Sudarshana, aka: Sudarśana, Sudarsana; 24 Definition(s)


Sudarshana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Sudarśana can be transliterated into English as Sudarsana or Sudarshana, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

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The Discus (cakra) is called sudarśana which means ‘pleasing-to-see’, it is usually shown in iconography with a hexagon in the center. The six points of the two triangles represent the six seasons in a yearly time cycle, in the center nave is the seed sound (bija) ‘hrim’, which represents the changeless, motionless center, the Supreme Cause. The interlocking triangles symbolise the union of the male and female elements of the Universe (puruṣa=prakṛti).

Source: SriMatham: Vaiṣṇava Iconology based on Pañcarātra Āgama
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Sudarshana in Purana glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

1) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन):—He married of Oghavatī (Daugter of Oghavān). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2)

2) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन):—Son of Dhruvasandhi (son of Puṣpa). He had a son named Agnivarṇa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.12.5)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is another name for Pāvaka, one of the seven regions situated in Krauñcadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 88. Krauñcadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Jyotiṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—A king of ancient India. He was a contemporary of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. This king who was esteemed even by the gods, was once captured and made a prisoner by another king named Nagnajit. Śrī Kṛṣṇa defeated Nagnajit and all the other Kings and made this King free. This story occurs in Mahābhārata, Udyoga Parva, Chapter 48, Verse 75. (See full article at Story of Sudarśana from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—A king who took the side of the Kauravas and fought against the Pāṇḍavas in Kurukṣetra. This king was killed by Sātyaki. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 113, Verse 14).

3) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—A king of Mālava. This king joined the side of the Pāṇḍavas in the battle of Bhārata and was killed by Aśvatthāmā. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 200, Verse 13).

4) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. In the battle of Bhārata, he attacked Bhīmasena and was killed by him. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 31).

5) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—Son of Dhruvasandhi, king of Kosala. Manoramā was the mother of Sudarśana. (For further details see under Dhruvasandhi).

6) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—One of the five sons of Bharata. Bharata, the son of Ṛṣabha, had married Pañcajanī, the daughter of Viśvarūpa. Five sons named Sumati, Rāṣṭrabhṛt, Sudarśana, Āvaraṇa and Dhūmraketu were born to Bharata, who divided Bhārata among his five sons and went to Sālagrāma and did penance there and died. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 5).

7) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—The son born to god Fire by his wife Sudarśanā. (Sudarśanā was the daughter of Duryodhana (Nīla) of the dynasty of Ikṣvāku. For the story of her marriage see under Sudarśanā). Sudarśana, the son of Fire, married Oghavatī the daughter of Oghavān. That story is given below:—

Oghavān had two children a daughter named Oghavatī and a son named Ogharatha. Oghavān gave his daughter in marriage to Sudarśana who was wise and learned. The couple lived in Kurukṣetra. Once Sudarśana said to Oghavatī thus:— "You should honour guests in all ways. If it is the desire of a guest, you should not draw back from giving even your body. Whether I am present here or not a guest should not be insulted." Oghavatī promised to obey the order of her husband to the letter. Sudarśana had been trying to become victorious over Mṛtyu (Death) and so Death had been waiting to find out some vulnerable point in Sudarśana’s life. While Sudarśana had gone to cut firewood, a brahmin entered the hermitage and said to Oghavatī:— "If you do observe the duties of a house-holder show hospitality to me." Hearing this, Oghavatī welcomed the brahmin and performed the usual hospitality and asked him "What shall I do for you?" "Give yourself to me", was the answer. Seeing that the guest was not contented with the usual hospitalities and remembering the words of her husband, Oghavatī gave herself to the guest. Both of them entered the interior of the hermitage. At this moment Sudar ana returned with firewood, and looked for Oghavatī and called her aloud, several times. He got no reply. Then the Brahmin who was lying inside called out:—"Hei! Son of Fire! A guest has come. Your wife showed all kinds of hospitality. But I was not contented with them. Now she is offering herself to me."

8) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—A Vidyādhara. Because of the curse of Aṅgiras, this Vidyādhara was changed into a mountain snake. That story occurs as follows in Bhāgavata, Skandha 9.

While Sudarśana was playing about in the world of Gods with some Gandharva damsels, Angiras and some other hermits came by that way. Sudarśana ridiculed them. Aṅgiras became angry and changed him to a mountain snake by a curse. Sudarśana prayed for liberation from the curse. Aṅgiras said that in Dvāparayuga, Mahāviṣṇu would incarnate as Śrī Kṛṣṇa and when Kṛṣṇa trod upon him, he would regain his original form."

