Karnika, Karṇika, Karṇikā: 27 definitions

Introduction:

Karnika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Karṇika (कर्णिक).—Name of a settlement (janapada) situated near the seven great mountains on the western side of mount Naiṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These settlements consume the water flowing from these seven great mountains (Viśākha, Kambala, Jayanta, Kṛṣṇa, Harita, Aśoka and Vardhamāna). Niṣadha (Naiṣadha) is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Karṇikā (कर्णिका).—One of the eleven Devakanyakās who sang and danced in the Janmotsava of Arjuna. The others are: Menakā, Sahajanyā, Puñjikasthalā, Ṛtusthalā, Ghṛtācī, Viśvācī, Pūrvacitti, Ullocā, Pramlocā and Urvaśī. (Chapter 123, Ādi Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Karṇikā (कर्णिका).—Wife of Kaṅka and mother of Ṛtadhāman and Jaya.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 44.

1b) The tendril of the world lotus; Atri regards it as 100 cornered, Bhṛgu as 1000 cornered, Bhāguri, square, Vārṣāyaṇi Sāmudra, Gālava, tray-shaped, Gārgya like braided hair and Kroṣtuki circle-like. Each had only partial knowledge; Brahmā alone knows it entire.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 58-69.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Karṇika (कर्णिक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.28.48, VI.10.58) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Karṇika) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Karṇikā (कर्णिका) refers to a type of ornament (ābharaṇa) for the ears (karṇa) to be worn by females, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Such ornaments for females should be used in cases of human females and celestial beings (gods and goddesses).

Ābharaṇa (‘ornaments’, eg., karṇikā) is a category of alaṃkāra, or “decorations”, which in turn is a category of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, the perfection of which forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Karṇikā (कर्णिका) refers to “ear-rings”, representing a type of ear-ornament (karṇabhūṣaṇa) for females, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—A number of ear-ornaments (Karṇabhūṣaṇa) are found in Indian sculptures. Bharata mentions two sets one for male and another for female. The ear-ornament for female are [viz., karṇikā (ear-ring)]

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Karṇikā (कर्णिका) is the name of an ingredient used in the treatment (cikitsā) of rat poison (ākhu-viṣa), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Kāśyapa has recommended a slew of generic formulae that successfully neutralise rat poison.—According to Kāśyapasaṃhitā (verse 11.50-51): “Equal measures of Karṇikā and Jīvantī, salt, leaves and fruit of Guñjā, must be placed in Hemarasa. (Copper sulphate which is anti-bacterial). This solution must be sprinkled on the spot of the bite. The finger nails must be dipped in the solution and placed in the nostril”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Karṇikā (कर्णिका):—Spike like projection

2) Polyp like granulomatous growth developed when there is bite of poisonous insect / rat.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Karṇikā (कर्णिका) refers to “lotus receptacle (upper part of mahāpīṭha or substitute altar §§ 3.9; 5.11, 13).”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Karṇikā (कर्णिका) refers to one of the sacred trees mentioned in the Kaulāvalinirṇaya.—Trees, forests and groves close to human settlements have been venerated throughout the subcontinent up to the present day as the abodes of deities and a range of supernatural beings. [...] In the Kaula and related Tantras, such beings came to be identified with Yoginīs and so the trees they inhabited as Yakṣinīs came to be venerated as Kula trees (kulavṛkṣa) in which Yoginīs reside. The Kaulāvalinirṇaya enjoins that the adept should bow to the Kula and the Lord of Kula when he sees one of these trees [i.e., Karṇikā] and recollect that Yoginīs reside in them.

2) Karṇikā (कर्णिका) refers to the “calix (of the lotus)” [?], according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The god, possessing a subtle body (puryaṣṭaka), resides in the lotus of the heart. (His) form is that of a Kadamba bud and (shines) like a firefly. O beloved, the great, and divine Self is present there, located in the calix (of the lotus) [i.e., karṇikā-stha]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Karṇikā (कर्णिका) refers to a “lotus pericarp”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 7.216cd-217, while describing the meditation on the kālahaṃsa]—“After [this, the Yogin] visualizes the heart lotus, with sixteen petals, situated in the opening of the channel that pierces the tube [i.e., the lotus stem. He imagines] a white, radiant, completely full moon, endowed with sixteen parts, and with his body in the shape of a lotus pericarp (karṇikā-ākāra-vigraha). [Then, he pictures] the self, It is to be imagined [as seated] in the middle of that [moon], and is as spotless as pure crystal. [The self is] pervaded with amṛta, [which washes over him] in a wave from the ocean of the milky nectar of immortality”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Karṇikā (कर्णिका) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘ghaṇṭā’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., karṇikā) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Karṇika (कर्णिक) refers to the “pericarp (of a lotus)”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Being in the heart with mud, a universal petaled lotus, Above the pericarp of the lotus (padma-karṇika-upari), a moon and sun mandala, Above that, observe a Hūṃ, that changes into a two armed Saṃvara. Venerable, dark-blue color, one face, three eyes, standing in archer's pose. [...]”.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Karṇikā (कर्णिका) refers to the “pericarp” (of the lotus), according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “[...]  [Standing on] Bhairava and Kālarātri on fire on the sun [disk] on the pericarp (karṇikā) [of the lotus], [Heruka] is dancing. [He should visualize Heruka] having the body [colored] half black and half green; [complete with] seventy-six arms; [having] seventeen [faces] with three eyes [on each]; wearing a crown of twisted locks of hair; being a hero; [having] a crossed vajra [on top of the head] and a half moon [on the head]; [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Karṇika (कर्णिक) refers to the “end (of one’s robe)”, according to the 2nd-century Meghasūtra (“Cloud Sutra”) in those passages which contain ritual instructions.—Accordingly, “In the end of one’s robe (cīvara-karṇika) a knot must be tied with seven prayers by the prophet of the Law after he has previously made provision for his safety. This ‘Whirlwind’-Chapter, (also) called “The heart of all Serpents,” must be recited. [...]”

