Sura, aka: Surā, Sūra, Śūra, Shura; 23 Definition(s)


Sura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śūra can be transliterated into English as Sura or Shura, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

One of the Hands of the Seven Oceans.—Sūra: the Saṅkīrṇa and Patāka hands moved upwards and downwards (vyāvṛttacāpaveṣṭitau). Note: Representing the up and down motion of waves.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

Sūra is the name for a demon, as mentioned in the Kaṭalāṭukkāṭai, which is a chapter of the Cilappatikāram: an ancient epic authored by Ilango Adigal representing an important piece of Tamil literature.—Accordingly, while describing the Tuṭi (one of the eleven dances): Knowing the deceit of Sūra (demon), who stood in the middle of the sea in some strange form, Murukan defeated him and danced, making the waves the stage, beating the musical instrument called tuṭi.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Surā (सुरा):—Another name for Devadāru (Cedrus deodara), a medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Surā (सुरा) and Soma (सोम): These were the principal drinks of the Ṛgvedic Aryans. Soma was probably a sacrificial drink and it must have originally been a popular drink also, but with the Ṛgvedic people Surā was a more popular drink.

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

1) Śūra (शूर).—A King of the Lunar dynasty. He was the son of Viḍūratha and father of Śini. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).

2) Śūra (शूर).—A son of Kārttavīrya. Of the hundred sons of Kārttavīrya, the most important were, Śūra, Śūrasena, Dhiṣaṇa, Madhu and Jayadhvaja. (Brahmāṇḍa, Purāṇa, Chapter 46).

3) Śūra (शूर).—A King in ancient India. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 232).

4) Śūra (शूर).—A son of the King named Ilina by his wife Rathantarī. This Śūra had four brothers named Duṣanta, Bhīma, Pravasu and Vasu. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 17).

5) Śūra (शूर).—A prince of Sauvīra land. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 265, Verse 10). This Śūra was slain by Arjuna at the time of Draupadī’s marriage. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 291, Verse 27).

6) Śūra (शूर).—A Yādava King. He was the father of Vasudeva and grandfather of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. By his first wife, Māriṣā, he had ten sons and four daughters. The sons were, Vasudeva, Devabhāga, Devaśravas, Ānaka, Sṛñjaya, Śyāmaka, Kaṅka, Śamīka, Vatsaka and Vṛka. The names of the daughters were, Pṛthā, Śrutadevā (Śrutavedā), Śrutaśravā and Rājādhidevī. The eldest of these, Pṛthā was given as an adopted daughter to Kuntibhoja. (Harivaṃśa, 2-34; 17-28; Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 43; Verse 3. Chapter 104. Verse 1; Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha). In Vāyu Purāṇa it is stated that he had three more wives besides Māriṣā, and from them Devas and mortals were born. (See under Śūrasena I).

7) Śūra (शूर).—Father of Daśaratha’s wife, Sumitrā. He was invited to the Putrakāmeṣṭi Yāga performed by Daśaratha. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bāla Kāṇḍa, Sarga 13, Verse 26).

Source: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Śūra (शूर).—The grand-father of the Pāṇḍavas by mother's line;1 father of Vasudeva.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 14. 26; III. 1. 26.
  • 2) Ib. X. 1. 29; 3. 47 and 51.

1b) A son of Vīdūratha and father of Bhajamāna. (Śami, Viṣṇu-purāṇa).1 A great king and father of eight sons.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 26; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 14. 23.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 137-9.

1c) Devamīdha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 26-27.

1d) A son of Madirā and Vasudeva.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 48.

1e) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Bhadrā: His picture drawn by Citralekha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 17; 62. 20.

1f) A kingdom: Dvijas of this became vrātyas after Puramjaya's days.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 1. 38.

1g) One of Kārtavīryārjuna's five sons who escaped;1 a mahāratha;2 in the course of a hunt he entered the hermitage of Jamadagni with sword in hand and killed him;3 killed by Paraśurāma.4

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 13; Matsya-purāṇa 43. 46; Vāyu-purāṇa 94. 79; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 11. 21.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 69. 50.
  • 3) Ib. III. 45. 1.
  • 4) Ib. III. 46. 17, 23.