Sudarśana became a big snake and began life in Ambāḍi. Once the people of Ambāḍi went to Devī forest and worshipped Maheśvara. They spent the night on the banks of the river Kālindī. In the night the snake mentioned above, caught hold of the leg of Nandagopa. Seeing the snake swallowing Nandagopa the rest of them crowded there and struck at the snake with burning faggots. But it was in vain. Finally Śrī Kṛṣṇa came, and gave the snake a thrash. Instantly Sudarśana got his old form. He went to the world of gods.

9) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—A brahmin sinner who lived in the Tretāyuga. The moment he touched the water in which Viṣṇu washed his feet, he obtained remission of his sins and entered Vaikuṇṭha. This story which is given under, occurs in Padma Purāṇa, Brahma Khaṇḍa, Chapter 17.

There lived a brahmin sinner in Tretāyuga. He used to commit sins such as eating food on the eleventh lunar day, ridiculing conventional fast and vow, etc. When he died, the men of Yama took his soul to the world of Yama. At his order Sudarśana was laid in horrible excrements for the period of hundred Manvantaras. When he was released he was born on earth as a hog. Because he ate food on Harivāsara (a fast-day) he suffered hell for a long time. His next birth was that of a crow and lived on excrements. Once the crow drank the water which fell on the steps while washing the feet of Viṣṇu. The crow obtained remission of all its sins. On the same day it was caught in the net of a forestman and died. Then a divine chariot drawn by swans came and took the crow to the world of Viṣṇu.

10) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—The son of Dīrghabāhu who was born in the family of Manu. He conquered all the kingdoms and ruled as an emperor. The famous hermit Vasiṣṭha was his priest.

Once Devī Mahākālī appeared to him in a dream and said to him: "Very soon a flood will occur in the world. So go to the Himālayas with your wife and the priest Vasiṣṭha and stay there in a cave." According to the instruction of Devī, Sudarśana took everybody with him and went to the Himālayas.

The prophecy of Devī came true. The earth was filled with water. This deluge lasted for ten years. After that the earth resumed its original form and Sudarśana returned to Ayodhyā. (Bhaviṣya Purāṇa, Pratisarga Parva, 1, 1).

It is mentioned in Kālikā Purāṇa that Sudarśana had broken off a piece of a forest region of Himālaya and taken it to his country and founded on it the city called Khāṇḍavīnagara and that after a short period king Vijaya of the Bhairava dynasty killed king Sudarśana and became the ruler of the city. (Kālikā Purāṇa, 92).

11) Sudarśanā (सुदर्शना).—A wife of God Fire. This Sudarśanā was the daughter of Duryodhana, the son of Durjaya of the Ikṣvāku dynasty. The mother of Sudarśanā was Narmadā. It is said that so beautiful a woman as Sudarśanā had never been born. The God Fire was once fascinated by the beauty of Sudarśanā who had been instructed to serve him, and wished to accept her as his wife. So he informed her of his desire. Being of a noble race, she said that a virgin ought to be given away by her parents. The God Fire approached the father of Sudarśanā and informed him of every thing. When he knew that the person who made the request was the God Fire, the king gave his daughter Sudarśanā as wife to the God. (Duryodhana had another name Nīla). In the Purāṇas there is another statement also that Nīla was the ruler of Māhiṣmatī. (See under Duryodhana II and Agni Para 8).

12) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—An island. This is another name of Jambūdvīpa. Once Sañjaya talked to Dhṛtarāṣṭra about this dvīpa (Island). (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 5).

13) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—A tree in the Jambū island. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 7 that this tree was eleven thousand yojanas high.

14) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—(The Discus Sudarśana-weapon). General information. The weapon of Mahāviṣṇu. Two stories are seen about the origin of this weapon.

15) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—Indra had a chariot named Sudarśana. (Mahābhārata, Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 3).

Source: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—A weapon of Kṛṣṇa, known as Cakra;1 reached Kṛṣṇa when Mathurā was besieged by Jarāsandha, and was used to kill Śatadhanvā;2 sent to the sun and moon to ward off Rāhu's attack;3 presented to Ambarīṣa; fell upon Durvāsa when he raised a spirit to attack Ambarīṣa who begged to spare the sage and the Cakra did so;4 a weapon of Hari, at Kāśī.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 8. 13; III. 19. 22; VIII. 4. 19.
  • 2) Ib. X. 50 11[2]; 57. 21.
  • 3) Ib. V. 24. 3.
  • 4) Ib. IX. 4. 28 & 48; 52. 11 & 12; XI. 27. 27; XII. 11. 14; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 28. 40. 66.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa V. 29. 17; 30. 67; 33. 35; 34. 37.

