Panca, Pañca: 13 definitions
Panca means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Pancha.
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Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Pañca (पञ्च) is the name of the fourteenth book of the Kathāsaritsāgara, written by Somadeva in the 11th-century.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Pañca, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Pañca (पञ्च) refers to “wide”, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 22.19.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Pañca (पञ्च) is another name for Paṭola, a medicinal plant identified with Trichosanthes dioica (pointed gourd) from the Cucurbitaceae or “gourd family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.22-24 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Pañca and Paṭola, there are a total of sixteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
Panca means five.Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas
In Pali, panca means five.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Pañca.—(EI 22, 23), abbreviation of pañcakula; same as Mahājana; a Pañcāyat Board. Note: pañca is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
pañca : (adj.) five.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pañca, (adj. -num.) (Ved. pañca, Idg. *penqǔe; cp. Gr. pέnte, Lat. quīnque, Goth. fimf, Lith. penki, Oir. coic) number 5.—Cases: Gen. Dat. pañcannaṃ, Instr. Abl. pañcahi, Loc. pañcasu; often used in compositional form pañca° (cp. Ved. pañcāra with 5 spokes I. 16413; Gr. pempw/bolos, Lat. quinqu-ennis etc.).—
1. Characteristics of No. 5 in its use, with ref, to lit. & fig. application. “Five” is the number of “comprehensive and yet simple” unity or a set; it is applied in all cases of a natural and handy comprehension of several items into a group, after the 5 fingers of the hand, which latter lies at the bottom of all primitive expressions of No. 5 (see also below pañc’ aṅgulika. The word for 5 itself in its original form is identical with the word for hand *pr∂q, cp. Lat. com°, decem, centum etc.) -
A. No. 5, applied (a) with ref. to time: catupañcāhaṃ 4 or 5 days J. II, 114 (cp. quinque diebus Horace Sat I. 316); maraṇaṃ tuyhaṃ oraṃ māsehi pañcahi after 5 months Vv 6310, p. māse vasitvā DA. I, 319 (cp. qu. menses Hor. Sat. II. 3289).—(b) of space: °yojanaṭṭhāna J. III, 504; °yojan-ubbedho gajavaro VvA. 33; °bhūmako pāsādo J. I, 58 (cp. the house of Death as 5 stories high in Grimm, Mārchen No. 42 ed. Reclam).—(c) of a group, set, company, etc. (cp. 5 peoples RV III, 379; VI, 114; VIII, 92 etc.; gods X. 553; priests II. 3414; III, 77; leaders of the Greek ships Hom. Iliad 16, 171; ambassadors Genesis 472; quinque viri Hor. Sat. II. 555; Epist. II. 124): p. janā J. V, 230; p. amaccā J. V, 231; p. hatthino DhA. I, 164; pañca nāriyo agamiṃsu Vv 322; p. puttāni khādāmi Pv. I, 63.—Note. No. 5 in this appln is not so frequent in Pāli as in older literature (Vedas e.g. ); instead of the simple 5 we find more frequent the higher decimals 50 and 500. See also below §§ 3, 4.
B. No. 15 in two forms: pañcadasa (f. °ī the 15th day of the month Vv 156=A. I, 144; Sn. 402) VvA. 67 (°kahāpaṇa-sahassāni dāpesi), and paṇṇarasa (also as f. ī of the 15th or full-moon day Pv III, 31; DhA. I, 198; III, 92; IV, 202; VvA. 314; SnA 78) Sn. 153 (pannaraso uposatho); Vv 642 (paṇṇarase va cando; explained as paṇṇarasiyaṃ VvA. 276); DhA. I, 388 (of age, 15 or 16 years); DA. I, 17 (°bhedo Khuddaka-nikāyo); SnA 357 (pannarasahi bhikkhu-satehi=1500, instead of the usual 500); PvA. 154 (°yojana). The appln is much the same as 5 and 50 (see below), although more rare, e.g. as measure of space: °yojana DhA. I, 17 (next in sequence to paṇṇāsa-yojana); J. I, 315; PvA. 154 (cp. 15 furlongs from Jerusalem to Bethany John 11, 18; 15 cubits above the mountains rose the flood Gen. 7. 20).
