Marjara, Mārjāra: 31 definitions

Introduction:

Marjara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Marjar.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to the “cat” as described in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Mārjāra is mentioned in a discusses regarding the reaction of certain insects and other living beings on consumption of poisionous food. The after-effect of intake of poison for Mārjāra (cat) is defined as: “udvegaṃ yāti (becomes anxious)”.

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to the Jungle cat (Felis Chaus), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to a “cat”, according to Āyurveda sections in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—The treatment pertains to horses was described in detail in Garuḍapuraāṇa Ācārakhaṇḍa the chapter entitled Gajāśvāyurveda.There are many types of horses but the horse, which does not possess one of the various features [e.g., Mārjārapāda (cat-footed)], is considered as healthy and fit one. Such type of horses only useful for riding, wars and other purposes.

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Mārjāra (मार्जार) is another name for Raktacitraka, which is a variety of Citraka, a medicinal plant identified with (1) [white variety] Plumbago zeylanica Linn.; (2) [red variety] Plumbago rosea Linn. syn. or Plumbago indica Linn., both from the Plumbaginaceae or “leadwort” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.46-47 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu.—Note: Bapalal refers a totally different variety, used as Red Citraka or Rato Chitro (rātocitro) in Ābu and Girnār. This is knwon as Vogalia indica.—The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Mārjāra and Raktacitraka, there are a total of eleven Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to a “cat”, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Accordingly, one of the treatments of Kulacandra-rat-bites is mentioned as follows: “(1) Powdered turmeric with rose petals, smeared with gruel, must be applied as paste. (2) Fumigation by burning rose petals and cat’s hair (mārjāra-roman). (3) Powdered root of Lakṣmī and Kārkoṭakī mixed with ghee, banana dipped in ghee must be given to eat”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Mārjāra (मार्जार) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “cat”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Mārjāra is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Mārjāra (मार्जार)—Sanskrit word for the animal “cat”. This animal is from the group called Guhāśaya (‘which have a lair’, or, ‘cave-dwelling mammals’). Guhāśaya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to “cats”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.22 (“Description of Pārvatī’s penance”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “O sage, listen to another surprising influence of the penance of Pārvatī, the mother of the universe. [...] Lions and cows prone to the passions of love, hatred etc. ceased to harass one another, thanks to her greatness. O excellent sage, creatures like cats [i.e., mārjāra], mice etc. who are born enemies to one another did not exhibit any bad characteristics there. O excellent sage, trees bore fruits, grasses grew in plenty and flowers of variegated nature and colour blossomed there. The entire forest became comparable to Kailāsa as it were the achievement of her penance”

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Mārjāra (मार्जार).—Son of Jāmbavān. It is said in Brahmapurāṇa that the mārjāras (cats) have their origin from this son of Jāmbavān.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mārjāra (मार्जार).—A Vānara jāti; born of Hari and Pulaha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 177. 305, 319; 51. 11.

1b) A son of Jāmbavān.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 303.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to the animal “Domestic cat” (Felis domestica).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Mārjāra] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to a “cat”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If a cat (mārjāra) [intrudes into the site] stepping over [a cord] while a cord is being cast, it should be understood that there is the bone of an ass beneath that spot of the site. If a dog steps over a cord, [the officiant] should prognosticate the bone of a dog [beneath] the [spot of the site]. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to one of the Siddhas of the Tradition of the Eastern House (pūrvagṛha-āmnāya), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Note: Each name is preceded by ‘śrī’ and ends with ‘pāda’.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: academia.edu: Tessitori Collection I (astronomy)

Mārjāra (मार्जार) refers to one of the various “magical created beings”, according to the Kautukāni (classified as literature dealing with astronomy, astrology, divination, medicine), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—The Kautukāni contains extraordinary recipes and prescriptions phrased with the syntactic pattern ‘if this or this would be done (optative), then this or this happens’. The processes at work are grinding, heating and mixing various products. These are plants or plant-products, animal products or alchemical recipes: [e.g., magical creations of beings (e.g., mārjāraḥ syāt 38)] [...]

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mārjāra (मार्जार, “cat”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. Guilty of evil desires (mithyārāga), hatred and jealousy (īrṣyā), they take the form of [for example], a cat (mārjāra).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Mārjāra (मार्जार) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Mārjārikī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Mārjāra] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mārjāra (मार्जार).—m S The common cat: also the wild or pole cat.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mārjāra (मार्जार).—m A cat.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mārjāra (मार्जार).—[mṛj-āran vā rasya laḥ]

1) A cat; कपाले मार्जारः पय इति कराँल्लेढि शशिनः (kapāle mārjāraḥ paya iti karāṃlleḍhi śaśinaḥ) K. P.1.

2) A pole-cat.

3) Name of some plants.

Derivable forms: mārjāraḥ (मार्जारः).

See also (synonyms): mārjāla.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mārjara (मार्जर).—m. (compare Prakrit maṃjara; Sanskrit mārjāra), cat: Mahāvyutpatti 4790 (so also Mironov, with v.l. mārjāra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārjāra (मार्जार).—mf. (-raḥ-rī) 1. The common cat. 2. The wild or pole-cat. f. (-rī) 1. A female cat. 2. Musk. E. mṛj to cleanse, (its skin and face,) āran aff., and the vowel made long; also read mārjjāla .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārjāra (मार्जार).—i. e. mṛj + āra, m., and f. . 1. The common cat, [Pañcatantra] 110, 23. 2. The pole-cat.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārjāra (मार्जार).—([feminine] ī) & ka [masculine] cat, [especially] wild cat.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Mārjāra (मार्जार) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mārjāra (मार्जार):—[from mārj] m. a cat ([probably] so called from its habit of constantly cleaning itself), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a wild cat, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] a civet-cat, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Plumbago Rosea, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Terminalia Katappa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Agati Grandiflora, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of a poet, [Catalogue(s)]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mārjāra (मार्जार):—(raḥ) 1. m. The common cat.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mārjāra (मार्जार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Maṃjara, Majjāra, Vaṃjara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Marjara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Marjara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mārjāra (मार्जार) [Also spelled marjar]:—(nm) a he-cat; ~[] a she-cat.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mārjara (ಮಾರ್ಜರ):—[noun] = ಮಾರ್ಜಾಲ - [marjala -] 2.

--- OR ---

Mārjāra (ಮಾರ್ಜಾರ):—[noun] = ಮಾರ್ಜಾಲ [marjala].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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