Sugandha, Sugandhā, Su-gandha, Sugamdha: 29 definitions
Sugandha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Ayurveda (science of life)
1) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा) is another name for Mallikā (Jasminum sambac “Sambac jasmine”), from the Oleaceae family of flowering plants. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Carakasaṃhitā.
2) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा) is another name for Tulasī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil), from the Lamiaceae family. It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 10.148-149), which is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.
3) Sugandha (सुगन्ध) is another name (synonym) for Candana, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Santalum album (Indian sandalwood). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 12.6-8), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs
Sugandha [ସୁଗନ୍ଧା] in the Odia language is the name of a plant identified with Aristolochia indica L. from the Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort) family having the following synonyms: Aristolochia maysorensis, Aristolochia pandurata, Aristolochia lanceolata. For the possible medicinal usage of sugandha, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.
Sugandha [सुगंधा] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) C.B.Clarke from the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family having the following synonyms: Berthelotia lanceolata.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
1) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा) is another name for Vandhyākarkoṭakī, a medicinal plant identified with Momordica dioica (spiny gourd) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.61-63 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Sugandhā and Vandhyākarkoṭakī, there are a total of nineteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
2) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Rudrajaṭā, a medicinal plant identified with Aristolochia indica (Indian birthwort or duck flower) from the Aristolochiaceae or “birthwort family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.79-81.
3) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Śatāhvā, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 4.10-13. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Also see the description of the plant Miśreyā.
4) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Nīlanirguṇḍī, the blue variety of Sinduvāra, a medicinal plant identified with Vitex negundo Linn. (or ‘chaste tree’) from the Lamiaceae or “mint” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.153-154. Together with the names Sugandhā and Nīlanirguṇḍī, there are a total of eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Sugandha (सुगन्ध):—Quality that is minute and give a sense pleasure & satisfaction; these improves apetite.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
1) Sugandha (सुगन्ध).—A giant. It is stated in Padma Purāṇa, Sṛṣṭi Khaṇḍa, Chapter 75, that this giant was one of the seven, who were killed by Agni (Fire) in the battle between Hiraṇyākṣa and the gods.
2) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा).—A celestial maid. Mention is made in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 63, that this celestial maid danced in the birth festival of Arjuna.
3) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा).—A holy place. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 10, that by visiting this place one could obtain remission of sins and attain heaven.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Sugandha (सुगन्ध).—A son of Devajanī and an Yakṣa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 130.
2a) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा).—(Sugandhi)—a servant maid of Vasudeva: gave birth to Punḍṛa and Kapila through Vasudeva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 163, 185.
2b) The Goddess enshrined at Mādhavavana.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 37.
2c) An Apsaras.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 7.
Sugandha (सुगन्ध) refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.82.9, III.82.32). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sugandha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Sugandha (सुगन्ध) refers to “sweet smelling”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, while describing the signs of one who is a Siddha: “[...] (Such a man) does not feel fear (even if) there is terrible cold or heat outside or he suffers a bad accident. He is very intelligent and his accomplishment is close at hand. He is not greedy or sick and is forbearing. (His) urine is good and sweet smelling [i.e., sugandha] and (he passes) little stool. (He possesses) a serene beauty and the first sign of success in Yoga (that he displays) is its fine profundity. [??] and (instead of criticizing, he) praises the good qualities (of people) when they are out of sight”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)
Sugandha (सुगन्ध) refers to “sweet-smelling (air)”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra (or Picumata), an early 7th century Śaiva text consisting of twelve-thousand verses.—Accordingly, [while describing a haṭha-sādhana (foreceful practice)]: “[...] Hear what would transpire for him on the ninth day: A loud, terrifying sound arises in the hole, a sweet-smelling (sugandha) air is diffused [and] everywhere a shower of flowers. All the gods shake with fear, their eyes quivering. Aghorī's spirits appear in the clear of dawn by the thousands, of great majesty and deformed visage. [...]”