C. No. 25 in two forms: pañcavīsati (the usual) e.g. DhsA. 185 sq.; Miln. 289 (citta-dubbalī-karaṇā dhammā); paṇṇa-vīsati, e.g. J. IV, 352 (nāriyo); Th. 2, 67, and paṇṇuvīsaṃ (only at J. III, 138). Similarly to 15 and 25 the number 45 (pañca-cattāḷīsa) is favoured in giving distances with °yojana, e.g. at J. I, 147, 348; DhA. I, 367. -Application: of 25: (1) time: years J. III, 138; DhA. I, 4; (2) space: miles high and wide DhA. II, 64 (ahipeto); VvA. 236 (yojanāni pharitvā pabhā).
2. Remarks on the use of 50 and 500 (5000). Both 50 and 500 are found in stereotyped and always recurring combinations (not in Buddhist literature alone, but all over the Ancient World), and applied to any situation indiscriminately. They have thus lost their original numerical significance and their value equals an expression like our “thousands, ” cp. the use of Lat. mille and 600, also similarly many other high numerals in Pāli literature, as mentioned under respective units (4, 6, 8 e.g. in 14, 16, 18, etc.). Psychologically 500 is to be explained as “a great hand, ” i.e. the 5 fingers magnified to the 2nd decade, and is equivalent to an expression like “a lot” (originally “only one, ” cp. casting the lot, then the one as a mass or collection), or like heaps, tons, a great many, etc.—Thus 50 (and 500) as the numbers of “comm-union” are especially frequent in recording a company of men, a host of servants, animals in a herd, etc., wherever the single constituents form a larger (mostly impressive, important) whole, as an army, the king’s retinue, etc.—A. No. 50 (paññāsa; the by-form paṇṇāsa only at DhA. III, 207), in foll. applns: (a) of time: does not occur, but see below under 55.—(b) of space (cp. 50 cubits the breadth of Noah’s ark Gen. 6. 15; the height of the gallows (Esther 5. 14; 7. 9) J. I, 359 (yojanāni); DhA. III, 207 (°hattho ubbedhena rukkho); Vism. 417 (paripuṇṇa °yojana suriyamaṇḍala); DhA. I, 17 (°yojana).—(c) of a company or group (cp. 50 horses RV II. 185; V, 185; wives VIII, 1936; men at the oars Hom. Il. 2. 719; 16. 170, servants Hom. Od. 7, 103, 22, 421) J. III, 220 (corā); V, 161 (pallaṅkā), 421 (dijakaññāyo); Sn. p. 87; SnA 57 (bhikkhū).—Note. 55 (pañcapaññāsa) is used instead of 50 in time expressions (years), e.g. at DhA. I, 125; II, 57; PvA. 99, 142; also in groups: DhA. I, 99 (janā).—B. No. 500 (pañcasata°, pañcasatā, pañcasatāni).—(a) of time: years (as Peta or Petī) Vv 8434; Pv. II, 15; PvA. 152 (with additional 50). (b) of space: miles high Pv IV. 328; J. I, 204 (°yojana-satikā); Vism. 72 (°dhanu-satika, 500 bows in distance).—(C) of groups of men, servants, or a herd, etc. (cp. 500 horses RV X. 9314; witnesses of the rising of Christ 1 Cor. 15—6; men armed Vergil Aen. 10. 204; men as representatives Hom. Od. 3. 7; 500 knights or warriors very frequently in Nibelungenlied, where it is only meant to denote a “goodly company, 500 or more”) Arahants KhA 98; Bhikkhus very frequent, e.g. D. I, 1; Vin. II, 199; J. I, 116, 227; DhA. II, 109, 153; III, 262, 295; IV, 184, 186; Sāvakas J. I, 95; Upāsakas J. II, 95; PvA. 151; Paccekabuddhas DhA. IV, 201; PvA. 76; Vighāsâdā J. II, 95; DhA. II, 154; Sons PvA. 75; Thieves DhA. II, 204; PvA. 54; Relatives PvA. 179; Women-servants (parivārikā itthiyo) Pv. II, 126; VvA. 69, 78, 187; PvA. 152; Oxen A. IV, 41; Monkeys J. III, 355; Horses Vin. III, 6.