Kraunca, Krauñca, Krauñcā, Kraumca: 31 definitions
Kraunca means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Krauncha.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “demoiselle crane”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Krauñca is part of the sub-group named Ambucārin, refering to animals “which move on waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च)—Sanskrit word for a bird “crane”, “demoiselle crane” (Anthropoides virgo). This animal is from the group called Plava (‘those which float’ or ‘those move about in large flocks’). Plava itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) refers to the “crane” as described in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Krauñca is mentioned in a discusses regarding the reaction of certain insects and other living beings on consumption of poisionous food. The after-effect of intake of poison for Krauñca (crane) is defined as: “madodaya (displays intoxicated behaviour)”.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च):—Heron.Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) refers to the Demoiselle Crane (Anthropoides Virgo), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa
Krauñcā (क्रौञ्चा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Krauñcā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”
The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च).—Name of a settlement (janapada) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Krauñca (क्रौञ्च).—An Asura. In Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 57 it is mentioned that this Asura was killed by Subrahmaṇya. (See full article at Story of Krauñca from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Krauñca (क्रौञ्च).—A mountain. There is a story about this mountain. Long ago there lived an Asura named Krauñca. He was leading a wicked life and was haughty and arrogant. Once Agastya went to Kailāsa and worshipped Śiva. Kāverīdevī also was standing close by, worshipping Śiva. God Śiva appeared before Agastya and told him that he might ask for any boon. He requested for the power to push down Vindhya by kicking and to establish a holy Tīrtha (bath) on the earth. Śiva granted the boons. For making the tīrtha Śiva turned Kāverī into a river and placed her in the water-pot of Agastya. As Agastya was returning from Kailāsa with Kāverī in his water-pot, Krauñca the Asura took the shape of a mountain and hindered his way. The Asura caused a heavy rain too. Agastya wandered through the forest without finding the path for days. At last he realized the cause. He took a few drops of water from his waterpot and with chanting of Mantras and meditation threw the drops at the Asura with the curse that he would stand there for ever as a mountain. He said that he would be liberated from the curse when pierced by the arrow of Subrahmaṇya, the son of Śiva. From that day onwards Krauñca the Asura had been standing there as a mountain. That mountain was called 'The mountain of Krauñca.' (Skanda Purāṇa, Asura Kāṇḍa).
2) There is another statement in Harivaṃśa, Chapter 18, that the mountain Krauñca was the son of the mountain Maināka, the son of Menā.
3) Krauñca (क्रौञ्च).—(A kind of snipe). A bird.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) refers to “cranes”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On the top of the mountain near the city of Himālaya (śailarājapura), Śiva sported about for a long time in the company of Satī. [...] kinds of birds flew there, such as—Cakravāka, Kādamba, swans, geese, the intoxicated Sārasas, cranes (Krauñca), the peacocks etc. The sweet note of the male cuckoo reverberated there”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Krauñca (क्रौञ्च).—A dvīpa, twice the Ghṛtoda in size and surrounded by Kṣīroda (sea of milk) (milk of ghee). It takes its name from the Krauñca hill. Greatly despoiled by the arms of Guha but protected by Varuṇa. Its ruler was Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, a son of Priyavrata. He divided it among his seven sons and retired to a life of meditation; Hari is worshipped here in the form of waters.1 (Rudra, Viṣṇu-purāṇa). Divided among seven Janapadas; twice in size to Kuśadvīpa. Described.2 According to viṣṇu p. Dyutimat was the first king; the four castes here are puṣkara, puṣkala, dhanya and tītikhyas.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 1. 32; 20. 18-23; Matsya-purāṇa 13. 7; 122. 78.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 13-26; 19. 64-77; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 59-73.
- 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 14; 2. 5; 4. 45-57.
1b) The hill in Krauñcadvīpa, despoiled by the arms of Guha (Kumāra):1 Son (brother, Vāyu-purāṇa) of Maināka hill.2 The dvīpa takes its name from this.3 Residence of Śankara;4 Skanda sent his śakti against.5
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 18-19; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 66 and 139; 25. 18; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 60.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 10. 7 and 48.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 35; Matsya-purāṇa 122. 81; 123. 37; 163. 89; 219. 19; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 32.
- 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 39. 42; 49. 61.
- 5) Ib. 41. 39.
1d) A son of Himavat; the Krauñca hill and dvīpa take their name after him.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 7.
1e) A pupil of Śākapūrṇa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 4. 24.
2) Krauñcā (क्रौञ्चा).—A mind-born mother.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 19.
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) refers to “Krauncha birds”, according to the Rāmāyaṇa verse 5.3.8-13. Accordingly:—“[...] Seeing the city [viz., Laṅkā] everywhere Hanuma (Hanumān) became surprised at heart. Thereafter Hanuma the monkey, became happy seeing [...] lovely assembly halls, with sounds of Krauncha birds [viz., krauñca] and peacocks, [...], equalling the city of Vasvaukasārā, as though flying towards the sky. Seeing that city of Rāvaṇa, which was best among cities, a wealthy city, a beautiful and auspicious city, that powerful Hanuma thought thus”.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) refers to one of the two sons of Himavān and Menā, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Ākūti was married to Ruci and Prasūti to Dakṣa. Dakṣa produced in Prasūti twenty-four daughters. [...] [Svadhā was given to Pitṛs.] Pitṛ and Svadhā had two daughters—Menā and Dhāriṇi. Menā was given in marriage to Himavān who begot two sons—Maināka and Krauñca and two daughters—Gaurī and Gaṅgā.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) refers to one of the seven continents (saptadvīpa) situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī), according to Parākhyatantra 5.61. It is also known as Krauñcadvīpa. These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.
