Puga, Pūga: 21 definitions
Puga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Pūga (areca-nut), the Padmakośa hands crossed.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
Pūga (पूग) refers to “areca nut” and is used in oblation offerings, according to verse 25.137-141a of the 8th-century Īśvarasaṃhitā. Accordingly, “... they [eg., pūga] are already cooked, filling the cooking vessels (sthālī) and dishes (śarāva) are to be kept in all broad frying vessels (ambarīṣa). They are to be placed on vessels (pātra) smeared with (within) ghee (ghṛta), are hot and are to be spread out there. They which are heated and made greasy with powdered peppers, jīraka and ghee are to be stirred again and again with ladle. They are to be kept in vessels covered with clothes etc”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Pūga (पूग) refers to the “areca-nut” and is mentioned as one of the fruits used in the treatment of aggravated phlegm, according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Procedure to alleviate kapha (phlegm) after meals: The excess phlegm in the human body can lead to the weakening of digestive fire. Sleeping immediately after the meal will result in the aggravation of phlegm. The excess phlegm must be alleviated by employing fumes of the fragrant substances or consuming fruits [like pūga (areca-nut), ...]. After a meal, one must walk a few steps. Practising this lightens the food mass and imparts comfort in the neck, knees and loins. [...]Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa
Pūga (पूग) refers to “areca-nuts”, and is an ingredient used in the treatment (cikitsā) of rat poison (ākhu-viṣa), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Kāśyapa has recommended a slew of generic formulae that successfully neutralise rat poison.—According to Kāśyapasaṃhitā (verse 11.60): “Dry arecanuts (śuṣka-pūga), blended well with the extracts of Vajikā, Agniśikhā, Tuṇḍīva, along with betel leaves, help in eleminating the poison”.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)
Pūga (पूग) refers to a “heap (of chaplet)”, according to Kuladatta’s Kriyāsaṃgrahapañjikā, a text within Tantric Buddhism representing a construction manual for monasteries.—Accordingly, [while describing pratiṣṭhā in chapter 4]—“Then the king should satisfy the architects, the assistants, and the spectators with a bracelet, a finger-ring, a garment, gold, heap of chaplet (sraj-pūga), tāmbūla, or other [articles] according to [the donor’s] wealth”.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Biology (plants and animals)Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)
1) Puga in India is the name of a plant defined with Areca catechu in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Areca catechu Willdenow (among others).
2) Puga in Papua New Guinea is also identified with Pangium edule.
Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):
· Flora Indica, or ‘Descriptions of Indian Plants’ (1768)
· Species Plantarum. (1805)
· Species Plantarum
· Isis (1823)
· Nucleus (1975)
· Hist. Nat. Palm. (1836)
If you are looking for specific details regarding Puga, for example side effects, chemical composition, extract dosage, diet and recipes, health benefits, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.
This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
pūga : (m.) a gild; corporation. (nt.) a heap; the areconut palm.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
1) Pūga, 3 (Class. Sk. pūga) the betel-palm, betel nut tree J. V, 37 (°rukkha-ppamāṇaṃ ucchu-vanaṃ). (Page 470)
2) Pūga, 2 (m.) (see preceding) corporation, guild Vin. II, 109, 212; IV, 30, 78, 226, 252; M. III, 48; A. III, 300; Ud. 71; Pug. 29 (=seṇi PugA 210).—āyatana guild’s property J. VI, 108 (=pūga-santaka dhana C.).—gāmaṇika superintendant of a guild, guildmaster A. III, 76.—majjhagata gone into a guild A. I, 128=Pug. 29; SnA 377. (Page 470)
3) Pūga, 1 (nt.) (etym. ? cp. Vedic pūga in meaning of both pūga1 & pūga2) heap, quantity; either as n. with Gen. or as adj. =many, a lot Sn. 1073 (pūgaṃ vassānaṃ= bahūni vassāni Nd2 452); Pv IV. 79 (pūgāni vassāni); VbhA. 2 (khandhaṭṭha, piṇḍ°, pūg°). (Page 470)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pūga (पूग).—m S The Betelnut tree, Areca faufel or catechu. 2 n Its fruit.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
pūga (पूग).—m The Betelnut tree. n Its fruit.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Pūga (पूग).—[pū gan kicca; Uṇādi-sūtra 1.121]
1) A multitude, heap, collection, quantity; केशवः शत्रुपूगहा (keśavaḥ śatrupūgahā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.131.1; घनतां ध्रुवं नयति तेन भवद्गुणपूगपूरितम् (ghanatāṃ dhruvaṃ nayati tena bhavadguṇapūgapūritam) (śravaṇaṃ) अतृप्ततया (atṛptatayā) Śiśupālavadha 9.64.
