa] pros and cons; ~[sāra] a brief; ~[hīna] wingless; —[lenā, kisī kā] to side with.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+114): Paksha-pradyota, Paksha-vancita, Pakshabahu, Pakshabala, Pakshabhaga, Pakshabhasa, Pakshabheda, Pakshabhukti, Pakshabindu, Pakshacara, Pakshacchid, Pakshachara, Pakshachhid, Pakshachid, Pakshadhara, Pakshadhara mishra, Pakshadharamishra, Pakshadharavyakhya, Pakshadhari, Pakshadharmatavada.
Ends with (+156): A-shuddha-paksha, Ajatapaksha, Amritapaksha, Anirvaha-paksha, Apaksha, Apakshiyamanapaksha, Aparapaksha, Apipaksha, Apratipaksha, Apuryamanapaksha, Aryapaksha, Asadvipaksha, Asatpaksha, Ashtami-paksha, Ashtapaksha, Asitapaksha, Atmapaksha, Avibhagapaksha, Avipaksha, Avyutpannapaksha.
Full-text (+585): Shuklapaksha, Pakshas, Pakshaghata, Pakshaputa, Pakshaja, Krishnapaksha, Pakshika, Pakshapata, Pakshapali, Paksharacana, Uttarapaksha, Pakshapatika, Aparapaksha, Purvapaksha, Pakshanadi, Pakshayana, Pakshin, Pakshamula, Paksharatri, Pakshavancitaka.
Search found 51 books and stories containing Paksha, Pakṣa, Pākṣa, Paksa; (plurals include: Pakshas, Pakṣas, Pākṣas, Paksas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Appendix 3 - Purāṇic measurements of time < [Appendices]
Chapter 53a - Sundara Kuṇḍa < [Section 1 - Avantīkṣetra-māhātmya]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 1.64 < [Section XXXVII - Measures of Time]
Verse 8.107 < [Section XVI - Abstaining from giving evidence]
Sankhayana-grihya-sutra (by Hermann Oldenberg)
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 20 - Measurement of Space and Time < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Chapter 6 - The Business of Collection of Revenue by the Collector-General < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Chapter 1 - Determination of Forms of Agreement and Legal Disputes < [Book 3 - Concerning Law]
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)