Karkotaka, Karkoṭaka, Kārkoṭaka: 26 definitions

Introduction:

Karkotaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक).—A terrible serpent. Birth. This serpent was born to Kaśyapa by his wife Kadrū. The curse. Once Karkoṭaka cheated the sage Nārada. The angry sage cursed him and said that he would have to remain without the power of movements in the forest till Nala came to rescue him. From that day Karkoṭaka lived in that forest, awaiting the arrival of Nala. Nala and Karkoṭaka. Once a wild fire spread all over the forest. Karkoṭaka whose power of movement was destroyed by Nārada’s curse, cried aloud, calling upon Nala to come and save him. It was at this time that Nala arrived at the spot after leaving Damayantī in the forest. Nala came to him, on hearing his cries. The serpent informed Nala about the story of Nārada’s curse and reducing himself to the size of a thumb sat on the ground. Nala removed him to a safe spot away from the fire. The serpent asked Nala to walk a few steps counting his footsteps. Nala did so and at the tenth step, Karkoṭaka stung him and his whole body was turned blue. Suddenly Karkoṭaka assumed his own original shape and spoke to Nala as follows:—"I have changed your appearance so that people may not be able to recognize you. Kali who is troubling you, still lives within you. It is he who is affected by my poison. You need not fear danger from poison any more. You will never be defeated in battle. Go and engage yourself as the charioteer of Ṛtuparṇa, King of Ayodhyā. You will teach him Aśvahṛdaya mantra. In return for it he will teach you Akṣahṛdaya mantra. Here are two garments which I give you. If you put them on, you will be restored to your own shape. May you be blessed again with a happy family life." After saying this, Karkoṭaka vanished. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 66). (See full article at Story of Karkoṭaka from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Kārkoṭaka (कार्कोटक).—A land beyond the eastern ocean. It is not far from there to the river Śītodā. The Udaya mountain is just across it. (Kathāsaritsāgara).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kārkoṭaka (कार्कोटक).—With the sun during the month of pauṣa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 10. 14.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.5, I.35, II.9.9, V.101.9/V.103, VIII.30.45) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Karkoṭaka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (itihasa)

Karkoṭaka is the name of a Serpent (sarpa) mentioned in the thirty-fifth chapter (verses 4-17) of the Ādiparva of the Mahābhārata.—Accordingly, Sauti, on being implored by Śaunaka to name all the serpents in the course of the sarpa-sattra, tells him that it is humanly impossible to give a complete list because of their sheer multiplicity; but would name the prominent ones in accordance with their significance [e.g., Karkoṭaka].

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Ayurveda glossary

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Kārkoṭaka (कार्कोटक) refers to “snakes with the chest marked with crescent moon” and represents a classification of Divine Snakes, as taught in the Nāganāman (“names of the Sarpas”) section of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—The first aspect of the Agadatantra is about the names of the sarpas and their features. The Kāśyapasaṃhitā verse IV.6-19 provide information on divine serpents [e.g., Kārkoṭaka], their characterstic features, origin and other details.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक) is a Sanskrit word referring to Momordica dioica (balsam pear), from the Cucurbitaceae family. Certain plant parts of Karkoṭaka are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”.

2) Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक) can also refer to Momordica cochinchinensis (gac), also from the Cucurbitaceae family. It is also known as Karkoṭa, Karkoṭī, Karkoṭikā and Karkaṭā.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक) refers to one of the eight primordial snakes, according to the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—The work classifies viṣa into two groups, viz. sthāvara and jaṅgama (animate and inanimate). This is followed by a brief description of the origin of snakes. A mythological story is narrated in this context. It is said that in the beginning, there were only 8 snakes, Ananta, Gulika, Vāsuki, Śaṅkhapālaka, Takṣaka, Mahāpadma, Padma and Karkoṭaka and that all other snakes originated from these.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

1) Kārkoṭaka (कार्कोटक) is the name of a city mentioned in the story of Vidūṣaka, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 18. Accordingly, Yogeśvarī came to Bhadrā and told to her in secret “... there is a city called Kārkoṭaka on the shore of the eastern sea, and beyond that there is a sanctifying stream named Śītodā, and after you cross that, there is a great mountain named Udaya, the land of the Siddhas, which the Vidyādharas may not invade...”. Their story was told by Udayana (king of Vatsa) in order to demonstratrate to his ministers that a brave man by himself without any support obtains prosperity.

2) Kārkoṭaka (कार्कोटक) is the name of a Nāga king, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 56. Accordingly, as Kārkoṭaka said to Nala: “... king, know that I am a king of the snakes named Kārkoṭaka, and I gave you the bite for your good; that you will come to learn; when great ones wish to live concealed, a deformed appearance of body furthers their plans”.

