Sura, Surā, Sūra, Śūra, Shura: 44 definitions
Sura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Śūra can be transliterated into English as Sura or Shura, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Images (photo gallery)
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the Hands of the Seven Oceans.—Sūra: the Saṅkīrṇa and Patāka hands moved upwards and downwards (vyāvṛttacāpaveṣṭitau). Note: Representing the up and down motion of waves.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Sūra is the name for a demon, as mentioned in the Kaṭalāṭukkāṭai, which is a chapter of the Cilappatikāram: an ancient epic authored by Ilango Adigal representing an important piece of Tamil literature.—Accordingly, while describing the Tuṭi (one of the eleven dances): Knowing the deceit of Sūra (demon), who stood in the middle of the sea in some strange form, Murukan defeated him and danced, making the waves the stage, beating the musical instrument called tuṭi.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Surā (सुरा):—Another name for Devadāru (Cedrus deodara), a medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Surā (सुरा) refers to “spirits” and is mentioned in verse 3.12 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Having thereupon bathed according to ritual—with the oil removed by an astringent—,rubbed (one’s body) with musk-charged saffron, (and) fumigated (oneself) with aloe-wood one shall (at last) turn to rich, broths, fat meat, rum, barm, arrack [viz., surā], delicious products made of wheat, (rice-)flour, urd-beans, sugarcane, and milk, [...]”.
Note: Acchasurā (~chaṅ-daṅs), lit. (“clear spirits”) is explained by Aruṇadatta and Indu as surāmaṇḍa (“barm”), while the following surā (~chaṅ), lit. “spirits”, is taken by Indu to mean liquor “made of grain” (piṣṭakṛta), that is roughly, “arrack”.
Surā (सुरा) (“arrack”) is also mentioned in verse 4.20-22.—Accordingly, “[...] from (suppressed) sperm (result) its outflow, pubic pain, cutaneous swelling, fever, throbbing of the heart, retention of urine, racking in the limbs, swelling of the testicles, gravel, and impotence. Cock, arrack [viz., surā], rice, enema, inunction, bathing, milk prepared with bladder-cleansing (substances, and) lovely women one shall turn to in this case”.
Note: By surā and chaṅ is understood, not just plain liquor, but arrack or spirits made of grain; cf. 3.12.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Surā (सुरा) refers to a type of drink mentioned in the Ṛgveda VIII.2.12, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Other common intoxicating drinks mentioned in Vedic literature are parisrut, kīlāla and māsara. Ṛgveda describes another drink also which is known as surā. This was prepared by fermenting barley or wild paddy after distilling it. In Atharvaveda, it is mentioned as a reward for the performers of sacrifices. Drinking of sura is not considered as meritorious as soma.
Vālmīkirāmāyaṇa mentions two varieties of suras ie. surā and kṛtasurā. [...] According to Ayurvedic saṃhita treatises, intoxicating drinks can be prepared with rice (surā), sugar (śārkara), and unboiled juice of sugarcane (śīdhu). According to Suśruta, in the preparation of these drinks, when surā is used instead of water it was called surāsavā. Liquors were also prepared with madhūka flowers and honey.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Surā (सुरा):—Indigenous beer beverage prepared from fermented cereals. The cereals that are either cooked or ground are mixed with Jaggery and other spices and are subjected to natural fermentation. Beneficial for emaciated, suffering from obstruction in urine, piles, alleviates Vata and useful in anaemia.Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study
Sūra (सूर) (lit. “one who is a warrior”) is a synonym (another name) for the Lion (Siṃha), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna
Surā (सुरा) and Soma (सोम): These were the principal drinks of the Ṛgvedic Aryans. Soma was probably a sacrificial drink and it must have originally been a popular drink also, but with the Ṛgvedic people Surā was a more popular drink.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Śūra (शूर).—A King of the Lunar dynasty. He was the son of Viḍūratha and father of Śini. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).
2) Śūra (शूर).—A son of Kārttavīrya. Of the hundred sons of Kārttavīrya, the most important were, Śūra, Śūrasena, Dhiṣaṇa, Madhu and Jayadhvaja. (Brahmāṇḍa, Purāṇa, Chapter 46).
3) Śūra (शूर).—A King in ancient India. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 232).
4) Śūra (शूर).—A son of the King named Ilina by his wife Rathantarī. This Śūra had four brothers named Duṣanta, Bhīma, Pravasu and Vasu. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 17).
