Budha: 24 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Budha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Nava-graha (Hands that indicate the Nine Planets).—Budha: left hand–Muṣṭi askew, right hand–Patāka.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

1) Budha (बुध):—Son of Vegavān (son of Dhundhumān). He had a son named Tṛṇabindu. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2.30)

2) Budha (बुध):—The son of Soma (the moon-god) and Tārā (wife of Bṛhaspati). He had a son named Purūravā, through the womb of Ilā. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.14.13-16)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Budha (बुध).—Son of Candra.

Birth. Bṛhaspati the teacher-priest of the devas had a very beautiful wife named Tārā. One day seeing the handsome figure of Candra, Tārā became amorous. Candra was the Disciple of Bṛhaspati. It was not right on the part of the wife of the teacher to feel amorous towards a disciple. Bṛhaspati came to know of the affair and sending for Candra asked him to return his wife. Both Candra and Tārā did not pay any heed to Bṛhaspati. Both sides were about to engage in a battle. The devas arrayed themselves on both sides. Seeing that this was not an honourable thing some devas tried for a compromise. Finally Candra returned Tārā to Bṛhaspati. At this time Tārā was pregnant. Both Candra and Bṛhaspati claimed the paternity of the child in the womb of Tārā, who witnessed that Candra was the father of the child. All accepted the words of Tārā. Budha was the child Tārā gave birth to. Marriage and birth of a child. Budha grew up to be a youth. During the period the King Sudyumna one day entered Kumāravana (a forest) and was changed to a woman. When the King became a woman the name adopted was Ilā, who grew amorous of Budha. The famous King Purūravas was the son born to them. (For more information see Ilā, Candra and Purūravas). Other information

Budha wears a necklace of Rudrākṣa beads (Elaeo Carpus Seeds) and has a bow. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 51).

Candra performed the christening ceremony of Budha. (Bhāgavata Skandha 9).

Budha is a luminous member of the assembly of Brahmā. (Mahābhārata Sabha Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 29). (See full article at Story of Budha from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Budha (बुध).—A scientist on ethics. He has written a book called Dharmaśāstra on the different kinds of rites of consecration, initiation etc. from formation in the womb till Upanayana (investiture with the Brahmā string), different kinds of marriages, Pañcamahāyajñas (the five essential sacrifices) Śrāddha (offering to the manes), Pākayajña (simple domestic sacrifices), Somayāga (drinking the moon-plant juice at the Soma sacrifice) and such other matters of ethics.

3) Budha (बुध).—A Brāhmaṇa who lived in Gauḍadeśa. Budha who was the incarnation of all vices drank too much and spent a whole night lying unconscious on the veranda of the house of a harlot. His father became anxious about him as he had not returned though the night had advanced much. He searched everywhere and finally came to the place where he was lying unconscious. He reviled the son, who getting angry killed his father then and there.

After that he returned home. His mother advised him to leave off his vices. His wife shed tears before him. Seeing that his mother and wife were impediments on his way, he put an end to their lives.

Once this Brāhmaṇa carried away Sulabhā the beautiful wife of hermit Kālabhūti and ravished her. Sulabhā cursed him and made him a leper.

Budha wandered about and reached the city of King Śūrasena. On that day the King was about to go to Heaven with the entire city by aeroplane. However hard the pilots might try the plane would not move an inch. Then the devas told the King: "Drive away the leper there. The vices of that sinful murderer have made the plane stationary."

Śūrasena who was kind and righteous, neared the leper and cured him with caturākṣarīmantra (a spell of four letters) and got ready to take him also to heaven. (Gaṇeśa Purāṇa 1:76).

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Budha (बुध) is the name of a Nakṣatra mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 769-770. As regards the heavenly bodies, the Nīlamata refers to the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars. The divisions of the time are also mentioned as objects of worship.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Budha (बुध).—The son of Veghavān and father of Tṛṇabindhu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 36; 61. 10; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 45-6; Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 15.

1b) A Vānara chieftain, and a son of Śveta.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 180.

1c) One of the twenty Sutapa Gods.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 15; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 15.

1d) One of the nine planets; son of Soma (moon) [Tviṣi (vā. p.)] and Tārā wife of Bṛhaspati; known as Rājaputra; of brown colour; has a lustrous white chariot drawn by ten horses of different colours; originator of the hastiśāstra; and learned in the arthaśāstra; got the kingdom on the earth;1 occupies a position above (below Viṣṇu-purāṇa) that of Śukra; generally good and benevolent; but when separated from the sun preceding him, he causes showers or draughts;2 enamoured of the figure of Ilā (Ilā converted into the other sex at Śaravaṇa); in the guise of a Brahmana, he approached her; she consented to be his wife on his saying that he was Budha; father of Pururavas; Rajaputraka Aila;3 in the chariot of Tripura;4 at the bottom of all Tārāgrahas;5 with the prakṛti of Nārāyaṇa; in extent three-fourths of Kuja and Saura; has eight rays; lies above the nakṣatras;6 above 200,000 yojanas from the constellar regions;7 chariot of, made of wind and fire and drawn by eight horses;8 Sudhyumna, son of Manu, cursed by Śiva, became a woman on whom Budha begot Pururavas.9

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 24. 3-10; 93. 10, 17; 115. 1; 127. 1-3; Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 72; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 11; IV. 6. 32-34.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 22. 13; Matsya-purāṇa 264. 8; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 7. 8.
  • 3) Bhā IX. 1. 34-5; 14. 14-15; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 49-134; III. 3. 23; 65. 44; 66. 1; Matsya-purāṇa 11. 54; 12. 14.
  • 4) Ib. 128. 48, 65; 133. 20.
  • 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 132.
  • 6) Ib. 53. 31, 67, 87 and 97.
  • 7) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 7. 7.
  • 8) Ib. II. 12. 18.
  • 9) Ib. IV. 1. 11-12; Vāyu-purāṇa 85. 17.

