Mriga, Mṛga, Mṛgā: 27 definitions

Introduction

Mriga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Mṛga and Mṛgā can be transliterated into English as Mrga or Mriga, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction

Mṛga (मृग, “Deer”).—The deer symbolises gentleness as well as attentiveness — whatever its doing the deer is always mindful of predators. This is indicative of the way we should live in the world — practicing ahimsa and being mindful of the impermanence and transitory nature of all created phenomena.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Mṛga (मृग, “deer”) refers to one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The representations of certain animals and birds are generally found in the hands of images. They are, for example, Mṛga.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Mṛga (मृग):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the 2nd century Matsyapurāṇa and the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, both featuring a list of 20 temple types. In the Viśvakarmaprakāśa, the name for this temple category is Mṛgarāja. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Mṛga (मृग) refers to “beasts” and represents a type of Ādhibhautika pain, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhibhautika and its subdivisions (eg., mṛga) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhyātmika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Mṛga (मृग) refers to a “deer” and represents the mount of the wind-god (Sadāgati or Vāyu), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.36. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Indra mocked at Viṣṇu who was engrossed in his own arguments. He, the bearer of the thunderbolt, was desirous of fighting Vīrabhadra along with the other Devas. [...] Varuṇa rode on a crocodile; the wind-god [i.e., Sadāgati] rode on a deer (mṛga); Kubera sat in his chariot Puṣpaka and he was ready and alert”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mṛga (मृग).—One of the ten horses of the moon's chariot;1 a riding vehicle of a śakti.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 57; Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 53.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 29. 41.

1b) A daughter of Abhramu the elephant, the vehicle of Agni; mother of 8 sons.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 330-32. Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 214, 216.

1c) A Bhārgava gotrakāra.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 195. 20.

1d) To be worshipped before house and palace building.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 253. 25; 268. 14.

1e) (mṛgarāja)—a palace with candraśālā and six bhūmikas; the toraṇa is of 12 hastas.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 269. 40, 50.

1f) The son of Mṛgā and Uśīnara: also the capital of the Yaudheyas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 20-1.

2) Mṛgā (मृगा).—One of the wives of Uśīnara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 19.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mṛga (मृग) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.7) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mṛga) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Mṛga (मृग) refers to “antelopes” (living in the forest), according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.29. Accordingly:—“[...] Sītā was distressed to hear these words of Rāma and spoke these words slowly, with her face with tears: ‘[...] Oh Rāma! Antelopes (mṛga), lions, elephants, tigers, Śarabhas (legendary animal with eight legs), birds, yaks and all others which roam in the forest, run away after seeing your form, since they have never seen your figure before. When there is cause for fear, who would not have fear?’”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Mṛga (मृग).—Description of a women of deer (mṛga) type;—A woman who has a small abdomen, flat nose, thin shanks is fond of forest, has large red eyes, is fickle, has the habit of quickly going, susceptible to fright in day time, is timid, fond of songs and instrumental music, and intercourse, irascible in temper, unsteady in her efforts, is said to have the nature of a deer (mṛga).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Sāṃkhya philosophy

Mṛga (मृग) refers to “wild animals” such as the lion, tiger or deer, and represents a division of the animal world (tairyaksarga) according to the Sāṃkhyakārikā. The tairyaksarga is one of the three types of elemental creation, also known as bhautikasarga.

The Sāṃkhyakārikā by Iśvarakṛṣṇa is the earliest extant text of the Sāṃkhya school of philosophy and dates from the 4th century CE. It contains 72 Sanskrit verses and contents include epistemology and the theory of causation.

context information

Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Mṛga (मृग) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the southern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (eg., Mṛga).

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Mṛga (मृग).—Sign Capricorn. Note: Mṛga is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Mṛga (मृग) refers to the “deer”, whose meat (māṃsa) is classified as “terrestrial” (bhūcara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as terrestrial (bhūcara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The terrestrial animals are [viz., mṛga (deer)].

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Mṛgā (मृगा) is another name for Mahābalā, a medicinal plant identified with Sida rhombifolia Linn. (“arrowleaf sida” or “Indian hemp”) from the Malvaceae or mallows family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.98-100 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Mṛgā and Mahābalā, there are a total of seventeen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Mṛga (मृग) refers to the animal “Deer–Chital” (Cervus axis).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Mṛga] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Mṛga (मृग)—Sanskrit word meaning “animal”.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mṛga (मृग, “deer”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. People who, in their former lives, have trussed them up, whipped them or been guilty of crimes of this kind, assume the animal form of an elephant (haja), a horse (aśva), a cow (go), a sheep (eḍaka) or a deer (mṛga).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Mṛga (मृग) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Mṛgī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Mṛga] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Mṛgā (मृगा) is the name of a river mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa that remains unidentified.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Mṛga.—(CII 1), a deer; an animal in general. Note: mṛga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mṛga (मृग).—m (S) A deer, an antelope. 2 The fifth nakṣatra or lunar mansion: also the rain that falls under it. Pr. mṛgācē adhīṃ pērāvēṃ āṇi bōmbēcē adhīṃ paḷāvēṃ. 3 S A beast or quadruped in general.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mṛga (मृग).—m A deer. The fifth nakṣatra. A beast.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mṛga (मृग).—[mṛg-ka]

1) (a) A quadruped, an animal in general; नाभिषेको न संस्कारः सिंहस्य क्रियते मृगैः । विक्रमार्जित- राज्यस्य स्वयमेव मृगेन्द्रता (nābhiṣeko na saṃskāraḥ siṃhasya kriyate mṛgaiḥ | vikramārjita- rājyasya svayameva mṛgendratā); see मृगाधिप (mṛgādhipa) below. (b) A wild beast.