5) Śūra (शूर).—A prince of Sauvīra land. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Verse 10). This Śūra was slain by Arjuna at the time of Draupadī’s marriage. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 291, Verse 27).
6) Śūra (शूर).—A Yādava King. He was the father of Vasudeva and grandfather of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. By his first wife, Māriṣā, he had ten sons and four daughters. The sons were, Vasudeva, Devabhāga, Devaśravas, Ānaka, Sṛñjaya, Śyāmaka, Kaṅka, Śamīka, Vatsaka and Vṛka. The names of the daughters were, Pṛthā, Śrutadevā (Śrutavedā), Śrutaśravā and Rājādhidevī. The eldest of these, Pṛthā was given as an adopted daughter to Kuntibhoja. (Harivaṃśa, 2-34; 17-28; Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 43; Verse 3. Chapter 104. Verse 1; Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha). In Vāyu Purāṇa it is stated that he had three more wives besides Māriṣā, and from them Devas and mortals were born. (See under Śūrasena I).
7) Śūra (शूर).—Father of Daśaratha’s wife, Sumitrā. He was invited to the Putrakāmeṣṭi Yāga performed by Daśaratha. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Sarga 13, Verse 26).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Sura (सुर) refers to a group of deities created by Brahmā from the different parts of his body, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“[...] then, O dear one, Dharma, born out of my conception (saṅkalpa) assumed the form of Manu at my bidding and was engaged in activity by the aspirants (Sādhakas). Then I [viz., Brahmā] created from the different parts of my body innumerable sons, Suras (devas) and Asuras (demons) and many others after assigning them different bodies, O sage”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 26-27.
1d) A son of Madirā and Vasudeva.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 48.
1e) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Bhadrā: His picture drawn by Citralekha.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 17; 62. 20.
1f) A kingdom: Dvijas of this became vrātyas after Puramjaya's days.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 1. 38.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 13; Matsya-purāṇa 43. 46; Vāyu-purāṇa 94. 79; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 11. 21.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 69. 50.
- 3) Ib. III. 45. 1.
- 4) Ib. III. 46. 17, 23.
1h) A son of Aśmaki? (Devagarbha, Viṣṇu-purāṇa): wife Mahiṣā or Bhojā (Mārīṣā, Viṣṇu-purāṇa); Father of ten sons, the eldest being Vasudeva: also of 5 daughters;1 had a friend Kuntī who was childless; to him he gave his daughter Pṛthā in adoption; Pāṇḍu married her.2
1i) A son of Agāvaha.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 257.
1j) A name of Vīgneśvara.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 68.
1k) A son of Aikṣvāki; married Bhojā and had 10 sons and 5 daughters.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 1, 4.
1l) A son of Bhajamāna; wife Asmakī; had a number of sons, Vāta, Nivāta, etc.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 135-6, 143.
1m) The country of the.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 16.
2a) Sura (सुर).—Otherwise Kubera.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 10. 7.
2b) The gods who adopted Surā of Vāruṇi Devī which sprung forth from the churning of the ocean.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 9. 69.
2c) The names of gods during Manvantara.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 76.
3a) Surā (सुरा).—Is Stutā; mother of Kali; as Vāruṇi devī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 59. 9; IV. 9. 65.
3b) Six different varieties of liquor drunk by the Śaktis on the third day of the war; gauḍī, paiṣtī, mādhvī, kādambarī, Haitālī, lāṅgaleyā and tālajāta; also that from kalpavṛkṣa; they were of different tastes, sweet, bitter, saltish, etc., and of various colours;1 liquor with Kaca's powdered body mixed in it taken by Śukrācārya and thus deceived by the Asura; hence he ordained that no Brahman should thereafter take liquor, and if he did he would fall from his status and commit a sin equal to brahmicide and would be despised by the world at large.2
3c) The sea of liquor.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 2. 34.
3d) The wife of Kali; son of Mada.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 9.
3e) A disciple of Śringiputra.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 40.