1h) A son of Aśmaki? (Devagarbha, Viṣṇu-purāṇa): wife Mahiṣā or Bhojā (Mārīṣā, Viṣṇu-purāṇa); Father of ten sons, the eldest being Vasudeva: also of 5 daughters;1 had a friend Kuntī who was childless; to him he gave his daughter Pṛthā in adoption; Pāṇḍu married her.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 144, 151; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 14. 25-7.
  • 2) Ib. IV. 14. 32-4.

1i) A son of Agāvaha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 257.

1j) A name of Vīgneśvara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 68.

1k) A son of Aikṣvāki; married Bhojā and had 10 sons and 5 daughters.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 46. 1, 4.

1l) A son of Bhajamāna; wife Asmakī; had a number of sons, Vāta, Nivāta, etc.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 135-6, 143.

1m) The country of the.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 16.

2a) Sura (सुर).—Otherwise Kubera.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 10. 7.

2b) The gods who adopted Surā of Vāruṇi Devī which sprung forth from the churning of the ocean.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 9. 69.

2c) The names of gods during Manvantara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 76.

3a) Surā (सुरा).—Is Stutā; mother of Kali; as Vāruṇi devī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 59. 9; IV. 9. 65.

3b) Six different varieties of liquor drunk by the Śaktis on the third day of the war; gauḍī, paiṣtī, mādhvī, kādambarī, Haitālī, lāṅgaleyā and tālajāta; also that from kalpavṛkṣa; they were of different tastes, sweet, bitter, saltish, etc., and of various colours;1 liquor with Kaca's powdered body mixed in it taken by Śukrācārya and thus deceived by the Asura; hence he ordained that no Brahman should thereafter take liquor, and if he did he would fall from his status and commit a sin equal to brahmicide and would be despised by the world at large.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 28. 71-6; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 162.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 25. 39, 60, 62-3; 76. 12.

3c) The sea of liquor.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 2. 34.

3d) The wife of Kali; son of Mada.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 9.

3e) A disciple of Śringiputra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 40.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Śūra (शूर), a minister of Avantivarman, has a ḍāmara chief decapitated in front of a Bhairava image. The situation suggests a mock human sacrifice. (See Rājataraṅgiṇī verse 5.48)

Source: Tantric elements in Kalhaṇa’s Rājataraṅgiṇī

Śūra (शूर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.89.7) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śūra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Surā is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.50) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Sura (सुर) refers to a “celestial being”.—The Sura and Asura nomenclature is the one that is commonly found in Vedic literature. Sura is a celestial being and Asura is its antonym, usually referred as a demon. Here it is not so because there are many Asuras who made their abode in heaven, like Rahu, Ketu, and others who attain salvation in this mortal life. Even Ravana came from Heaven, and returns there only at the end of the war with Rama. Thus Asuras are not earthly demons but celestial beings of a kind like other demi-gods, namely Yakśa, Gandharva, Kinnara, Kimpuruśa etc.

Source: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Sura (सुर) refers to an epithet of the Devas, appointed to them after they accepted Surā (Goddess Vāruṇī), according to the Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa 4.9.66-69. Accordingly, “when the ocean of Milk was once again churned by the Devas and Dānavas, goddess Vāruṇī with tremulous eyes on account of inebriety, rose up even as the Siddhas in the firmament began to think—‘What is this’? She smilingly stood in front of the Asuras. The Daityas did not accept her. Therefore, they became Asuras. They were given the appellation Asura in the sense ‘Those who do not have Surā (liquor)’ Thereupon, she stood in front of Devas. On the direction given by Parameṣṭhin (Brahmā) Devas joyously accepted her. In view of the fact that they accepted Surā, they became glorified by the appellation Sura”.

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: The Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Sūra (सूर) is the name of an important person (viz., an Ācārya or Kavi) mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—One of the ancient poets, belonging to Buddhist community, known also by Āryasura. Who has composes the Jātakamāla.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Sura (सुर) means thought about the Divine. Sura also means gods and in this context this nāma says that Lord Viṣṇu gives happiness to gods and goddesses.