—Money etc. as present, reward or fine representing a “round-sum” (cp. Nibelungen 314: horses with gold, 317: mark; dollars as reward Grimm No. 7; drachms as pay Hor. Sat. II. 743) kahāpaṇas Sn. 980, 982; PvA. 273; blows with stick as fine Vin. I, 247.—Various: a caravan usually consists of 500 loaded wagons, e.g. J. I, 101; DhA. II, 79; PvA. 100, 112; chariots VvA. 78; ploughs Sn. p. 13. Cp. S. I, 148 (vyagghī-nisā); Vin. II, 285 (ūna-pañcasatāni); J. II, 93 (accharā); V, 75 (vāṇijā); DhA. I, 89 (suvaṇṇasivikā), 352 (rāja-satāni); IV, 182 (jāti°) KhA 176 (paritta-dīpā). Also BSk. pañ’opasthāyikā-śatāni Divy 529; pañca-mātrāṇi strī-śatāni Divy 533.—Note. When Gotama said that his “religion” would last 500 years he meant that it would last a very long time, practically for ever. The later change of 500 to 5, 000 is immaterial to the meaning of the expression, it only indicates a later period (cp. 5, 000 in Nibelungeniled for 500, also 5, 000 men in ambush Joshua 8. 12; converted by Peter Acts 4. 4; fed by Christ with 5 loaves Matthew 14. 21). Still more impressive than 500 is the expression 5 Koṭis (5 times 100, 000 or 10 million), which belongs to a comparatively later period, e.g. at DhA. I, 62 (ariya-sāvaka-koṭiyo), 256 (°mattā-ariyasāvakā); IV, 190 (p. koti-mattā ariya-sāvakā).
3. Typical sets of 5 in the Pali Canon. °aggaṃ first fruits of 5 (kinds), viz. khett°, rās°, koṭṭh°, kumbhi°, bhojan° i.e. of the standing crop, the threshing floor, the granary, the pottery, the larder SnA 270. °aṅgā 5 gentlemanly qualities (of king or brahmin): sujāta, ajjhāyaka, abhirūpa, sīlavā, paṇḍita (see aṅga; on another combination with aṅga see below). The phrase pañc’ aṅgasamannāgata & °vippahīna (S. I, 99; A. V, 16) refers to the 5 nīvaraṇāni: see explained at Vism. 146. °aṅgikaturiya 5 kinds of music: ātata, vitata, ātata-vitata, ghana, susira. °abhiññā 5 psychic powers (see Cpd. 209). °ānantarika-kammāni 5 acts that have immediate retribution (Miln. 25), either 5 of the 6 abhiṭhānas (q. v.) or (usually) murder, theft, impurity, lying, intemperance (the 5 sīlas) cp. Dhs. trsl. 267. °indriyāni 5 faculties, viz. saddhā, viriya, sati, samādhi, paññā (see indriya B. 15—19). °vidhaṃ (rāja-) kakudhabhaṇḍaṃ, insignia regis viz. vāḷavījanī, uṇhīsa, khagga, chatta, pādukā. °kalyāṇāni, beauty-marks: kesa°, maṃsa°, aṭṭhi°, chavi°, vaya°. °kāmaguṇā pleasures of the 5 senses (=taggocarāni pañc’āyatanāni gahitāni honti SnA 211). °gorasā 5 products of the cow: khīra, dadhi, takka, navanīta, sappi. °cakkhūni, sorts of vision (of a Buddha): maṃsa° dibba° paññā° buddha° samanta°. °taṇhā cravings, specified in 4 sets of 5 each: see Nd2 271v. °nikāyā 5 collections (of Suttantas) in the Buddh. Canon, viz. Dīgha° Majjhima° Saṃyutta°, Aṅguttara° Khuddaka°, e.g. Vin. II, 287. °nīvaraṇāni or obstacles: kāmacchanda, abhijjhā-vyāpāda, thīnamiddha, uddhacca-kukkucca, vicikicchā. °patiṭṭhitaṃ 5 fold prostration or veneration, viz. with forehead, waist, elbows, knees, feet (Childers) in phrase °ena vandati (sometimes °ṃ vandati, e.g. SnA 78, 267) J. V, 502; SnA 267, 271, 293, 328, 436; VvA. 6; DhA. I, 197; IV, 178, etc. °bandhana either 5 ways of binding or pinioning or 5 fold bondage J. IV, 3 (as “ure pañcaṅgika-bandhanaṃ” cp. kaṇṭhe pañcamehi bandhanehi bandhitvā S. IV, 201); Nda 304III, B2 (rājā bandhāpeti andhu-bandhanena vā rajju°, saṅkhalika°, latā°, parikkhepa°), with which cp. Śikṣāsamucc. 