Śūra (शूर), a minister of Avantivarman, has a ḍāmara chief decapitated in front of a Bhairava image. The situation suggests a mock human sacrifice. (See Rājataraṅgiṇī verse 5.48)Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Śūra (शूर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.89.7) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śūra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Surā is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.50) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana
1) Sura (सुर) refers to a “celestial being”.—The Sura and Asura nomenclature is the one that is commonly found in Vedic literature. Sura is a celestial being and Asura is its antonym, usually referred as a demon. Here it is not so because there are many Asuras who made their abode in heaven, like Rahu, Ketu, and others who attain salvation in this mortal life. Even Ravana came from Heaven, and returns there only at the end of the war with Rama. Thus Asuras are not earthly demons but celestial beings of a kind like other demi-gods, namely Yakśa, Gandharva, Kinnara, Kimpuruśa etc.
2) Śūra (शूर) refers to an “adventurist”, according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.29. Accordingly:—“[...] Sītā was distressed to hear these words of Rāma and spoke these words slowly, with her face with tears: ‘[...] Oh, Rāma! May all be well with you! I am waiting for a journey to the forest. A work-out of adventurist (śūra) is really delightful to me’”.Source: Wisdomlib Libary: The Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa
Sura (सुर) refers to an epithet of the Devas, appointed to them after they accepted Surā (Goddess Vāruṇī), according to the Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa 4.9.66-69. Accordingly, “when the ocean of Milk was once again churned by the Devas and Dānavas, goddess Vāruṇī with tremulous eyes on account of inebriety, rose up even as the Siddhas in the firmament began to think—‘What is this’? She smilingly stood in front of the Asuras. The Daityas did not accept her. Therefore, they became Asuras. They were given the appellation Asura in the sense ‘Those who do not have Surā (liquor)’ Thereupon, she stood in front of Devas. On the direction given by Parameṣṭhin (Brahmā) Devas joyously accepted her. In view of the fact that they accepted Surā, they became glorified by the appellation Sura”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Sūra (सूर) is the name of an important person (viz., an Ācārya or Kavi) mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—One of the ancient poets, belonging to Buddhist community, known also by Āryasura. Who has composes the Jātakamāla.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Manblunder: Viṣṇu-sahasranāma
Sura (सुर) means thought about the Divine. Sura also means gods and in this context this nāma says that Lord Viṣṇu gives happiness to gods and goddesses.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (dharma)
Surā (सुरा) refers to “drinking wine” which is considered one of the five “great sins” (mahāpātaka), according to the Dharmaśāstra taught in the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] If a twice-born drinks wine (surā) he is said to be purified by drinking heated wine in colour like the fire or drink heated milk of that colour or the urine of a cow or ghee boiling hot, until he dies.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Śūra (शूर) or Śūragaṇa refers to “valient (soldiers)”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 10), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the course of Saturn should lie through the constellation of Jyeṣṭhā, the king’s chaplain, the king’s favorites, valient soldiers [i.e., śūra-gaṇa] and mixed crowds of men of different castes will suffer; if through Mūla, the people of Benares, of Kośala and of Pāñcāla, fruits, medicinal plants and soldiers will suffer. If his course should lie through the constellation of Pūrvāṣādha, the people of Aṅga, of Vaṅga, of Kośala, of Girivraja, of Magadha, of Puṇḍra, of Mithilā and of Tāmralipta will suffer miseries”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Surā (सुरा) (Cf. Madirā) refers to “alcoholic drinks”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra, Tāntrikābhidhānakośa and Prabodhacandrodaya.—(Cf. pañcāmṛtākarṣaṇa—“extraction of the five nectars”).—[...] Other sources also describe Kāpālikas as making use of various parts of the human body. Kāpālikas use human flesh (mahāmāṃsa), brain (mastiṣka), intestines (antra), fat (vasā) and blood (kīlāla) in ritual, and drink alcohol (surā), according to Prabodhacandrodaya 3.13.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Surā (सुरा, “liquor”):—Daughter of Varuṇa, who is the presiding deity of the invisible world and represents the inner reality of things.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A hunter, who discovered fermented liquor. See the Kumbha Jataka.