2) A deer, an antelope; विश्वासोपगमादभिन्नगतयः शब्दं सहन्ते मृगाः (viśvāsopagamādabhinnagatayaḥ śabdaṃ sahante mṛgāḥ) Ś.1.14; R.1.4,5; आश्रममृगोऽयं न हन्तव्यः (āśramamṛgo'yaṃ na hantavyaḥ) Ś.1.

3) Game in general.

4) The spots on the moon represented as an antelope.

5) Musk.

6) Seeking, search.

7) Pursuit, chase, hunting.

8) Inquiry, investigation.

9) Asking, soliciting.

1) A kind of elephant; Name of the third caste of elephants; Mātaṅga L.1.26.29; 'भद्रा मन्द्रा मृगाश्चेति विज्ञेयास्त्रिविधा गजाः । क्रमेण हिमवद्विन्ध्यसह्यजाः (bhadrā mandrā mṛgāśceti vijñeyāstrividhā gajāḥ | krameṇa himavadvindhyasahyajāḥ) |' com. on Rām.1.6.25.

11) Name of a particular class of men; मृगे तुष्टा च चित्रिणी (mṛge tuṣṭā ca citriṇī); वदति मधुरवाणीं दीर्घनेत्राऽतिभीरुश्चपलमतिसुदेहः शीघ्रवेगो मृगोऽयम् (vadati madhuravāṇīṃ dīrghanetrā'tibhīruścapalamatisudehaḥ śīghravego mṛgo'yam) Śabdak.

12) The lunar mansion called मृगशिरस् (mṛgaśiras).

13) The lunar month called मार्गशीर्ष (mārgaśīrṣa).

14) The sign Capricornus of the zodiac.

15) Name of a district in Śākadvīpa.

Derivable forms: mṛgaḥ (मृगः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛga (मृग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. A deer, an antelope. 2. An animal in general. 3. Research, inquiry, investigation. 4. Asking, soliciting, begging. 5. A kind of elephant, one with white marks on his forehead. 6. The fifth lunar constellation, more usually Mrigasiras: see mṛgaśiras. 7. The month in which the moon is full in the constellation Mrigasiras. 8. A particular sacrifice. 9. Musk. 10. Hunting, chase. 11. One of the four classes into which men are divided, (in erotic works.) 12. The spots of the moon represented as an antelope. f. (-gī) 1. A description of woman, perhaps the same as the one termed citriṇī, the corresponding female to the male called mṛga. 2. A female deer, a doe. 3. A species of the Mad'hya metre. 4. Epilepsy. E. mṛg to search, to chase, aff. ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛga (मृग).—i. e. mṛj + a (cf. mārga), I. m. 1. Hunting, [Draupadīpramātha] 6, 4. 2. Investigation. 3. Asking. 4. A deer, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 36, M.M.; an antelope. 5. Game, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 51. 6. An animal in general, Chr. 290, 7 = [Rigveda.] i. 64, 7. 7. A kind of elephant. 8. The fifth lunar constellation. 9. Musk. Ii. f. , A female deer of antelope, a doe, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 121.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mṛga (मृग).—[masculine] wild animal, beast of the forest, [especially] deer, gazelle (seen also as spot in the moon), musk deer; a cert. high-flying bird; [feminine] mṛgī hind, doe.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mṛga (मृग):—[from mṛg] m. ([probably] ‘ranger’, ‘rover’) a forest animal or wild beast, game of any kind, ([especially]) a deer, fawn, gazelle, antelope, stag, musk-deer, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the deer or antelope in the moon (id est. the spots on the disk supposed to resemble those of an antelope as well as a hare)

3) [v.s. ...] the d° or ant° in the sky (either the Nakṣatra Mṛga-śiras or the sign of the zodiac Capricorn; also in general the 10th arc of 30 degrees in a circle), [Sūryasiddhānta; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] an elephant with [particular] marks ([according to] to [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ‘one the secondary marks of whose body are small’), [Rāmāyaṇa; Varāha-mihira]

5) [v.s. ...] a large soaring bird, [Ṛg-veda i, 182, 7 etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a demon or Vṛtra in the form of a deer slain by Indra, [ib. i, 80, 7 etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] of a celestial being (occupying a [particular] place in an [astrology] house divided into 81 compartments), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

8) [v.s. ...] of a [particular] class of men whose conduct in coitus resembles that of the roebuck, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] of the district in Śāka-dvīpa inhabited principally by Brāhmans, [Mahābhārata] (B. maṅga); of the Brāhmans themselves, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] ([varia lectio] maga)

10) [v.s. ...] of a horse of the Moon, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] musk (= mṛga-nābhi or -mada), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

12) [v.s. ...] a [particular] Aja-pāla sacrifice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] search, seeking, asking, requesting, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Mṛgā (मृगा):—[from mṛga > mṛg] f. = mṛga-vīthī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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