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Karnika in India is the name of a plant defined with Dendranthema indicum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Chrysanthemum nankingense Handel-Mazzetti (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal d’Histoire Naturelle (1792)
· Acta Horti Gothoburgensis (1938)
· Acta Phytotaxonomica et Geobotanica (1978)
· Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles (1826)
· Kromosomo (2746)
· Flora Koreana (1911)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Karnika, for example diet and recipes, side effects, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karṇikā (कर्णिका).—f S The pericarp of a lotus. 2 The middle finger.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karṇika (कर्णिक).—a.

1) Having ears.

2) Having a helm.

-kaḥ A steersman.

-kā 1 An ear-ring; रत्नरञ्जितकर्णिकाम् (ratnarañjitakarṇikām) Śiva. B.2.5; वदनेनाकुलकर्णिकोज्जवलेन (vadanenākulakarṇikojjavalena) Bu. Ch.5.55.

2) A knot, round protuberance.

3) Pericarp of a lotus.

4) A small brush or pen.

5) The middle finger.

6) A fruit-stalk.

7) The tip of an elephant's trunk.

8) Chalk.

9) A trowel.

1) A bawd.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Karṇika (कर्णिक).—(1) m. or nt., only in cīvara-k°, edge, border, (of robe), = -karṇaka, q.v.: m. °ko Divyāvadāna 90.25; 239.27; 577.8; nt. °kāny Divyāvadāna 350.2; ambiguous as to gender, Divyāvadāna 90.17, 22; 239.25; 341.3, 4; 345.16; Śikṣāsamuccaya 249.2; (2) nt. (= Sanskrit karṇikā, AMg. kaṇṇiyā), ear-ornament: Mahāvyutpatti 6022 = Tibetan rna cha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karṇika (कर्णिक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) 1. Having large or long ears. 2. Having ears. 3. Having a helm. m.

(-kaḥ) A steersman. f.

(-kā) 1. An ear-ring or ornament of the ear. 2. The pericarp of a lotus. 3. The middle finger. 4. The tip of an elephant’s trunk. 5. A fruit-stalk. 6. A pen or small brush. 7. A plant, (Premna spinosa, &c.) see agnimantha. E. karṇa the ear, &c. ika affix; or kan and ṭāp affs.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karṇikā (कर्णिका).—i. e. karṇa + ka or ika, f. 1. An ornament of the ear, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 199, 1. 2. The pericarp of the lotus, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 22, 25. 3. The name of an Apsaras, Mahābhārata 1, 428.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Karṇika (कर्णिक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a medical author. Quoted Burnell. 70^b.

2) Karṇika (कर्णिक):—a medical author. Quoted Burnell. 70^b.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karṇikā (कर्णिका):—[from karṇaka > karṇa] a f. ([Pāṇini 4-3, 65]) an ear-ring or ornament for the ear, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Daśakumāra-carita] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a knot-like tubercle, [Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] a round protuberance (as at the end of a reed or a tube), [Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] the pericarp of a lotus, [Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] central point, centre, [Caraka; Bālarāmāyaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] the tip of an elephant’s trunk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] the middle finger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] chalk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a pen, small brush, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] Premna spinosa or longifolia, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] Odina pinnata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a bawd, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata]

14) Karṇika (कर्णिक):—[from karṇa] mfn. having ears, having large or long ears, [Horace H. Wilson]

15) [v.s. ...] having a helm, [Horace H. Wilson]

16) [v.s. ...] m. a steersman, [Horace H. Wilson]

17) [v.s. ...] a kind of fever, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

18) [v.s. ...] Name of a king in Potāla

19) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] Name of a people, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

20) [v.s. ...] mn. the pericarp of a lotus, [Mahābhārata]

21) [v.s. ...] n. a kind of arrow (the top being shaped like an ear), [Śārṅgadhara]

22) Karṇikā (कर्णिका):—[from karṇa] b See karṇaka.

23) Kārṇika (कार्णिक):—[from kārṇa] mf(ī)n. relating to the ear, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karṇika (कर्णिक):—[karṇi-ka] (kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) a. Having ears, or a helm. 1. m. A steersman. () 1. f. An ear-ring; pericarp of a lotus; tip of an elephant’s trunk; the middle finger; a fruit stalk; a pen or brush; a plant.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karṇikā (कर्णिका) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kaṇṇiā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karnika in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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