2) An association, corporation, union; नृपेणाधिकृताः पूगाः (nṛpeṇādhikṛtāḥ pūgāḥ) Y.2.3; Manusmṛti 3.151; सत्रिणः (satriṇaḥ) ...... पूगजनसमवायेषु विवादं कुर्युः (pūgajanasamavāyeṣu vivādaṃ kuryuḥ) Kau. A.1.13.
3) The areca or betelnut-tree. (pūgī also); R.4.44; ताम्बूलवल्लीपरिणद्धपूगाः (tāmbūlavallīpariṇaddhapūgāḥ) 6.64;13.17; धृष्यत् पूगवनीघनीकृततलैस्तुङ्गैर्जरच्छाखिभिः (dhṛṣyat pūgavanīghanīkṛtatalaistuṅgairjaracchākhibhiḥ) (lakṣyante) Mv.7.13.
4) Nature, property, disposition.
-gam Areca-nut, betelnut.
Derivable forms: pūgaḥ (पूगः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-gaḥ) 1. The betel-nut tree, (Areca faufel or catechu.) 2. A heap, a quantity, a multitude. 3. Disposition, property, nature. 4. The Jack-tree. 5. An association, a corporation. n.
(-gaṃ) The fruit of the faufel, the betel-nut. E. pū to cleanse, gan Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pūga (पूग).—I. m. 1. A heap, [Arjunasamāgama] 3, 32. 2. A multitude, Mahābhārata 5, 1085. pi. A number of persons, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 152. 3. The betel-nut tree (Areca faufel). Ii. n. The fruit of the last.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pūga (पूग).—[masculine] association, corporation, multitude; betel-palm, [neuter] its nut.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Pūga (पूग):—m. (ifc. f(ā). ; cf. puñja) any assemblage or combination or body of persons, a multitude, number, mass, quantity (in one place n.), [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) country court or an assembly of townsmen, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 296 n. 1]
3) disposition, property, nature, [Horace H. Wilson]
4) the Areca Catechu, called betel-nut tree (n. its nut), [Varāha-mihira; Kāvya literature; Suśruta]
5) = kaṇṭaki-vṛkṣa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) = chanda, or chandas, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] = bhāva, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pūga (पूग):—(gaḥ) 1. m. The betel-nut tree; a heap; a quantity; nature; jack tree. n. The betel-nut.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
Pūga (पूग) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Pūga.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a large number of people gathered together at a place; a group; a multitude.
2) [noun] an organisation of persons having common interests, purposes, etc.; a society, league or association.
3) [noun] the palm tree Areca catechu of Arecaceae family.
4) [noun] its nut; areca nut.
5) [noun] the tree Thespesia populnea ( = Hibiscus populenea) of Malvaceae family; Indian tulip umbrella tree.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+48): Puga-phalam, Pugad lauin, Pugadandakavata, Pugadi, Pugah, Pugahan, Pugaielai, Pugaiyilai, Pugakrita, Pugal, Pugalasu, Pugallu, Pugam, Pugamu, Pugan, Puganasu, Pugane, Puganeya, Puganna, Pugapatra.
Ends with (+5): Apuga, Bhupuga, Gunapuga, Gurutappuga, Jamjhapuga, Jangapuga, Kalapuga, Latapuga, Marupuka, Munipuga, Muppaga, Muppudappuga, Mutondo puga, Nenapuga, Neppuga, Olpuga, Patrapuga, Rajapuga, Ramapuga, Sapuga.
Full-text (+96): Pugapitha, Pugaphala, Pugapatra, Pugapushpika, Pugakrita, Munipuga, Gunapuga, Ramapuga, Pugi, Pugarota, Rota, Pugiphala, Pugavaira, Jangapuga, Pugayajna, Patrapuga, Pugatitha, Kalapuga, Pugya, Varshapuga.
Search found 23 books and stories containing Puga, Pūga; (plurals include: Pugas, Pūgas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Yajnavalkya-smriti (Vyavaharadhyaya)—Critical study (by Kalita Nabanita)
Chapter 4.3 - Special Adjudicatory Machinery < [Chapter 4 - The Political Aspect Reflected in the Vyavahārādhyāya]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Abhinaya-darpana (English) (by Ananda Coomaraswamy)
Sushruta Samhita, volume 1: Sutrasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
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