1b) A son of Bharata.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 7. 3.

1c) The husband of Oghavatī and a sage, called on the dying Bhīṣma.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 2. 18; I. 9. 7.

1d) A son of Dhurvasandhi and father of Agni varṇa (of Kuśa vaṃśa).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 12. 5; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 209; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 209; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 108.

1e) A Vidyādhara who mocked at Angirasa's ugliness and was cursed to become a reptile until released by Kṛṣṇa; when he seized Nanda, Kṛṣṇa came to his rescue, and at his touch the serpent was transformed into the Vidyādhara. He bowed to the Lord and went to his region.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 34. 12-18; XI. 16. 19.

1f) A tīrtha visited by Balarāma.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 78. 19.

1g) A son of Puṇyajanī and Maṇibhadra; an Yakṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 125; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 156.

1h) A Jambū tree (see ).*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 74. Vāyu-purāṇa 285. 22.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

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Sudarśana (सुदर्शन):—The son of king Dhruvasandhi (son of Puṣpa) of the Solar Dynasty and his first wife Manoramā. He was the eldest son and brother to Satrujit. See the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 3.14 (The glories of Devī).

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

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Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 57. The temple is mentioned as one of the nine temples being a favorite of Bhagavatī. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Sudarśana is also listed in the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Sudarśana one cakra; or a mark resembling cakra. Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (eg., Sudarśana stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.

Source: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

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Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.53.12) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sudarśana) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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Katha (narrative stories)

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Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is the name of a gambler from Viyogapura, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 52. Accordingly as Ambikā said to Jīvadatta in bodily form: “...  the gambler [Sudarśana], before the eyes of Anaṅgaprabhā, soon stripped [Labdhavara] the teacher of dancing of all his wealth. Then Anaṅgaprabhā deserted her husband, who was stripped of all his fortune, as if in anger on that account, and threw herself into the arms of Sudarśana”.

The story of Sudarśana was told by Gomukha in order to demonstrate that “divine beings fall by virtue of a curse, and, owing to the consequences of their own wickedness, are incarnate in the world of men, and after reaping the fruit appropriate to their bad conduct they again go to their own home on account of previously acquired merit”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Sudarśana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

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One of the 108 names of Krishna; Meaning: "Handsome Lord"

Source: humindian: 108 names of Lord Krishna

Sudarshana is a King of the solar dynasty, an ancestor of Rama. His father is Shankana and his son is Agnivarna.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Sudarsana (सुदर्सण): A warrior on the Kaurava army.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

According to the Bhaviṣya Purāṇa, the incarnation (birth) of the Sudarśana Cakra (as Nimbārka) occurred, in the month of Kārtika on the evening of the full moon in the year 3096 B.C.E., at the time when the grandson of Arjuna was on the throne.

Source: New World Encyclopedia: Nimbarka

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

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1) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is the name of the city of the Trāyastriṃśa gods according to appendix 8 of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—The Trāyastriṃśa gods with Śakra as king live in the city of Sudarśana on the summit of Mount Meru. This city has four parks:

  1. Caitraratha,
  2. Pāruṣya,
  3. Miśra,
  4. Nandana.

2) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) or Mahāsudarśana is the name of a king belonging to the ‘sun-king lineage’ into which Buddha was previously born, mentioned in order to demonstrate the fearlessness of the Buddha according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XL.1.4. Accordingly, “The Buddha himself from the very beginning has always taken birth in the lineage of noble cakravartin kings. He was born into the families of the lineage of ‘sun kings’: king K’ouai-kien (Sudarśana), etc. This is why he has no fear”.

According to a footnote from the Mahāsudassana-suttanta embedded in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XX):—Sudarśana is here rendered as Hi kien; elsewhere as Chan kien or Miao kien. This Cakravartin Mahāsudarśana belongs to the royal lineage of Mahāsaṃmata from which the Buddha came (cf. Dīpavaṃsa III.8; Mahāvaṃsa II.5; Mahāvastu I; etc.). In mythical times, he reigned in Kuśāvatī, in the actual location of Kuśinagara. This city and its splendid palaces are fully described in the various versions of the Mahāsudassanasuttanta mentioned above (see also Divyāvadāna; etc.). The Dharmaprāsāda was built following to the model of the Cakravartin’s city.

3) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is part of the group of Gods inhabiting the fourth dhyāna of the Rūpadhātu (or Brahmaloka): the second of the three worlds, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32-34. The gods of the form realm (rūpadhātu), having fallen from the pure abodes (śuddhāvāsa), will again conceive sensual desire and will abide in the impure spheres.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

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1) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) refers to the “beautiful mountain” and represents one of the “eight mountains” (parvata) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 125). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., sudarśana). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

2) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन, “clear-sighted”) refers one of the eighteen “gods of the form-realms” (rūpāvacaradeva) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 128).

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Arya Mahasudarshana (1400-1320 BCE) or Sudarshana was the disciple of Arya Krishna. He was the son of Darshana and Kshatriya by birth. He belonged to Bharukachcha. Taranatha mentions that Arya Sudarshana visited Hingalaj temple in modern Balochistan. He preached Buddha doctrine there and ensured that no flesh or blood offered to Hingalaj Devi. Taranatha also mentions that Sudarshana spread Buddha Doctrine in Maha-China. Thus, it appears that Buddhism entered China in a limited form for the first time in the 14 th century BCE.

Source: The Chronological History of Buddhism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

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1) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is the father of Aranātha, the eighteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

Sudarśana’s wife is known as Devī, according to Śvetāmbara or Mitrā according to Digambara. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

2) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) refers to a species of Graiveyaka gods, who are in turn a subclass of the Kalpātīta gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The Kalpātīta (those born beyond heavens) represent a sub-species of the Vaimānika gods, which in turn represents the fourth main classification of devas (gods).

3a) Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is the name of the fifth Baladeva according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Jain legends describe nine such Baladevas (“gentle heroes”) usually appearing together with their “violent” twin-brothers known as the Vāsudevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

Sudarśana’s mother is known as Vijayā, according to the Samavāyāṅga-sūtra, and their stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

3b) Sudarśanā (सुदर्शना) is mentioned as the mother of Suprabha: the fourth Baladeva according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) or Sudarśana is a mountain in the centre of Jambūdvīpa: the tree enveloping the continent of Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10.—The height of Sudarśana Mount is 100040 yojana. Sudarśana Mount has three regions in the form of terraces. The first terrace is 500 yojana from earth. The second region is 62500 yojana above the first terrace. The third terrace is 36000 yojana above the second terrace.

There are four forests (vana) on Sudarśana Mount. They are called Bhadraśāla, Nandanavana, Saumanasavana and Pāṃdukavana. The first forest lies at the foot of the mountain and the rest in its platform. How many Jina temples are there in the four forests? There are four Jina temples in four directions in each forest for a total of 16 temples on the mount.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is one of the nine graiveyakas: a subclasses of kalpātītas (born beyond heaven), itself a division of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

The nava-graiveyakas (eg., Sudarśana) are the three layered residences above the sixteenth heaven (kalpa) where Ahamindra deities reside. Which thought-colourations are there in Graivaiyaka, Anudiśa and Anuttara gods? They have pure white thought-colouration.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Sudarśana (सुदर्शन) is the name of a lake mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 14. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Sudarśana is the name of a lake situated at some distance from Girinagara as mentioned in the Junāgaṛh Rock Inscription of Rudradāman I (A.D. 150).

During the reign of Aśoka, Sudarśana was adorned with conduits, by the Yavana governor Tuṣāspha. The same lake was destroyed by the excessive floods in the Suvarṇasikatā, Palāśinī and other streams arising from the mountain Ūrjayat. The lake was immediately beatufied with repairs by king Rudradāman.

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Sudarshana in Marathi glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—n m (S) The discus of Vishn̤u or Krishn̤a. 2 fig. n An encumbrance or a clog; a pressing and plaguing (person, business, burden, duty). 3 A slice or piece of the stone Shaligrama, bearing the mark of a discus. 4 The city of Indra.

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sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—a (S) Good-looking, of beautiful or handsome appearance.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—a Good-looking. n m The disc of viṣṇu. Fig. A clog.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sudarshana in Sanskrit glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Sudarśana (सुदर्शन).—a.

- or - f.)

Sudarśana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and darśana (दर्शन).

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Sudarśanā (सुदर्शना).—

1) a handsome woman.

2) a woman.

3) an order, a command.

4) a kind of drug.

Sudarśanā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and darśanā (दर्शना).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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