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Sugandha Thera. He belonged to a rich family of Savatthi. In the past he had smeared the Gandhakuti of Kassapa Buddha with costly sandalwood paste and had desired that he might be reborn with a fragrant body: therefore he, on the day of his birth, and his mother, while she carried him, filled the house with fragrance hence his name. When he grew up, he heard Mahasela Thera preach and entered the Order, attaining arahantship in seven days.
In the time of Tissa Buddha he was a hunter. Tissa Buddha saw him, and, out of compassion for him, left his footprint where the hunter might see it. The hunter recognized the footprint as that of a Great Being and offered to it karandaka flowers (Thag.vs.24; ThagA.i.80f).
He is probably identical with Karandapupphiya Thera of the Apadana. Ap.ii.434; the same verses occur at Ap.ii.383; cf. ThagA.i.270; i.405, where they are found under Subhuti.
Sugandha. A khattiya of thirty one kappas ago, a former birth of Atuma (Gandhodakiya) Thera. ThagA.i.162; Ap.i.158.
3. Sugandha Thera. In the past he had been a setthiputta of Benares and had joined the Order under Kassapa Buddha, becoming famous as a preacher. After death he was born in Tusita, and in this life was born among men, with a fragrant body hence his name. He entered the Order and became an arahant. Ap.ii.459-63.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Sugandha (सुगन्ध) refers to “fragrances”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Lord spoke the following verses to the Bodhisattva Puṇyālaṃkāra: ‘[...] (234) Even though the Bodhisattva fills all those fields with flowers, fragrances (sugandha), ointments, parasols, flags, banners and wreath s of cloth, and makes an offering to the Buddhas, if there is someone taking care of the true dharma to be grasped at the time of the disintegration and cessation of the dharma of the Well-gone One, then his merit would be better.. [...]’”
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Sugandha (सुगन्ध, “pleasant smell”) refers one to the “four smells” (gandha) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 37). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., sugandha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)
Sugandhā (सुगन्धा) is the name of an Apsaras, instructed by Śakra to help in the preparations of Ṛṣabha’s wedding-preparations, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
“[...] Then having ascertained the Lord’s purpose, Purandara at once summoned gods for the tasks of the wedding-preparations.—‘[...] Mañjughoṣā, have women-friends sing sweetly auspicious songs; Sugandhā, prepare the perfumes. Tilottamā put the best svastikas on the door. [...]’. From the bustling of the Apsarases instructing each other in this way, and frequently calling names, a mighty tumult arose”.
Sugandha (सुगन्ध, “fragrant”) refers to “sweet-smelling” and represents on of the two types of Gandha (odour), representing one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. The karmas rise of which gives the smell attribute to the body are called odour body-making karma (e.g., sugandha).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geography
Sugandhā (सुगन्धा) is the name of a river mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa that remains unidentified.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Biology (plants and animals)
1) Sugandha in India is the name of a plant defined with Alpinia galanga in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Zingiber sylvestre Gaertn., nom. illeg. (among others).
2) Sugandha is also identified with Artemisia vulgaris It has the synonym Artemisia vulgaris var. glabra Ledebour (etc.).
3) Sugandha is also identified with Boswellia serrata It has the synonym Boswellia thurifera Roxb. ex Flem. (etc.).
4) Sugandha is also identified with Carum carvi It has the synonym Carum gracile Boiss. (etc.).
5) Sugandha is also identified with Cicer arietinum It has the synonym Ononis crotalariodes M.E. Jones (etc.).
6) Sugandha is also identified with Hedychium spicatum It has the synonym Gandasulium sieboldii Kuntze (etc.).
7) Sugandha is also identified with Hiptage benghalensis It has the synonym Gaertnera obtusifolia Roxb. (etc.).
8) Sugandha is also identified with Jasminum bignoniaceum.
9) Sugandha is also identified with Ophiorrhiza mungos It has the synonym Ophiorrhiza ostindica Christm., nom. inval..