1e) A son of Mahādeva and Rohiṇī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 27. 56; 66. 22.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Budha (बुध) is the name of one of the seven sages (saptarṣi) in the Cākṣuṣamanvantara: one of the fourteen Manvantaras, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, “In cākṣuṣamanvantara, Manojava was the Indra, Bhāva and others who were the progeny of Āyu were said to be the deities. The seven sages were Sudhāmā, Virajā, Haviṣmān, Uttama, Budha, Atri and Sahiṣṇu”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

Budha (बुध, “Mercury”):—Son of Mahādeva (aspect of Śiva, as in, one of the eight names of Rudra) and Suvarchalā, according to the Pādma-purāṇa.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Budha (बुध, “awakening”) refers to the planet mercury. The corresponding day of the week is wednesday (budhavāra). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Budha (बुध, “wednesday”) corresponds with mercury and refers to the fourth of seven vāra (days), according to the Mānasāra. Vāra is the fifth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular day, or vāra (e.g., budha) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among these vāras, Guru (Thursday), Śukra (Friday), Budha (Wednesday) and Śaśi or Candra (Monday), are considered auspicious and therefore, to be preferred. The text states, however, that the inauspiciousness of the other three days are nullified if there occurs a śubhayoga, “auspicious conjunction (of planets)” on those days.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Budha is one of the Navagrahas in Indian Astrology. He is the illegitimate son of Chandra and Tara, the wife of Brihaspati.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Budha (बुध) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Budha).

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Budha (बुध) refers to the planet Mercury and represents one of the nine planets (Navagraha), commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—His Colour is yellow; his Symbol is the bow and arrow; he has two arms.

Budha is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“On a lotus there is Budha who is yellow in colour and holds in his two hands the arrow and the bow”.

[Budha is represented in the Chinese collection only once].

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Budha (बुध) is the name of a deity from the Jyotiṣka-Devas or Navagraha group of deities commonly depicted as in Jaina iconography.—Two different types of description occur in the Śvetāmbara books for the image of Budha. According to one he should be represented as riding on a swan and holding a book in his hand. The other type makes the figure riding a lion and having the attributes of a sword, shield, club and Varada. Budha is known as the son of the Moon and the ruler of the north. The Digambara account informs us merely of a book for the planet.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

budha : (m.) a wise man; the planet mercury.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

budha (बुध).—ind Commonly buddha ind

--- OR ---

budha (बुध).—m (S) The planet Mercury or the Regent of it.

--- OR ---

budha (बुध).—a S Wise, intelligent, sensible.

--- OR ---

būdha (बूध).—f (Vulgar for buddhi) Wisdom, sense, understanding.

--- OR ---

būdha (बूध).—ind Commonly buddha ind.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

budha (बुध).—m The planet Mercury. A wise man.

--- OR ---

budha (बुध) [-dhā, -धा].—See buḍakhā.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Budha (बुध).—a. [budh-ka]

1) Wise, clever, learned.

2) Intelligent.

3) Waking, awaking.

-dhaḥ 1 A wise or learned man; निपीय यस्य क्षितिरक्षिणः कथां तथाद्रियन्ते न बुधाः सुधामपि (nipīya yasya kṣitirakṣiṇaḥ kathāṃ tathādriyante na budhāḥ sudhāmapi) N.1.1.

2) A god; N.1.1.

3) A dog.

4) The planet Mercury; रक्षत्येन तु बुधयोगः (rakṣatyena tu budhayogaḥ) Mu.1.6 (where budha has sense 1 also); R.1.47;13.76.

-dhā Spikenard.

-dhe ind. On a Wednesday.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Budha (बुध).—m.

(-dhaḥ) 1. Bud'Ha, the son of the moon and regent of the planet Mercury, with whom he is identified. 2. A wise or learned man, a sage. f.

(-dhā) Indian spikenard. E. budh to know or understand, aff. ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Budha (बुध).—[budh + a], I. adj. Wise, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 427. Ii. m. 1. Budha, the son of the moon and regent of the planet Mercury. 2. A proper name, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] d, 159.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Budha (बुध).—[adjective] intelligent, clever; [masculine] a wise or learned man, a knower; a god; a man’s name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Budha (बुध) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Kalpayukti.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Budha (बुध):—[from budh] mfn. awaking (cf. uṣar-budha)

2) [v.s. ...] intelligent, clever, wise, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] m. a wise or learned man, sage, [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] a god, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a dog, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a descendant of Soma (and hence also called saumya, saumāyana, author of [Ṛg-veda x, 1], and father of Purū-ravas; identified with the planet Mercury)

7) [v.s. ...] Mercury (regarded as a son of Soma or the moon), [Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. of a descendant of Atri and author of [Ṛg-veda v, 1; Anukramaṇikā]

8) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vega-vat and father of Tṛṇa-bindu, [Purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] of various authors, [Catalogue(s)]

10) Budhā (बुधा):—[from budha > budh] f. Nardostachys Jatamansi, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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