Kshama, Kṣamā, Kṣama, Kṣāma: 20 definitions

Introduction

Kshama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kṣamā and Kṣama and Kṣāma can be transliterated into English as Ksama or Kshama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Kṣamā (क्षमा, “patience”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ क्षमायै नमः
oṃ kṣamāyai namaḥ.

A similar mantra is mentioned by the same text, prefixed with ह्रीं (hrīṃ), to be worshipped at the goddess’s right.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Kṣamā (क्षमा, “forgiveness”):—One of the names attributed to Devī, as chanted by the Vedas in their hymns, who were at the time incarnated in their personified forms. See the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa chapter 5.51-68, called “the narrative of Hayagrīva”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Kṣamā (क्षमा, “forgiveness”):—One of the twenty-four emanations of Lakṣmī accompanying Nārāyaṇa. This particular manifestation couples with his counterpart form called Upendra and together they form the twentieth celestial couple. Lakṣmī represents a form of the Goddess (Devī) as the wife of Viṣṇu, while Nārāyaṇa represents the personification of his creative energy, according to the Pāñcarātra literature.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Kṣama (क्षम) refers to “suffering”. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kṣamā (क्षमा) is one of the twenty-four daughters of Dakṣa by Prasūti: one of the three daughters of Svāyambhuvamanu and Śatarūpā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“Dakṣa begot twenty-four daughters. The eleven younger daughters were [... Kṣamā,...]. The great aspirants [Pulaha] and others took the hands of these famous daughters (eg., Kṣamā married Pulaha). Thereupon the entire universe consisting of three worlds, mobile and immobile was filled (with progeny). Thus according to their own actions and at the bidding of Śiva innumerable famous Brahmins were born out of the various living beings”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Kṣamā (क्षमा).—Wife of Prajāpati Pulaha. Three sons Kardama, Urvarīyān and Sahiṣṇu were born to Pulaha of his wife Kṣamā. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1, Stanza 10).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Kṣama (क्षम).—A Sudhāmāna god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 27.

2a) Kṣamā (क्षमा).—A Brahmarākṣasī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 99.

2b) A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 91.

2c) A daughter of Dakṣa; wife of Pulaha Prajāpati;1 mother of sons Kardama, U(A)rvarīvān, Sahiṣṇu, Kanakapīṭha and daughter Pīvari.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 28, 31; 28. 25; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 25.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 52; 11. 30.

2d) The wife of Kratu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 7.

2e) A R. from the Ṛsyavat hills.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 25.

3) Kṣāma (क्षाम).—The son of Saharākṣa, who burns down houses;1 his son Kravyādagni.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 29. 34.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 12. 37.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Kṣamā (क्षमा) refers to one of the daughters of Dakṣa and Prasūti: one of the two daughters of Manu-svāyaṃbhuva and Śatarūpā, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Ākūti was married to Ruci and Prasūti to Dakṣa. Dakṣa produced in Prasūti twenty-four daughters. [...] [Kṣamā was given to Pulaha.] Pulaha and Kṣamā had two sons—Kardama and Ambarīṣa.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Kṣāma (क्षाम, “depressed”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the cheeks (kapola or gaṇḍa), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

2) Kṣāma (क्षाम, “thin”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the belly (udara), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 10. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

3) Kṣāma (क्षाम, “thinness”) represents the first stage of the action of poison (viṣa) after drinking it, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 26. It is also known by the name Kārśya. In a dramatic play, the representation of death from drinking poison is displayed by throwing out of hands and feet and other limbs. The power of the poison will lead to the quivering action of the different parts of the body.

Kṣāma according to the Nāṭyaśāstra: “eyes with sunken eyeballs, depressed cheeks, lips, and thinness of the belly and of the shoulder and of arms will represent thinness (kṣāma)”.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

1) Kṣāma (क्षाम, “depressed”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the cheeks (kapola);—Instructions: (cheeks are) fallen. Uses: in sorrow.

2) Kṣāma (क्षाम, “thin”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the belly (udara);—(Instructions): The thin belly is Kṣāma. (Uses): In laughter, weeping, inhalation and yawning.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Kṣamā (क्षमा) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (eg., Kṣamā) in 20 verses.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Kṣamā (क्षमा) refers to “earth” and is mentioned in a list of 53 synonyms for dharaṇi (“earth”), according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia).  The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Kṣamā], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Kṣamā (क्षमा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Kṣemacinta forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vākcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vākcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Kṣamā] and Vīras are reddish madder in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kṣama (क्षम).—a (S) Patient, enduring sustaining; bearing or forbearing, lit. fig. Ex. of comp. āghātakṣama, nirvāhakṣama, phalakṣama, bhārakṣama, vicārakṣama, vyavahārakṣama. 2 Capable or able; competent or adequate unto. 3 Practicable or possible unto.

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kṣamā (क्षमा).—f (S) Bearing with; forbearing or forgiving; pardoning or pardon. v kara. 2 Patience or sufferance; quiet and meek endurance. 3 S The earth.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kṣama (क्षम).—a Patient. Capable, competent. Practicable.