-- or --
. A messenger of Kuvera (q.v.). D.iii.201.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Surā (सुरा, “cereal wine”) refers to one of the three types of wine (madhya) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXII).—Accordingly, “briefly, liquors, dry or wet, clear or cloudy, that cause excitation (kampana) or weakness (pramāda) in the human mind are called wine (madhya)”.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (mahayana)
Śūra (शूर) refers to “heroic (people)”, according to the Dhvajāgrakeyūradhāraṇī.—The setting of this scripture is the celestial Trāyastriṃśat abode where Śakra requests help from the Buddha after the gods have been defeated by the Asuras, led by Vemacitrin. The lord tells Śakra to learn the invincible Dhvajāgrakeyūradhāraṇī, which he had come to know from Aparājitadhvaja Tathāgata during a previous existence. Then the Bhagavān reveals the dhāraṇī and teaches that its user becomes victorious in battles and conflicts. The spell is to be fixed atop a banner or around the neck, and protects kings or heroic people (śūra-puruṣa). Manifesting as a divine female, it stands in the frontline, providing fearlessness and protection, driving the enemy away as well as granting blessings and prosperity.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Surā (सुरा, “spirituous”) or Surāsāgara refers to one of the “seven oceans” (sāgara) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 126). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., surā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
Sūra (सूर) is the father of Kunthunātha according to Śvetāmbara (but he is named Sūryasena according to Digambara), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Kunthunātha is the seventeenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.
The wife of Sūra is Śrī. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1a) Sūra (सूर) is the father of Mahendrasiṃha, according to chapter 4.7 [sanatkumāra-cakrin-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“Sanatkumāra had a very intimate friend, the son of Kālindī and Sūra, named Mahendrasiṃha, whose strength was celebrated. One day when spring had come, he went to the garden Makaranda with Kālindī’s son from a desire to play. There Sanatkumāra amused himself with his friend in various sports, like a young god in Nandana. [...]”.
1b) Sūra (सूर) is the name of a Vidyādhara (Vidyādharī?) from Kāñcanapura, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.1 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa].—Accordingly:—“[...] He (Indra) established four Dikpālas, seven armies and generals, three assemblies, the thunderbolt as his weapon, his elephant as Airāvaṇa, his courtesans as Rambhā, etc., his minister as Bṛhaspati, and the leader of his infantry with the same name as Naigameṣin. [...] Mākaradhvaji, sprung from the womb of Ādityakirti, lord of Jyotiṣpura, became Soma, the regent of the east. The son of Varuṇā and Megharatha, a Vidyādhara, lord of Meghapura, became Varuṇa, the regent of the west. The son of Sūra and Kanakāvali, lord of Kāñcanapura, was called Kubera, the regent of the north. The son of Kālāgni and Śrīprabhā, lord of Kiṣkindhanagara, became Yama, regent of the south.[...]”.
2) Śūra (शूर) is the name of an ancient king from Hāstinapura, according to chapter 6.1 [kunthusvāmi-caritra].—Accordingly:—“Now in Bhāratakṣetra in this same continent Jambūdvīpa there is a great city Hāstinapura. [...] Śūra, like a new sun in brilliance, was king in this city, like Dhaneśvara in Alakā. [...]. His wife was Śrī, like Śrīdevī of Hari, the embodiment of beauty, grace, and virtue, endowed with spotless conduct. [...] King Śūra, absorbed in unhindered happiness, enjoyed pleasures with the queen, like a god in a heavenly palace”.
3) Śūra (शूर) refers to one of the ten sons of Vasu, the son of Abhicandra (an ancient king from Śaktimatī), according , according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.2 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa].—Accordingly, as Muni Nārada said to Rāvaṇa: “[...] Then King Vasu, destroyed by the gods who were angered by that falsehood, went to a terrible hell. Vasu’s sons, Pṛthuvasa, Citravasu, Vāsava, Śakra, Vibhāvasu, Viśvāvasu, and the seventh, Śūra, and the eighth, Mahāśūra, seated at their father’s feet, were killed by the gods at that time from anger. The ninth son, Suvasu, fled to Nāgapura and Vasu’s tenth son, Bṛhaddhvaja went to Mathurā”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Sura.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘thirtythree’. Note: sura is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
sura : (m.) a god; deity. || surā (f.) intoxicating liquor. sūra (adj.) valiant; courageous. (m.) a hero; the sun.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Surā, (f.) (Vedic surā) spirituous (intoxicating) liquor (“drink”) Vin. II, 295; 301; IV, 110; D. I, 146; A. I, 212, 295; It. 63; J. I, 199, 252 (tikhiṇaṃ suraṃ yojetvā mixing a sharp drink); DhA. II, 9; Dh. 247; as nt. at J. VI, 23 (v. l. surā as gloss).—Five kinds of surā are mentioned, viz. piṭṭha°, pūva°, odana° (odaniya°), kiṇṇapakkhitta°, sambhāra-saṃyutta° VvA. 73; VbhA. 381.
