Savitri, aka: Savitr, Savitṛ, Sāvitrī, Savitrī; 9 Definition(s)
Savitri means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Savitṛ can be transliterated into English as Savitr or Savitri, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Savitri (सवित्रि).—The goddess Savitri is the presiding deity of the Suryamandala or the solar orb along with its aura. She is said to be the mother of the Vedas. Brahma in his role as custodian of the Vedas was the first to wroship her.(Source): Google Books: Shakti: Realm of the Divine Mother
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
1) Savitri (सवित्रि).—A son of Aditi, married Pṛṣṇi in the Vaivasvata and became father of Sāvitri and others. Fought with Virocana in a Devāsura war; Āditya of the month Āṣāḍha; the fifth Vyāsa;1 milkman of gods on the earth;2 heard the Purāṇa from Bṛhaspati and narrated it to Mṛtyu.3 24. 59.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 39; 18. 1; VIII. 10. 29; X. 58. 20; XII. 6. 68: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 24; 24. 76 and 99; III. 7. 288 and 93. Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 79.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 34 and 39; 35. 118; 36. 206; III. 24. 78; 57. 22.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 4. 59-60;
2a) Sāvitrī (सावित्री).—A river in Plakṣadvīpa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 4.
2b) The daughter of Savitrī: Satī compared to her by Dakṣa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 1; IV. 2. 11.
2d) Brahmā contemplated her in his mind when engaged in creation; at that time a being half male and half female broke through his body and it was named Śatarūpā;1 also called Sarasvatī, Gāyatrī and Brahmāṇī;2 Viśvarūpā with two feet; came out by cutting through the head of Brahmā.3
2e) The Goddess worshipped by King Aśvapati.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 208. 6.
2f) The daughter of Aśvapati and Mālatī, married Satyavān. Nārada spoke to her of his short life: Followed him to the forest knowing that his end was nearing. Enjoyed his company seeing the fauna and flora there: saw him unconscious when cutting fuel,1 saw the Lord of death and begged him on her knees to let him live. Yama granted her a boon which she would desire. Her first was that her father-in-law should get back his sight and his kingdom. Though granted, she pursued Yama to free her husband and praised the god's glory. She was asked to name another boon and that was to bless her father with a number of sons. It was granted. Yama asked her to get back. She did not feel weary and pursued him. Her third request was to grant her one hundred sons. Her continuous praise and earnestness pleased the god who restored her husband back to life. She returned to the place where the body of Satyavān lay, with him she went home, found Dyumatsena enjoying his regained eye-sight and people requesting him to take up the kingship again. Lived long and happy.2(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Katha (narrative stories)
Sāvitrī (सावित्री) is the daughter of Aṣṭāvakra, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 105. Accordingly, as Rumaṇvat said to Naravāhanadatta: “... once upon a time a hermit, named Aṅgiras, asked Aṣṭāvakra for the hand of his daughter Sāvitrī. But Aṣṭāvakra would not give him his daughter Sāvitrī, though he was an excellent match, because she was already betrothed to someone else. Then Aṅgiras married Aśrutā, his brother’s daughter, and lived a long time with her as his wife in great happiness; but she was well aware that he had previously been in love with Sāvitrī”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Sāvitrī, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Savitri was the daughter of King Aswapati of the Madra Kingdom. Having been childless for many years, he performed a penance towards Savitri (the Sun) and asked him the boon of a thousand vigorous sons. Surya however, gave him the boon of a virtuous daughter, who was named Savitri in honour of the Sun.
She was exceedingly beautiful, and her eyes shone with the radiance of the Sun, her benefactor. Unable to bear her blazing splendor, none of the Kings would marry her when she came of age, though they all desired her. The King became worried, and in desperation, asked her to go forth in the world and find a suitable husband for herself, one who would be able to match her abilities.(Source): Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Savitr is a solar deity in the Rigveda, and one of the Adityas i.e. off-spring of Vedic deity Aditi. His name in Vedic Sanskrit connotes "impeller, rouser, vivifier". He is sometimes identified with—and at other times distinguished from--Surya, "the Sun". When considered distinct from the Sun proper, he is conceived of as the divine influence or vivifying power of the Sun. The Sun before sunrise is called Savitr, and after sunrise until sunset it is called Surya. Savitr is celebrated in eleven whole hymns of the Rig Veda and in parts of many others, his name being mentioned about 170 times in aggregate.
Like Pushan and Surya, he is lord of that which moves and is stationary. Savitr has been attributed to as upholding the movables and immovable, which signifies the maintenance of Dharma. Savitr is a beneficent God who act as protectors of all beings, who are provident and guard the world of spirits. Being an Aditya, Savitr is true to the eternal Law and act as the debt exactor.