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kṣamā (क्षमा).—f Patience. Pardon.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṣama (क्षम).—a. [kṣam-ac]

1) Patient (said of the earth); विमृग्वरीं पृथिवीमा वदामि क्षमां भूमिं ब्रह्मणा वावृधानाम् (vimṛgvarīṃ pṛthivīmā vadāmi kṣamāṃ bhūmiṃ brahmaṇā vāvṛdhānām) Av.12. 1.29.

2) Enduring, submissive; अतोऽत्र किंचिद्भवर्ती बहुक्षमाम् (ato'tra kiṃcidbhavartī bahukṣamām) Ku.5.4.

3) Adequate, competent, able (with gen., loc., inf. or in comp.) मलिनो हि यथादर्शो रूपालोकस्य न क्षमः (malino hi yathādarśo rūpālokasya na kṣamaḥ) Y.3.141; सा हि रक्षणविधौ तयोः क्षमा (sā hi rakṣaṇavidhau tayoḥ kṣamā) R.11.6; हृदयं न त्ववलम्बितुं क्षमाः (hṛdayaṃ na tvavalambituṃ kṣamāḥ) R.8.6; गमनक्षम, निर्मूलनक्षम (gamanakṣama, nirmūlanakṣama) &c.

4) Appropriate, fit, proper, suitable; तन्नो यदुक्तमशिवं न हि तत्क्षमं ते (tanno yaduktamaśivaṃ na hi tatkṣamaṃ te) U.1.14; आत्मकर्मक्षमं देहं क्षात्रो धर्म इवाश्रितः (ātmakarmakṣamaṃ dehaṃ kṣātro dharma ivāśritaḥ) R.1.13; Ś5.27.

5) Fit for, capable of, suited to; उपभोगक्षमे देशे (upabhogakṣame deśe) V.2; तपःक्षमं साधयितुं य इच्छति (tapaḥkṣamaṃ sādhayituṃ ya icchati) Ś.1.18; स्पर्शक्षमं रत्नम् (sparśakṣamaṃ ratnam) 1.27;7.5.

6) Bearable, endurable.

7) Favourable, friendly.

8) Worthy; यूयमेव स्तवक्षमाः (yūyameva stavakṣamāḥ) Mv.1.26.

-mam 1 Propriety, fitness.

2) Battle, war.

-maḥ Name of Śiva.

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Kṣamā (क्षमा).—[kṣam-aṅ]

1) Patience, forbearance, forgiveness; क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः (kṣamā satyaṃ damaḥ śamaḥ) Bg.1.4,34;16.3; क्षमा शत्रौ च मित्रे च यतीनामेव भूषणम् (kṣamā śatrau ca mitre ca yatīnāmeva bhūṣaṇam) H.2; R.1.22;18.9; तेजः क्षमा वा नैकान्तं कालज्ञस्य महीपतेः (tejaḥ kṣamā vā naikāntaṃ kālajñasya mahīpateḥ) Ś.2.83.

2) The earth.

3) The number 'one'.

4) An epithet of Durgā.

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Kṣāma (क्षाम).—a. [kṣai-kartari kta kṣāyo maḥ P.VIII.2.53]

1) Scorched, signed.

2) Diminished, thin, wasted; emaciated, lean; क्षामक्षामकपोलमाननम् (kṣāmakṣāmakapolamānanam) Ś.3.9; मध्ये क्षामा (madhye kṣāmā) Me.84; क्षामच्छायं भवनमधुना मद्वियोगेन नूनम् (kṣāmacchāyaṃ bhavanamadhunā madviyogena nūnam) 82,91.

3) Slight, little, small.

4) Weak, infirm.

-maḥ An epithet of Viṣṇu.

-mā The earth; द्यावा ह क्षामा (dyāvā ha kṣāmā) Mahābhārata on P.I.2.64.

-mam Destruction.

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Kṣāma (क्षाम).—a. [kṣai-manin] Destructive. -n. Ved. The earth, ground.

Derivable forms: kṣāmam (क्षामम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣama (क्षम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Patient, resigned, enduring. 2. Refraining from, forbearing. 3. Able, adequate. 4. Benevolent, friendly. 5. Fit, appropriate, suitable, proper. f.

(-mā) 1. Patience. 2. The earth. 3. Night. 4. A name of Durga. n. (maṃ) Propriety, fitness. E. kṣama as above, affix ac.

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Kṣāma (क्षाम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Slender, slim, emaciated. 2. Weak, infirm. E. kṣai to waste, affix kta, form irr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṣama (क्षम).—[adjective] patient; enduring, resisting (—°); propitious, friendly; tolerable; able to, capable of ([locative], infin., or —°); suitable, fit, proper for ([dative], [genetive], [locative], [infinitive], or —°). [feminine] kṣamā patience, forbearance, indulgence ([genetive] or prati); the earth.

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Kṣāma (क्षाम).—[adjective] burned, scorched, dried; thin, slender, weak.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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