— or —
1) Sūra, 2 (Vedic sūra) the sun ThA. 150 (Ap. V, 90); J. V, 56. (Page 722)
2) Sūra, 1 (Vedic śūra, fr. śū) valiant, courageous S. I, 21; J. I, 262, 320; II, 119; (m.) a hero, a valiant man D. I, 51, 89; III, 59, 142, 145 sq; A. IV, 107, 110; Sn. 831; DA. 157, 250; (nt.) valour S. V, 227, read sūriya.
— or —
Sura, (cp. Epic Sk. sura probably after asura) god Sn. 681 (=deva SnA 484); name of a Bodhisatta J. V, 12, 13; surakaññā a goddess, a heavenly maid J. V, 407 (=devadhītā, C.); surinda the king of gods Mhbv 28. Opp. asura. (Page 720)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śūra (शूर).—m & a (S) A warrior, a hero, a valiant man. 2 Bold, brave, heroic; and, freely, magnanimous, generous, persevering &c.; eminent for some one of the nobler qualities or affections; as dāna- śūra Bold in giving, liberal, munificent; karmaśūra Stanch and determined in performing works and rites; raṇaśūra, ārambhaśūra, vādaśūra, dhanuśśūra, parārtha- śūra, parōpakāraśūra; also gṛha -gāna -snāna -bhōjana- śayyana -pravāsa -&c.-śūra.
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sura (सुर).—m (S) A god or deity.
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surā (सुरा).—m ( H) A large knife, a chopper, a cleaver. 2 A sort of dirk or dagger.
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surā (सुरा).—f (S) Spirituous or vinous liquor. It is personified as a nymph produced at the churning of the ocean. 2 A drinking vessel.
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sūra (सूर).—m (svara S) A note in music. 2 A tune. 3 Air breathed through a nostril. v vāha, cāla, jā, banda, hō. 4 A mouth-instrument of music. It sounds but one note, and maintains the pitch of the tune. 5 The name of the stick which, in the play of surapārambī, the boy runs to bring whilst the others climb up the trees. sūra dharaṇēṃ To pitch the voice in agreement with. 2 also sūra dēṇēṃ To sing second with. sūra dēṇārā That sings second with. sūra banda hōṇēṃ (nākācē) To have breathing through the nose stopped or obstructed (as in a cold); and sūra vāhaṇēṃ To have this breathing freely.
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sūra (सूर).—f C (surā S) Spirituous or vinous liquor.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śūra (शूर).—m & a A hero, warrior. Bold, brave. Eminent for some of the nobler qualities; as dānaśūra munificent.
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sura (सुर).—m A god or deity.
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sura (सुर) [-kaṇa-kara-diśī, -कण-कर-दिशी].—Imit. of certain quick sounds as of a crack, plunge, dive &c.
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surā (सुरा).—m A large knife. f Spirituous liquor.
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sūra (सूर).—m A note in music; a tune. f Spiri- tuous liquor. sūra dharaṇēṃ Pitch the voice in agreement with. sūra dēṇēṃ Sing second with.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śūra (शूर).—a. [śūr-ac] Brave, heroic, valiant, mighty; शून्येषु शूरा न के (śūnyeṣu śūrā na ke) K. P.7; स्वाध्यायशूरैर्मुखैः (svādhyāyaśūrairmukhaiḥ) Pañcharātram 1.5.
-raḥ 1 A hero, warrior, valiant man.
2) A lion.
3) A boar.
4) The sun.
5) The Śāla tree.
6) Name of a Yādava, the grandfather of Kṛṣṇa; (hence the descendants of Śūra i. e. Yādavas also; cf. śūraḥ syād yādave bhaṭe Medinī; khyātāni karmāṇi ca yāni śaureḥ śūrādaya- steṣvabalā babhūvuḥ Bu. Ch.1.51).
7) The Arka plant.
8) The Chitraka tree.
9) A dog.
1) A cock.
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Sura (सुर).—[suṣṭhu rāti dadātyabhīṣṭaṃ su-rā-kta]
1) A god, deity; सुराप्रतिग्रहाद् देवाः सुरा इत्यभिविश्रुताः (surāpratigrahād devāḥ surā ityabhiviśrutāḥ) Rām.; सुधया तर्पयते सुरान् पितॄंश्च (sudhayā tarpayate surān pitṝṃśca) V.3.7; R.5.16.