Savitr has golden arms, and is broad-handed or beautiful-handed. He is also pleasant tongued or beautiful-tongued, and is once called iron-jawed. He is yellow-haired, an attribute shared with Agni and Indra. He puts on a tawny garment. He has a golden car with a golden pole, which is omni-form, just as he himself is capable of assuming all forms. His car is drawn by two radiant steeds or by two or more brown, white-footed horses. Mighty splendour (“amati”) is preeminently attributed to Savitr, and mighty “golden” splendour to him only. Such splendour he stretches out or diffuses. He illumines the air, heaven and earth, the world, the spaces of the earth, the vault of heaven.
etymology: Savitr (Sanskrit: stem savitr-, nominative singular savitā)(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Languages of India and abroad
sāvitrī (सावित्री).—f (S) The holy verse of the Vedas the repetition of which forms an essential part of the daily observances enjoined to the Brahman. The prayer is personified as the wife of Brahma and mystical mother of the three Hindu classes which are regenerated by investiture with the sacred string. sāvitrī bāī bhikṣā ghāla mhaṭalyānēṃ kāma hōta nāhīṃ Things are not to be got by soft speech.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
sāvitrī (सावित्री).—f Wife of Brahma.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Savitṛ (सवितृ).—a. (-trī f.) [सू-तृच् (sū-tṛc)] Generating, producing, yielding; सवित्री कामानां यदि जगति जागर्ति भवती (savitrī kāmānāṃ yadi jagati jāgarti bhavatī) G. L.23. -m.
1) The sun; अनन्यदृष्टिः सवितारमैक्षत (ananyadṛṣṭiḥ savitāramaikṣata) Ku.5.2; उदेति सविता ताम्रस्ताम्र एवास्तमेति च (udeti savitā tāmrastāmra evāstameti ca) K. P.7.
2) Name of Śiva.
3) Of Indra.
4) The Arka tree.
5) The creator of the world.
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1) A mother; तया दुहित्रा सुतरां सवित्री (tayā duhitrā sutarāṃ savitrī) (cakāśe) Ku.1.24.
2) A cow.
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1) A ray of light.
2) Name of a celebrated verse of the Rigveda, so called because it is addressed to the sun; it is also called गायत्री (gāyatrī); q.v. for further information.
3) The ceremony of investiture with the sacred thread; आ षोडशाद् ब्राह्मणस्य सावित्री नातिवर्तते (ā ṣoḍaśād brāhmaṇasya sāvitrī nātivartate) Ms.2.38.
4) Name of a wife of Brahman.
5) Name of Pārvatī.
6) Name of a wife of Kaśyapa.
7) An epithet of Sūryā (daughter of Savitṛ).
8) Name of the wife of Satyavat, king of Sālva. [She was the only daughter of king Aśvapati. She was so lovely that all the suitors that came to woo her were repulsed by her superior lustre, and thus though she reached a marriageable age, she found no one ready to espouse her. At last her father asked her to go and find out a husband of her own choice. She did so, and having made her selection returned to her father, and told him that she had chosen Satyavat, son of Dyumatsena, king of Sālva, who being driven out from his kingdom was then leading a hermit's life along with his wife. When Nārada, who happened to be present there, heard this, he told her as well as Aśvapati that he was very sorry to hear of the choice she had made, for though Satyavat was in every way worthy of her, yet he was fated to die in a year from that date, and in choosing him, therefore, Sāvitrī would be only choosing life-long widow-hood and misery. Her parents, therfore, naturally tried to dissuade her mind, but the high-souled maiden told them that her choice was unalterably fixed. Accordingly the marriage took place in due time, and Sāvitrī laid aside her jewels and rich apparel, and putting on the coarse garments of hermits, spent her time in serving her old father and mother-in-law. Still, though outwardly happy, she could not forget the words of Nārada, and as she counted, the days seemed to fly swifitly like moments, and the fated time, when her husband was to die, drew near. 'I have yet three days' thought she, 'and for these three days I shall observe a rigid fast.' She maintained her vow, and on the fourth day, when Satyavat was about to go to the woods to bring sacrificial fuel, she accompanied him. After having collected some fuel, Satyavat, being fatigued, sat down, and reposing his head on the bosom of Sāvitrī fell asleep. Just then Yama came down, snatched off his soul, and proceeded towards the south. Sāvitrī saw this and followed the god who told her to return as her husband's term of life was over. But the faithful wife besought Yama in so pathetic a strain that he granted her boon after boon, except the life of her husband, until, being quite subdued by her devotion to her husband and the force of her eloquent appeal, the god relented and restored even the spirit of Satyavat to her. Delighted she returned, and found her husband as if roused from a deep sleep, and informing him of all that had occurred, went to the hermitage of her father-in-law who soon reaped the fruits of the boons of Yama. Sāvitrī is regarded as the beau ideal or highest pattern of conjugal fidelity, and a young married woman is usually blessed by elderly females with the words जन्मसावित्री भव (janmasāvitrī bhava), thus placing before her the example of Sāvitrī for lifelong imitation.](Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 46 books and stories containing Savitri, Savitr, Savitṛ, Sāvitrī or Savitrī. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 11.225 < [Section XXIX - Description of the Expiatory Penances]
Verse 2.81 < [Section XVII - Rules of Study]
Verse 2.170 < [Section XXIX - Meaning of Term ‘Twice-born’]
Hiraṇyakeśin-gṛhya-sūtra (by Hiraṇyakeśin)
Gobhila-gṛhya-sūtra (by Gobhila)
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa V, adhyāya 1, brāhmaṇa 1 < [Fifth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa XI, adhyāya 5, brāhmaṇa 4 < [Eleventh Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa II, adhyāya 3, brāhmaṇa 4 < [Second Kāṇḍa]
Āpastamba-gṛhya-sūtra (by Āpastamba)