10) Sugandha is also identified with Pluchea lanceolata It has the synonym Pluchea lanceolata (DC.) Oliv. & Hiern (etc.).
11) Sugandha is also identified with Vanda tessellata It has the synonym Cymbidium allagnata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall., nom. inval. (etc.).
Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):
· Cell and Chromosome Research (1989)
· Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
· Phytomedicine (2003)
· Flora Indica, or ‘Descriptions of Indian Plants’ ed. 1832 (1832)
· Feddes Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis (1941)
· Watsonia (1977)
If you are looking for specific details regarding Sugandha, for example side effects, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, health benefits, extract dosage, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
sugandha : (m.) fragrance; pleasant odour. (adj.), fragrant.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
sugandha (सुगंध).—m (S) Fragrance, perfume, sweet odor, any pleasant or agreeable smell.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
sugandha (सुगंध).—m Fragrance, perfume, sweet odour.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) fragrance, odour, perfume.
3) a trader. (-ndham) 1 sandal.
2) small cumin seed.
3) a blue lotus.
4) a kind of fragrant grass.
-ndhā sacred basil.
Derivable forms: sugandhaḥ (सुगन्धः).
Sugandha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and gandha (गन्ध).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ndhaḥ-ndhā-ndhaṃ) Fragrant, sweet-smelling. n.
(-ndhaṃ) 1. Small cummin seed. 2. A fragrant grass; also kuttṛṇa. 3. The blue lotus. 4. Sandal. m.
(-ndhaḥ) 1. Fragrance, ordour. 2. Sulphur. 3. A sort of Morinda. 4. A trader, a dealer. f.
(-ndhā) 1. The ichneumon plant. 2. Zedoary, (Curcuma zerumbet.) 3. A fragrant grass. 4. A sort of lime. 5. Holy basil, (Ocymum sanctum.) 6. Jasmine, (of various sorts.) E. su good, and gandha smell.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sugandha (सुगन्ध).—I. adj. sweet-smelling. Ii. m. 1. fragrance. 2. sulphur. Iii. f. dhā, 1. the name of several plants. 2. a proper name. Iv. n. the name of several plants.
Sugandha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and gandha (गन्ध).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sugandha (सुगन्ध).—1. [masculine] odour, perfume.
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Sugandha (सुगन्ध).—2. [adjective] sweet-smelling, odoriferous.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Sugandha (सुगन्ध):—[=su-gandha] [from su > su-ga] m. a fragrant smell, fragrance, [Rāmāyaṇa]
2) [v.s. ...] a perfume, [Yājñavalkya; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. fragrant, [Mahābhārata] etc. etc.
4) [v.s. ...] m. sulphur, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] the chick-pea, [ib.]
6) [v.s. ...] Andropogon Schoenanthus, [ib.]
7) [v.s. ...] marjoram, [ib.]
8) [v.s. ...] a red-blossomed Moringa, [ib.]
9) [v.s. ...] = tumburu, [ib.]
10) [v.s. ...] a fragrant ointment (made of various substances), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] Name of a mountain, [Golādhyāya]
12) [v.s. ...] a trader, dealer, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
13) Sugandhā (सुगन्धा):—[=su-gandhā] [from su-gandha > su > su-ga] f. the ichneumon plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] Curcuma Zedoaria, [ib.]
15) [v.s. ...] a fragrant grass, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
16) [v.s. ...] a sort of lime, [ib.]
17) [v.s. ...] sacred basil, [Suśruta; Caraka]
18) [v.s. ...] Name of various other plants and trees (= vandhyā, karkoṭakī, rudra-jaṭā etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) [v.s. ...] a form of Dākṣāyaṇī, [Catalogue(s)]
20) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
21) [v.s. ...] of a Tīrtha, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra; Mahābhārata]
22) [v.s. ...] of a woman, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
23) Sugandha (सुगन्ध):—[=su-gandha] [from su > su-ga] n. small cumin seed, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
24) [v.s. ...] the blue lotus, [ib.]
25) [v.s. ...] sandal, [ib.]