The story of Kārkoṭaka was narrated by Sumanas to queen Bandhumatī in order to demonstrate that “reunions do take place, even of the long separated”, in other words, that “great ones, after enduring separation, enjoy prosperity, and following the example of the sun, after suffering a decline, they rise again”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kārkoṭaka, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Kārkoṭaka (कार्कोटक) or Kārkoṭa refers to a type of vegetables fit for use in oblation offerings, according to verse 25.121b-125 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (p)

Kārkoṭaka (कार्कोटक) refers to one of the eight Divine Serpents visualized as the decorations (nāgābharaṇa) of Garuḍa, according to the second chapter of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā (Toxicology).—Accordingly, text text dictates that a Garuḍa-upāsaka, the aspirant, must meditate on Garuḍa of the following form—[...] He shines with his head adorned with a crown, bedecked with jewels, handsome in every limb, with tawny eyes and tremendous speed, shining like gold, long-armed, broad-shouldered and adorned with the eight divine serpents or Nāgas [e.g., Kārkoṭaka form his garland/necklace]. Kārkoṭaka form his garland/necklace.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Hinduism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Karkotaka (कर्कोटक): The naga who bit Nala at the request of Indra, transforming Nala into a twisted and ugly shape.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक) is the name of a Nāga mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Karkoṭaka).

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक) is the name of a Nāgarāja (“king of serpents”), according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “[...] On the Bharata continent, in northern Pāñcāla, at the feet of the Himalayas, In the land of Vāsuki, the seat of Upachandoha, in the holy land Āryāvarta, In the home of Karkoṭaka king of serpents, In the great lake Nāgavāsa, Site of Śrī Svayambhū Caitya, inhabited by Śrī Guyeśvarī Prajñāpāramita, In the land of the Nepal mandala, in the form of the Śrī Saṃvara mandala, In the same land of Sudurjayā, [...]”.,

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक) refers to a mountain of the Indras of the Aṇuvelādhārins in the Lavaṇoda ocean surrounding Jambūdvīpa which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“Next, surrounding Jambūdvīpa, and twice as wide, is the ocean named Lavaṇoda. [...] Karkoṭaka, Kārdamaka, Kailāśa, and Aruṇaprabha, made of all jewels, are the mountains of the Indras of the Aṇuvelādhārins. The gods Karkoṭaka, Vidyujjihva, Kailāśa, and Aruṇaprabha, respectively, live always on these”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Biology glossary
Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Karkotaka in India is the name of a plant defined with Saccharum officinarum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Saccharum hybridum hort. ex R.M. Grey (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Flore des Antilles (1808)
· Öfversigt af Förhandlingar: Kongl. Svenska VetenskapsAkademien (1855)
· Mémoires de l’Institut Égyptien (1901)
· Grasses of Burma (1960)
· Feddes Repertorium (1992)
· Acta Literaria Universitatis Hafniensis (1778)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Karkotaka, for example chemical composition, health benefits, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, side effects, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karkōṭaka (कर्कोटक).—m (S) In legendary history. A certain monstrous black serpent, having the strength of 9000 elephants, and exceedingly venomous. 2 Hence applied as a designation to the kaṛhāḍā Brahmans, from the conceit that they harbour malign intentions towards the Brahmans gen. 3 Perfidious, rancorous, vengeful.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक).—

1) One of the eight principal cobras. [When king Nala, being persecuted by Kali, was made to undergo many hardships, Karkoṭa, who was once saved by him from fire, so deformed him that none might recognise him during his days of adversity.]

2) The sugar-cane.

3) The बिल्व (bilva) tree.

Derivable forms: karkoṭakaḥ (कर्कोटकः).

See also (synonyms): karkoṭa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A plant, (Ægle marmelos:) see mālūra. 2. A Naga or serpent: see the preceding. 3. A kind of gourd, (Momordica charantia:) in this sense; also karkoṭikā. 5. Sugar-cane.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक).—I. m. 1. The name of a Nāga or snake, [Nala] 14, 4. 2. A plant, Momordica mixta, [Suśruta] 1, 137, 15. Ii. n. Its fruit, 2, 343, 1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक).—[masculine] [Name] of [several] plants; [plural] = [preceding] [plural]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक):—[from karkoṭa] m. Momordica Mixta, [Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] Aegle Marmelos, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] the sugar-cane, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a Nāga, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] Name of a people, [Mahābhārata viii, 2066]

6) [from karkoṭa] n. the fruit of Momordica Mixta, [Suśruta i, 222, 1.]

7) Kārkoṭaka (कार्कोटक):—[from kārkoṭa] m. idem, [ib.]

8) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a town, [ib.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A plant (Ægle marmelos); a serpent; a gourd.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karkoṭaka (कर्कोटक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kakkoḍaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karkotaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Karkotaka in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karkōṭaka (ಕರ್ಕೋಟಕ):—[noun] = ಕರ್ಕೋಟ - [karkota -] 1.

--- OR ---

Kārkōṭaka (ಕಾರ್ಕೋಟಕ):—[adjective] of or relating to ಕರ್ಕೋಟ, [karkota,] a deadly poisonous snake.

--- OR ---

Kārkōṭaka (ಕಾರ್ಕೋಟಕ):—

1) [noun] the venom of the serpent ಕರ್ಕೋಟ [karkota].

2) [noun] (fig.) any unpallatable, bittermost taste.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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