Source: Manblunder: Viṣṇu-sahasranāma
Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Surā (सुरा, “liquor”):—Daughter of Varuṇa, who is the presiding deity of the invisible world and represents the inner reality of things.

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

A hunter, who discovered fermented liquor. See the Kumbha Jataka.

-- or --

. A messenger of Kuvera (q.v.). D.iii.201.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Surā (सुरा, “cereal wine”) refers to one of the three types of wine (madhya) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXII).—Accordingly, “briefly, liquors, dry or wet, clear or cloudy, that cause excitation (kampana) or weakness (pramāda) in the human mind are called wine (madhya)”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Surā (सुरा, “spirituous”) or Surāsāgara refers to one of the “seven oceans” (sāgara) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 126). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., surā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Sūra (सूर) is the father of Kunthunātha according to Śvetāmbara (but he is named Sūryasena according to Digambara), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Kunthunātha is the seventeenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The wife of Sūra is Śrī. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Sura.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘thirtythree’. Note: sura is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

sura : (m.) a god; deity. || surā (f.) intoxicating liquor. sūra (adj.) valiant; courageous. (m.) a hero; the sun.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Surā, (f.) (Vedic surā) spirituous (intoxicating) liquor (“drink”) Vin. II, 295; 301; IV, 110; D. I, 146; A. I, 212, 295; It. 63; J. I, 199, 252 (tikhiṇaṃ suraṃ yojetvā mixing a sharp drink); DhA. II, 9; Dh. 247; as nt. at J. VI, 23 (v. l. surā as gloss).—Five kinds of surā are mentioned, viz. piṭṭha°, pūva°, odana° (odaniya°), kiṇṇapakkhitta°, sambhāra-saṃyutta° VvA. 73; VbhA. 381.

—âdhiṭṭhaka addicted to drink J. V, 427. —geha a drinking house J. I, 302. —ghaṭa a pitcher of liquor J. III, 477. —ghara=°geha J. V, 367. —chaṇa a drinking festival J. I, 489; DhA. III, 100. —dhutta a drunkard Sn. 106; J. I, 268; III, 260. —nakkhatta a drinking festival J 362; SnA 185. —pāna drinking strong liquor J. I, 50; IV, 23; VbhA. 383. —pāyikā a woman drinking liquor J. V, 11. —pipāsita thirsty after strong drink S. II, 110. —pīta one who has drunk liquor J. I, 426. —mada tipsiness, intoxication A. IV, 213; J. I, 352, 362. —meraya (-pāna) (drinking) rum & spirits A. I, 261; II, 53. See also (pañca-) sikkhāpada. —vitthaka bowl for drinking spirits J. V, 427; DhA. III, 66. —soṇḍa a drunkard DhA. III, 129. —soṇḍaka id. J. V, 433. (Page 720)

— or —

1) Sūra, 2 (Vedic sūra) the sun ThA. 150 (Ap. V, 90); J. V, 56. (Page 722)

2) Sūra, 1 (Vedic śūra, fr. śū) valiant, courageous S. I, 21; J. I, 262, 320; II, 119; (m.) a hero, a valiant man D. I, 51, 89; III, 59, 142, 145 sq; A. IV, 107, 110; Sn. 831; DA. 157, 250; (nt.) valour S. V, 227, read sūriya.

—kathā a tale about heroes D. I, 8; DA. I, 90. —kāka the valiant crow DhA. III, 352. —bhāva strength, valour J. I, 130; Vism. 417 (in def. of suriya). (Page 722)

— or —

Sura, (cp. Epic Sk. sura probably after asura) god Sn. 681 (=deva SnA 484); name of a Bodhisatta J. V, 12, 13; surakaññā a goddess, a heavenly maid J. V, 407 (=devadhītā, C.); surinda the king of gods Mhbv 28. Opp. asura. (Page 720)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

śūra (शूर).—m & a (S) A warrior, a hero, a valiant man. 2 Bold, brave, heroic; and, freely, magnanimous, generous, persevering &c.; eminent for some one of the nobler qualities or affections; as dāna- śūra Bold in giving, liberal, munificent; karmaśūra Stanch and determined in performing works and rites; raṇaśūra, ārambhaśūra, vādaśūra, dhanuśśūra, parārtha- śūra, parōpakāraśūra; also gṛha -gāna -snāna -bhōjana- śayyana -pravāsa -&c.-śūra.