2) The number 'thirty-three'.
3) The sun.
4) A sage, learned man.
5) An idol.
Derivable forms: suraḥ (सुरः).
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Surā (सुरा).—(su-kran Uṇ.2.24)
1) A spirituous liquor, wine; सुरा वै मलमन्नानाम् (surā vai malamannānām) Ms.11.93; गौडी पैष्टी च माध्वी च विज्ञेया त्रिविधा सुरा (gauḍī paiṣṭī ca mādhvī ca vijñeyā trividhā surā) 94.
3) A drinking vessel.
4) A snake.
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Sūra (सूर).—[suvati prerayati karmaṇi lokānudayena, sū-kran Uṇ.2.24]
1) The sun.
2) The Arka plant.
3) The Soma.
4) A wise or learned man.
5) A hero, king.
Derivable forms: sūraḥ (सूरः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) A lion. E. śur to injure, aff. ka .
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(-raḥ) 1. A hero. 2. The sun. 3. A lion. 4. A boar. 5. The grandfather of Krishna. 6. The Sal tree, (Shorea robusta.) f.
(-rā) Brave, mighty. E. śu to bear, Sautra root, Unadi aff. kran, and the vowel made long; or śūr to be brave, aff. ac .
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(-raḥ) 1. A god, a deity. 2. The sun. 3. A sage, a learned man. 4. The number “thirty-three”. f. (-rā or rī) 1. Spirituous liquor in general personified: also as a nymph, produced at the churning of the ocean. 2. A drinking vessel. 3. A snake. 4. Water. E. ṣu to possess power, Unadi aff. rak; or ṣur to be radiant, ka affix; or surā wine, (whose, that falling to the share of the gods;) or su excellent, rāj to shine, aff. ḍa, &c.
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(-raḥ) 1. The sun. 2. The father of the 17th Jaina of the present era. 3. Pandit. 4. A hero. 5. A king. 6. The Soma. 7. The Arka plant. f. (-rī) Black mustard. E. ṣū to bring forth, kran Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śūra (शूर).—i. e. *śavan (for śavas), + a (with r for n), m. 1. A hero, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 71, M. M. 2. The sun. 3. A lion. 4. A boar. 5. A proper name, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 32; 46.
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Sura (सुर).—i. e. 2. svar + a, I. m. 1. The sun, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 69. 2. A god, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 211; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 48. 3. A sage. Ii. f. rā and rī. 1. Spirituous liquor, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 338 (rā). 2. A drinking vessel. 3. A snake.
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Sūra (सूर).—i. e. 2. svar + a, m. 1. The sun,
Śūra (शूर).—[adjective] bold, valiant, mighty; [masculine] warrior, hero, a man’s name.
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Sura (सुर).—[masculine] ī [feminine] god, goddess.
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Surā (सुरा).—[feminine] spirituous, liquor, wine.
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Sūra (सूर).—[masculine] the sun.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
Śūra (शूर) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] Quoted in Gaṇaratnamahodadhi p. 103. bhadanta śūra [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva] bhāgavata śrī śūra [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva] A stanza by a poet Śūra under Siṃharāja is given in Journal Asb. 4, 374.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śura (शुर):—m. a lion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
2) [wrong reading] for śūra, a hero, [Mahābhārata i, 3708.]
3) Śūra (शूर):—[from sūr] mfn. ([probably] [from] √1. śū = śvi and connected with śavas, śuna, śūna) strong, powerful, valiant, heroic, brave (cf. -tama and -tara), [Ṛg-veda; Mahābhārata]
4) [v.s. ...] m. a strong or mighty or valiant man, warrior, champion, hero, one who acts heroically towards any one ([locative case]) or with regard to anything ([locative case] [instrumental case], or [compound]; ifc. f(ā). ), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
5) [v.s. ...] m. heroism (?, = or [wrong reading] for śaurya), [Kāvya literature]
6) [v.s. ...] a lion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] a tiger or panther, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] a boar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] a dog, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] a cock, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] white rice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] lentil, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] Arthocarpus Locucha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] Vatica Robusta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] Name of a Yādava, the father of Vasu-deva and grandfather of Kṛṣṇa, [Mahābhārata]
16) [v.s. ...] of a Sauvīraka, [ib.]