165: rājñā pañcapāśakena bandhanena baddhaḥ.—There is a diff. kind of bandhana which has nothing to do with binding, but which is the 5 fold ordeal (obligation: pañcavidhabandhana-kāraṇaṃ) in Niraya, and consists of the piercing of a red hot iron stake through both hands, both feet and the chest; it is a sort of crucifixion. We may conjecture that this “bandhana” is a corruption of “vaddhana” (of vyadh, or viddhana?), and that the expression originally was pañcaviddhana-kāraṇa (instead of pañca-vidha-bandhana-k°). See passages under bandhana & cp. M. III, 182; A. I, 141; Kvu 597; SnA 479. °balāni 5 forces: saddhā° viriya° sati° samādhi° paññā° D. II, 120; M. II, 12; S. III, 96; A. III, 12 (see also bala). °bhojanāni 5 kinds of food: odāna, kummāsa, sattu, maccha, maṃsa Vin. IV, 176. °macchariyāni 5 kinds of selfishness: āvāsa° kula° lābha° vaṇṇa° dhamma°. °rajāni defilements: rūpa°, sadda° etc. (of the 5 senses) Nd1 505; SnA 574. °vaṇṇā 5 colours (see ref. for colours under pīta and others), viz. nīla, pītaka, lohitaka, kaṇha, odāta (of B’s eye) Nd2 235Q; others with ref. to paduma-puṇḍarīka VvA. 41; to paduma DhA. III, 443; to kusumāni DA. I, 140; DhA. IV, 203. °vaṇṇa in another meaning (fivefold) in connection with pīti (q. v.). °saṃyojanāni fetters (q. v.). °saṅgā impurities, viz. rāga, dosa, moha, māna, diṭṭhi (cp. taṇhā) DhA. IV, 109. °sīla the 5 moral precepts, as sub-division of the 10 (see dasasīla and Nd2 under sīla on p. 277).
4. Other (not detailed) passages with 5: Sn. 660 (abbudāni), 677 (nahutāni koṭiyo pañca); Th. 2, 503 (°kaṭuka=pañcakāmaguṇa-rasa ThA. 291); DhA. II, 25 (°mahānidhi); SnA 39 (°pakāra-gomaṇḍala-puṇṇabhāva). Cp. further: guṇā Miln. 249; paṇṇāni Vin. I, 201 (nimba°, kuṭaja°, paṭola°, sulasi°, kappāsika°); Paṇḍu-rāja-puttā J. V, 426; pabbagaṇṭhiyo Miln. 103; pucchā DhsA. 55; mahā-pariccāgā DhA. III, 441; mahā-vilokanāni DhA. I, 84; vatthūni Vin. II, 196 sq.; vāhanāni (of King Pajjota) DhA. I, 196; suddhāvāsā Dhs. A 14. In general see Vin. V, 128—133 (var. sets of 5).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pañca (पंच).—a (S) Five.
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pañca (पंच).—m (S The ca is ts.) A member of an assembly of arbitration. Used pl it signifies the assembly, as this usually consists of five members. 2 A jury.
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pañcā (पंचा).—m (Tsha.) An article of dress,--a piece about one cubit in breadth and six in length, worn like the dhōtara around the middle of the body. v nēsa. 2 R (Properly pañjā) The hand as expanded or opened out: also a claw.
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pāñca (पांच).—a (pañca S) Five. 2 Used like the word cāra for a moderate quantity or number. Ex. tyāpāsīṃ pāñca rupayē āhēta; pāñca karatīla tēṃ āpaṇa karāvēṃ; Pr. mājhēṃ ghyā āṇi pāñcānta nyā. pāñca tēthēṃ paramēśvara Vox populi vox Dei. pāñcācī pāñca buddhi or pāñcācē pāñca prakāra Quot homines tot sententiæ: also suus cuique mos. pāñcāntūna uṭhaṇēṃ To become outcast or isolated from society. pāñcāvara dhāraṇa basaṇēṃ To be frightened to death (i. e. out of one's five vital airs).Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
pañca (पंच).—a Five.