According to the Parākhya-tantra, “beyond that is the continent Krauñca, where Kārttikeya threw his spear of great power and slew the great demon Krauñca. Beyond that is the ocean of clarified butter, where the creator, in asacrifice (kratu), placed a great deal of clarified butter to give pleasure to the gods; that is why it is known as the ocean of clarified butter”.
The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Krauñcā (क्रौञ्चा) is the name of a meter belonging to the Śīrṣaka class described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of twenty-two syllables, the first five, the eighth, the ninth, and the last long, is krauñcā recited by Brahmins and Munis”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) is another name for Kruṣṭa: a type of tone which is used in chanting hyms.—Another [commentator] distinguishes three high tones, the kruṣṭa (also called tāra or krauñca), the madhyama, and the mandra, and assigns the madhyama to the Sāmidhenī hymns. The mandra notes come from the chest, the madhyama notes from the throat, the uttama notes from the head.Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) refers to the bird “Crane/heron” (Grus species or Ardeola grayi).—Birds have been described in several ancient Sanskrit texts that they have been treated elaborately by eminent scholars. These birds [viz., Krauñca] are enumerated in almost several Smṛtis in context of specifying the expiations for killing them and their flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites. These are elaborated especially in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [chapter VI], Gautamasmṛti [chapter 23], Śātātapasmṛti [II.54-56], Uśānasmṛti [IX.10-IX.12], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.172-I.175], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.28-51.29], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.16].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) is the name of a demon (i.e., Mahāsura), according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, as Bhairava said to the Goddess (i.e., Kubjikā):—“O goddess! O fair lady! (Previously) you went to (your) father’s temple (pitṛmandira) (in the Himalayas) and, in order to kill (the demon) Krauñca, we were worshipped (there) by the gods. I will tell you all about how that (demon) Krauñca came into being. (When you were) travelling swiftly from place to place, (a drop of your) sweat fell somewhere. The demon called Krauñca, arrogant due to (his) strength, was born there [...]’.”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Kraunca (क्रौन्च): Curlew-heron.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) or Krauñcāsana is the name of a posture (āsana), according to chapter 2.1 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, “the elephant of kings (i.e., Vimalavāhana) dismounted from the elephant’s shoulder and entered the garden, like a lion a mountain-cave. [...] He saw monks there, too, some in the [viz., krauñca-posture, ...] some engaged in kāyotsarga, and some in ukṣa-posture, indifferent to the body, who had carried out their vows in the midst of numerous attacks, like soldiers in battles, victorious over internal enemies, enduring trials, powerful from penance and meditation [...] The King, with devotion sprouted in the guise of horripilation, as it were, approached Ācārya Arindama and paid homage to him”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
krauñca (क्रौंच).—m S A kind of heron or curlew, Ardea jaculator.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
krauñca (क्रौंच).—m A kind of heron or curlew.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च).—[kruñc prajñā° aṇ]
1) A curlew, heron; मनोहरक्रौञ्चनिनादितानि सीमान्तराण्युत्सुकयन्ति चेतः (manoharakrauñcanināditāni sīmāntarāṇyutsukayanti cetaḥ) Ṛs.4.8; Ms.12.64. क्रौञ्चो विषाभ्याशे माद्यति (krauñco viṣābhyāśe mādyati) Kau. A.1.2.17.
2) Name of a mountain (said to be the grandson of Himālaya and said to have been pierced by Kārtikeya and Paraśurāma); हंसद्वारं भृगुपतियशोवर्त्म यत् क्रौञ्चरन्ध्रम् (haṃsadvāraṃ bhṛgupatiyaśovartma yat krauñcarandhram) Me.59. भिन्नो मद्बाणवेगेन क्रौञ्चत्वं वा गमिष्यति (bhinno madbāṇavegena krauñcatvaṃ vā gamiṣyati) Pratimā.5.12; क्रौञ्चं यथा गिरिवरं युधि कार्तिकेयम् (krauñcaṃ yathā girivaraṃ yudhi kārtikeyam) Abhiṣeka 6.7.
Derivable forms: krauñcaḥ (क्रौञ्चः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ñcaḥ) 1. A kind of heron. (Ardea jaculator, Buch.) 2. One of the Dwipas or principal divisions of the world, surrounded by the sea of curds. 3. A mountain, part of the Himalaya range, situated in the eastern part of the chain on the north of Asam. 4. A Jaina emblem, the figure of the curlew, used as a symbol. 5. The name of a demon, f.