17) [v.s. ...] of a son of Īlina, [ib.]
18) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kārtavīrya, [Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]
19) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vidūratha, [ib.]
20) [v.s. ...] of a son of Deva-mīḍhuṣa, [ib.]
21) [v.s. ...] of a son of Bhajamāna, [Harivaṃśa]
22) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vasu-deva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
23) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vatsa-prī, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
24) [v.s. ...] of a poet, [Catalogue(s)]
25) [v.s. ...] of various other men, [Buddhist literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
26) [v.s. ...] [wrong reading] for sūra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
27) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) Name of a people, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] cf. [Greek] κῦρος in ἄ-κυρος.
28) Sura (सुर):—[from sur] m. ([probably] [from] asura as if [from] a-sura and as sita [from] a-sita; thought by some to be connected with 2. svar) a god, divinity, deity (surāṇāṃ hantṛ m. ‘slayer of the gods’, Name of a [particular] form of fire, son of Tapas), [Maitrī-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.
29) [v.s. ...] the image of a god, an idol, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra]
30) [v.s. ...] a symbolical Name for the number ‘thirty-three’ (from the 33 gods; See deva), [Gaṇitādhyāya]
31) [v.s. ...] a sage, learned man, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
32) [v.s. ...] the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
33) [v.s. ...] (said to be) = kṣura, [Mahābhārata]
34) [v.s. ...] [wrong reading] for svara, [ib.]
35) Surā (सुरा):—[from sura > sur] a f. See sub voce
36) Sura (सुर):—[from sur] n. See surā.
37) Surā (सुरा):—b f. (ifc. also n(sura). ; [probably] [from] √3. su, ‘to distil’, and not connected with sura, ‘a god’) spirituous liquor, wine (in ancient times ‘a kind of beer’)
38) spirituous liquor (personified as a daughter of Varuṇa produced at the churning of the ocean), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
39) water, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 12]
40) a drinking vessel, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
41) a snake, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
42) Sūra (सूर):—[from sūr] 1. sūra m. the sun, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]
43) [v.s. ...] Calotropis Gigantea (= arka), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
44) [v.s. ...] a wise or learned man, teacher (= sūri), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
45) [v.s. ...] Name of the father of Kunthu (the 17th Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
46) [v.s. ...] of various authors (also with bhaṭṭa and miśra), [Catalogue(s)]
47) 2. sūra m. ([from] √1. sū) an inciter, propeller, [Ṛg-veda i, 121, 7] ([Sāyaṇa])
48) 3. sūra m. ([from] √3. su) the Soma-juice flowing from the Soma press, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śura (शुर):—(raḥ) 1. m. A lion.
2) Śūra (शूर):—(raḥ) 1. m. A hero; Krishna's grandfather; a lion; a boar; sun; Sāl tree.
3) Sura (सुर):—(śa) surati 6. a. To possess supreme power; to shine.
4) (raḥ) 1. m. A god; the sun; a sage. f. (ā-ī) Spirits; a drinking vessel; a snake.
5) Sūra (सूर):—(ya, ṅa, ī,) sūryyate 4. a. To hurt or kill; to be stupid.
6) (raḥ) 1. m. The sun; father of the 17th Jina; a pandit. f. (ī) Black mustard.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Śūra (शूर) [Also spelled shur]:—(a and nm) valiant, brave, heroic, gallant, mighty, valorous (man); a hero; warrior; ~[tā/tva] heroism, valour, bravery, gallantry; ~[mmanya] one who thinks himself a hero; -[vīra] brave and valorous, hero, valiant; ~[sena] mediaeval name of the territory lying in and around Mathura:.
2) Sura (सुर) [Also spelled sur]:—(nm) tone; a note in music; vowel; a god; ~[gaṇa] gods, the whole body of gods; -[tāna] tone and tune; •[meṃ karanā] to attune; ~[tva] godhood; ~[dāra] melodious, harmonious; ~[dhāma] the abode of gods; •[sidhāranā] to leave for one’s heavenly abode—to die; -[bhaṃga] see [svarabhaṃga; ~rāja] king of gods—Indra; ~[laharī] musical wave, melody; ~[saritā] the river Ganga:; —[milānā] to attune, to harmonise; —[meṃ sura milānā] to chime in.