26) [v.s. ...] the Granthi-parṇa plant, [ib.]
27) [v.s. ...] = kat-tṛṇa, [ib.]
28) [v.s. ...] = pattrāṅga, [ib.]
29) [v.s. ...] = gandha-tṛṇa, [ib.]
30) [v.s. ...] civet, [ib.]
31) [v.s. ...] Name of a Tīrtha, [Mahābhārata]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sugandha (सुगन्ध):—[su-gandha] (ndhaḥ-ndhā-ndhaṃ) a. Fragrant. 1. n. Small cumin seed; fragrant grass; blue lotus; Sandal. m. Sulphur; odour; a trader. 1. f. Plants of several kinds.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Sugandha (सुगन्ध) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Suaṃdha, Sugaṃdhā.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Sugaṃdhā (सुगंधा) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Sugandhā.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Sugaṃdha (ಸುಗಂಧ):—[adjective] having a pleasing smell or odour.
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1) [noun] a pleasing smell or odour; a sweet scent.
2) [noun] a substance producing a fragrant or pleasing odour; a perfume.
3) [noun] 'a pale-yellow, nonmetallic chemical element found in crystalline or amorphous form; sulphur (symbol: S).'4) [noun] the vine Hemidesmus indicus of Asclepiadaceae family; Indian sarsaparilla.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+28): Sugamdhaballi, Sugamdhaberu, Sugamdhadravya, Sugamdhamuste, Sugamdhapala, Sugamdhavaci, Sugamdhavale, Sugandha kokila, Sugandha udgaar, Sugandha-haalina-gida, Sugandha-halina-gida, Sugandha-vastuka, Sugandhabal, Sugandhabala, Sugandhabhutrina, Sugandhachurna, Sugandhacurna, Sugandhadhya, Sugandhaditya, Sugandhaka.
Ends with: Asugandha, Culasugandha, Gandhasugandha, Ikshugandha, Mahasugandha, Mandasugandha, Nagasugandha, Pasugandha, Sarpasugandha, Sasugandha, Shishugandha, Shitasugandha, Sthalisugandha, Susugandha, Trisugandha, Tvachisugandha, Tvacisugandha, Tvakasugandha, Tvaksugandha.
Full-text (+51): Tvaksugandha, Sugandhesha, Saugandhya, Saugandha, Nagasugandha, Mahasugandha, Sugandhi, Tvacisugandha, Sugandhadhya, Pancasugandhaka, Sugandhavat, Sugamdhi, Sugandhata, Sugandhamukha, Sugandhabhutrina, Sarpasugandha, Sugamdhadravya, Sugandhayukti, Sugandhapattra, Sugandhamula.
Search found 32 books and stories containing Sugandha, Sugandhā, Su-gandha, Su-gandhā, Sugamdha, Sugaṃdhā, Sugaṃdha; (plurals include: Sugandhas, Sugandhās, gandhas, gandhās, Sugamdhas, Sugaṃdhās, Sugaṃdhas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 4.12.17 < [Chapter 12 - The Story of the Gopīs That In the Holi Festival Displayed Three Transcendental Virtues]
Verse 2.9.26 < [Chapter 9 - Brahmā’s Prayers]
Verse 2.23.3 < [Chapter 23 - The Killing of Śaṅkhacūḍa During the Rāsa-dance Pastime]
Amarakoshodghatana of Kshirasvamin (study) (by A. Yamuna Devi)
Politics and Administration (7): Women rulers < [Chapter 3 - Social Aspects]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Treatment for fever (69): Sannipata-gajankusha rasa < [Chapter II - Fever (jvara)]
Chaitanya Bhagavata (by Bhumipati Dāsa)
Verse 2.6.110 < [Chapter 6 - The Lord’s Meeting with Advaita Ācārya]
Hymn To Goodness Earth (Bhu) < [January – March, 2000]
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 5.23 - The characteristics of matter (pudgala-lakṣaṇa) < [Chapter 5 - The Non-living Substances]