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pañca (पंच).—m A member of an assembly of ar- bitration. pl It signifies the assem- bly, as this usually consists of five members. A jury.
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pañcā (पंचा).—m An article of dress, a small dhotar.
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pāñca (पांच).—a Five. Pr. mājhēṃ ghyā āṇi pāñcānta nyā. pāñca tēthēṃ paramēśvara Vox populi vox Dei. pāñcācī pāñca buddhi or pāñcāñcē pāñca prakāra Quot homines tot sententiæ: also suns cui- que mos. pāñcāntūna uṭhaṇēṃ To become out- caste or isolated from society. pāñcāṃvara dhāraṇa basaṇēṃ To be frightened to death (i. e. out of one's five vital airs).
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Pañca (पञ्च).—a. Spread, extended.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pañca (पञ्च).—[-pañca] (see pañcan); in catuḥpañca, i. e. catur-, adj. Four or five, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 6, 326.
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Pañcā (पञ्चा).—[pañc + ā], f. Spreading; in cañcatpañca, i. e. cañcant-, adj. Shaking in all its parts, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 120, 3 (v. r.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pañca (पञ्च):—[from pañc] 1a mf(ā)n. spread out, [Uttararāma-carita]
2) [v.s. ...] m. (in music) a kind of measure.
3) [from pañc] 1b See under 1. pac, [ib.]
4) 2 in [compound] for pañcan (See p.578).
5) Pāñca (पाञ्च):—Vṛddhi form of pañca ([from] pañcan), in [compound]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+1063): Five Hindrances, Panca Pata Kadhanem, Panca Sutta, Panca Vatthu, Panca Vokara Bhava, Panca-abadha, Panca-adhikaran-oparika, Panca-aparadha, Panca-ashta-kula, Panca-dravya, Panca-karmara, Panca-lagudika, Panca-mahavadya, Panca-mandali, Panca-matrika, Panca-maushtika-loca, Panca-mukha-nagara, Panca-nagara, Panca-purusha, Panca-shabda.
Ends with (+16): Adapanca, Antaraprapanca, Aprapanca, Atipanca, Atipapanca, Aviprapanca, Bahiprapanca, Bahuprapanca, Bhagapanca, Bhagyapanca, Bhartriprapanca, Catushpanca, Chapanca, Chappanca, Citraprapanca, Jagratprapanca, Mahaprapanca, Mahayajnah panca, Namaprapanca, Natakaprapanca.
Full-text (+1254): Panci, Adapanca, Pancashara, Pancagatika, Pancaratrika, Pancabhautika, Pancaratraraksha, Pancajnana, Pancagavya, Pancakapala, Pancapancina, Pancanapiti, Pancavarshika, Pancashabdika, Pancanakha, Pancayajnika, Pancajani, Pancaprasritiki, Pancarati, Pancakona.
Search found 88 books and stories containing Panca, Pañca, Pañcā, Pāñca; (plurals include: Pancas, Pañcas, Pañcās, Pāñcas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Notes on Śīlāṅga (laws of good conduct) < [Notes]
Part 6: Previous births of Śāntimatī and Ajitasena < [Chapter III - Eighth incarnation as Vajrāyudha]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.2.67 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Verse 2.3.139 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
Verse 2.3.9 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
A Manual of Abhidhamma (by Nārada Thera)
Summary of Functions < [Chapter III - Miscellaneous Section]
18 Types of Rootless Consciousness < [Chapter I - Different Types of Consciousness]
Summary of Bases < [Chapter III - Miscellaneous Section]
Abhidhamma in Daily Life (by Nina Van Gorkom)
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter XLVIII - Symptoms and Treatment of thirst (Trishna) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter LV - Symptoms and Treatment of repression of natural urging (Udavarta) < [Canto III - Kaya-chikitsa-tantra (internal medicine)]
Chapter XXI - Medical Treatment of Ear-disease < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Patthana Dhamma (by Htoo Naing)