(-ñcā) The female of the curlew. E. kruñca to go crookedly, affix aṇ.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च).—I. m., f. cī, A kind of heron, or curlew, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 134; [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 76, 21. Ii. m. 1. The name of a mountain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 44, 32. 2. One of the Dvīpas, or principal divisions of the world, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 1, 32. 3. The name of a demon.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च).—[masculine] curlew ([feminine] ī also the myth. mother of the curlews); [Name] of a mountain torn asunder by Kārttikeya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Krauñca (क्रौञ्च):—mfn. ([from] kruñca [gana] prajñādi), ‘curlew-like’, with vyūha = cāruṇa, [Mahābhārata vi, 51, 1]
2) m. a kind of curlew, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā v; Āpastamba-dharma-sūtra i, 17, 36; Manu-smṛti] etc.
3) the emblem of the fifth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) an osprey, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [patronymic] (or [metronymic] [from] kruñcā, [Pāṇini 4-1, 120; Kāraṇḍa-vyūha]), Name of a pupil of Śākapūrṇi, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
6) Name of a mountain (part of the Himālaya range, situated in the eastern part of the chain on the north of Assam; said to have been split by Kārttikeya, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]), [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka i, 31, 2; Mahābhārata iii, 14331; vi, 462; ix, 2700 ff.; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
7) Name of one of the Dvīpas of the world (surrounded by the sea of curds), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Matsya-purāṇa; Bhaviṣya-purāṇa, khaṇḍa 1 & 2: bhaviṣya-purāṇa & bhaviṣyottara-purāṇa; Varāha-purāṇa]
8) Name of an Asura or Rakṣas, [Horace H. Wilson]
9) Krauñcā (क्रौञ्चा):—[from krauñca] f. the female curlew [commentator or commentary] on [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) Krauñca (क्रौञ्च):—n. a kind of poison, [Caraka vi, 23]
11) ([scilicet] astra) Name of a mythical weapon, [Rāmāyaṇa i, 29, 12 and 56, 9]
12) Name of several Sāmans, [Tāṇḍya-brāhmaṇa xi]
13) [xiii; Lāṭyāyana; Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]
14) of a particular kind of recitation, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā ii, 5, 11, 1; Chāndogya-upaniṣad ii, 22, 1] ([scilicet] gāna)
15) a particular method of sitting, [Nāradīya-purāṇa]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च):—[(ñcaḥ-ñcā)] 1. m. f. A kind of heron; a continent; a mountain; a demon.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Krauñca (क्रौञ्च) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Koṃca.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] any of large, brownish shorebirds of Scolopacidae family (Numenius genus), with long legs and a long, down-curved bill; a curlew.
2) [noun] one of the seven mythological divisions of the world.
3) [noun] a mythological mountain in the Himalayas.
4) [noun] (myth.) name of a daemon.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+19): Krauncabandha, Krauncabandham, Krauncabradhna, Krauncacala, Krauncacaladveshin, Krauncadana, Krauncadani, Krauncadarana, Krauncadvipa, Krauncaka, Krauncakshi, Krauncana, Krauncanishadana, Krauncanishudana, Krauncanisudaka, Krauncapada, Krauncapadi, Krauncapaksha, Krauncapati, Krauncapura.
Full-text (+116): Krauncadarana, Kronca, Krauncarati, Krauncadvipa, Krauncadana, Krauncapada, Krauncari, Nilakraunca, Kroncadarana, Krauncaripu, Krauncasudana, Kaunca, Krauncacala, Krauncapura, Krauncashatru, Krauncapadi, Krunca, Munidesha, Guhahata, Saptadvipa.
Search found 28 books and stories containing Kraunca, Krauñca, Krauñcā, Kraumca, Krauṃca; (plurals include: Krauncas, Krauñcas, Krauñcās, Kraumcas, Krauṃcas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Ramayana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter II < [Book 1 - Bāla-kāṇḍa]
Chapter LVI < [Book 1 - Bāla-kāṇḍa]
Chapter XXVII < [Book 1 - Bāla-kāṇḍa]
Animal Kingdom (Tiryak) in Epics (by Saranya P.S)
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 9 - Śālmalika, Krauñca, Kuśa and Puṣkara Dvīpas and Their Mountains < [Section 3 - Svarga-khaṇḍa (section on the heavens)]
Chapter 25 - Subāhu Gets Ready with His Army in the Krauñca Array < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
Chapter 26 - A Fierce Fight Between Lakṣmīnidhi and Suketu < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 11 - The Victory of Kumāra and the death of Bāṇa and Pralamba < [Section 2.4 - Rudra-saṃhitā (4): Kumāra-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 15 - The origin of the Second Mallikārjuna Jyotirliṅga < [Section 4 - Koṭirudra-Saṃhitā]
Chapter 20 - The celebration of Gaṇeśa’s marriage < [Section 2.4 - Rudra-saṃhitā (4): Kumāra-khaṇḍa]
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 2.2 - Creation of Kavi (Poet) in the Kāvyamīmāṃsā < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Part 8.10 - Characteristics of Śarad-kāla (autumn season) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Part 8.2 - Rājaśekhara’s concepts of Seven Mahādvīpas (islands) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]