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sura (सुर).—m (S) A god or deity.

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surā (सुरा).—m ( H) A large knife, a chopper, a cleaver. 2 A sort of dirk or dagger.

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surā (सुरा).—f (S) Spirituous or vinous liquor. It is personified as a nymph produced at the churning of the ocean. 2 A drinking vessel.

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sūra (सूर).—m (svara S) A note in music. 2 A tune. 3 Air breathed through a nostril. v vāha, cāla, jā, banda, hō. 4 A mouth-instrument of music. It sounds but one note, and maintains the pitch of the tune. 5 The name of the stick which, in the play of surapārambī, the boy runs to bring whilst the others climb up the trees. sūra dharaṇēṃ To pitch the voice in agreement with. 2 also sūra dēṇēṃ To sing second with. sūra dēṇārā That sings second with. sūra banda hōṇēṃ (nākācē) To have breathing through the nose stopped or obstructed (as in a cold); and sūra vāhaṇēṃ To have this breathing freely.

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sūra (सूर).—f C (surā S) Spirituous or vinous liquor.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śūra (शूर).—m & a A hero, warrior. Bold, brave. Eminent for some of the nobler qualities; as dānaśūra munificent.

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sura (सुर).—m A god or deity.

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sura (सुर) [-kaṇa-kara-diśī, -कण-कर-दिशी].—Imit. of certain quick sounds as of a crack, plunge, dive &c.

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surā (सुरा).—m A large knife. f Spirituous liquor.

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sūra (सूर).—m A note in music; a tune. f Spiri- tuous liquor. sūra dharaṇēṃ Pitch the voice in agreement with. sūra dēṇēṃ Sing second with.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śūra (शूर).—a. [śūr-ac] Brave, heroic, valiant, mighty; शून्येषु शूरा न के (śūnyeṣu śūrā na ke) K. P.7; स्वाध्यायशूरैर्मुखैः (svādhyāyaśūrairmukhaiḥ) Pañcharātram 1.5.

-raḥ 1 A hero, warrior, valiant man.

2) A lion.

3) A boar.

4) The sun.

5) The Śāla tree.

6) Name of a Yādava, the grandfather of Kṛṣṇa; (hence the descendants of Śūra i. e. Yādavas also; cf. śūraḥ syād yādave bhaṭe Medinī; khyātāni karmāṇi ca yāni śaureḥ śūrādaya- steṣvabalā babhūvuḥ Bu. Ch.1.51).

7) The Arka plant.

8) The Chitraka tree.

9) A dog.

1) A cock.

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Sura (सुर).—[suṣṭhu rāti dadātyabhīṣṭaṃ su-rā-kta]

1) A god, deity; सुराप्रतिग्रहाद् देवाः सुरा इत्यभिविश्रुताः (surāpratigrahād devāḥ surā ityabhiviśrutāḥ) Rām.; सुधया तर्पयते सुरान् पितॄंश्च (sudhayā tarpayate surān pitṝṃśca) V.3.7; R.5.16.

2) The number 'thirty-three'.

3) The sun.

4) A sage, learned man.

5) An idol.

Derivable forms: suraḥ (सुरः).

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Surā (सुरा).—(su-kran Uṇ.2.24)

1) A spirituous liquor, wine; सुरा वै मलमन्नानाम् (surā vai malamannānām) Ms.11.93; गौडी पैष्टी च माध्वी च विज्ञेया त्रिविधा सुरा (gauḍī paiṣṭī ca mādhvī ca vijñeyā trividhā surā) 94.

2) Water.

3) A drinking vessel.

4) A snake.

--- OR ---

Sūra (सूर).—[suvati prerayati karmaṇi lokānudayena, sū-kran Uṇ.2.24]

1) The sun.

2) The Arka plant.

3) The Soma.

4) A wise or learned man.

5) A hero, king.

Derivable forms: sūraḥ (सूरः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of sura in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

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