3) Surā (सुरा):—(nf) wine, liquor; —[aura suṃdarī] wine and women; ~[karma] brewing; ~[karmaśālā] a brewery; ~[gṛha] a wine shop, bar; -[pātra] a peg, wine glass; ~[pāna] drinking of wine; ~[sāra] spirit, alcohol.
4) Sūra (सूर) [Also spelled sur]:—(a) brave; blind; (nm) the sun; ~[dāsa] (euphemistically) a blind person; •[kārī kāmari pai caḍhai na dūjo raṃga] can the Ethiopian change his colour!, black will take no other hue.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Sura (सुर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Sura.
2) Surā (सुरा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Surā.
3) Sūra (सूर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Bhañj.
4) Sūra (सूर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śūra.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
Śūra (ಶೂರ):—[adjective] strong; powerful; valiant; heroic.
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1) [noun] a strong, powerful, valiant man; a hero.
2) [noun] a lion.
3) [noun] a boar; a pig.
4) [noun] the sun.
5) [noun] the tree Shorea talura ( = S. robusta, = Vatica robusta) of Dipterocarpaceae family.
6) [noun] the plant Calotropis gigantica of Asclepiadaceae family.
7) [noun] a dog.
8) [noun] a rooster.
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1) [noun] a god; a deity.
2) [noun] the sun.
3) [noun] the medium sized, evergreen tree Calophyllum inophyllum of guttiferae family, that grows in the coastal region.
4) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number thirty three.
5) [noun] (pros.) a metrical foot consisting of three short syllablic instants (uuu); tribrachys.
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1) [noun] a strong, powerful, valiant man; a hero.
2) [noun] a boar; a pig.
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Sūra (ಸೂರ):—[noun] the sun.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+726): Shurabala, Shurabhogeshvara, Shurabhu, Shurabhumi, Shuradanta, Shuradatta, Shuraditya, Shuragrama, Shurajima, Shuraka, Shurakita, Shurakuta, Shuramanin, Shuramatha, Shuramgama, Shuramgamasamadhinirdesha, Shuramgamasamadhisutra, Shurammanya, Shuramurdhamaya, Shurangama.
Ends with (+205): Abhasura, Acchasura, Adishura, Aghasura, Agrasura, Alamkarasura, Amdhasura, Anantamukhadevasuranetrasura, Andhakasura, Anuttarasura, Arambhashura, Arishtasura, Aryashura, Asahayashura, Ashvakshura, Asura, Ati-ussura, Atishura, Atmavatashura, Attasura.
Full-text (+815): Surasava, Danashura, Surapaga, Suramana, Surajivin, Shurasena, Mukhasura, Suradvipa, Suratoshaka, Suradhipa, Surasuta, Surashatru, Shurapura, Surapita, Suradhvaja, Surakara, Suragriha, Suravairin, Surapana, Pindishura.
Search found 110 books and stories containing Sura, Surā, Sūra, Śūra, Shura, Śura; (plurals include: Suras, Surās, Sūras, Śūras, Shuras, Śuras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 1.174.3 < [Sukta 174]
Rig Veda 1.129.3 < [Sukta 129]
Rig Veda 1.121.10 < [Sukta 121]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Notes on the renouncement of intoxicating drinks < [Section I.5 - Abstention from liquor]
II. Beings to be established in the six perfections < [Part 3 - Establishing beings in the six perfections]
Part 1 - Various kinds of drinks < [Section I.5 - Abstention from liquor]
Lalitopakhyana (Lalita Mahatmya) (by G.V. Tagare)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 44 - The Greatness of the Name Padmāvatī < [Section 1 - Avantīkṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 17 - Apsareśvara (apsara-īśvara-liṅga) < [Section 2 - Caturaśīti-liṅga-māhātmya]
Chapter 56 - Revanteśvara (revanta-īśvara-liṅga) < [Section 2 - Caturaśīti-liṅga-māhātmya]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 9: Story of Ratnavatī and Anaṅgasiṃha < [Chapter I - Previous incarnations of Ariṣṭanemi (Nemi)]
Part 4: Third incarnation as Citragati < [Chapter I - Previous incarnations of Ariṣṭanemi (Nemi)]
Part 3: Kunthu’s parents (king Śūra and queen Śrī) < [Chapter I - Śrī Kunthusvāmicaritra]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)