Surasa, Surasā, Su-rasa: 18 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Surasa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Surasā (सुरसा) is another name for Tulasī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Ocimum tenuiflorum (holy basil), from the Lamiaceae family. It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 10.148-149), which is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.

2) Surasa (सुरस, “sweet”) is a synonym for Sinduvāra, which is a Sanskrit name for a medicinal plant (either Vitex Negundo or Vitex trifolia). It is a technical term used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. This synonym was identified by Amarasiṃha in his Amarakośa (a Sanskrit botanical thesaurus from the 4th century).

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Surasā (सुरसा) is another name for Miśreyā, an unidentified medicinal plant possibly identified with Foeniculum vulgare (synonym Foeniculum capillaceum) or “fennel”, from the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) or “carrot family” of flowering plants, according to verse 4.14-19 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Also see Śatāhvā. Together with the names Surasā and Miśreyā, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Surasā (सुरसा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Mahāśatāvarī, a medicinal plant identified with either Asparagus gonocladus Baker. or Asparagus sarmentosus Linn., both from the Asparagaceae family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.120-123.  Notes: Mahāśatāvarī is the bigger variety of Śatāvarī, identified with Asparagus racemosus Willed. (or “buttermilk root”). Together with the names Surasā and Mahāśatāvarī, there are a total of eleven Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Surasā (सुरसा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Surasā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Surasā (सुरसा) is the name of a river mentioned in a list of rivers, flowing from the five great mountains (Śailavarṇa, Mālākhya, Korajaska, Triparṇa and Nīla), according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 82. Those who drink the waters of these rivers live for ten thousand years and become devotees of Rudra and Umā.

2) Surasā (सुरसा).—Name of a river originating from Ṛkṣa, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers.

Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

One of the five mountains situated near Bhadrāśva, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 82. The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, instructions for religious ceremonies and a whole range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The original text is said to have been composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Surasā (सुरसा).—Mother of nāgas (serpents). Birth. Ten daughters were born to Kaśyapaprajāpati by his wife Krodhavaśā, daughter of Dakṣa including Surasā. From Surasā were born all the nāgas. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Canto 14).

Nāgas and Uragas are two sects of serpents. From Surasā were born Nāgas and from Kadrū, Uragas. (Vālmiki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Canto 14, Verse 28).

Surasā was born from the wrath of Krodhavaśā and the former had three daughters called Analā, Ruhā and Vīrudhā. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 61). Obstructed the passage of Hanūmān. To test whether Hanūmān, who jumped into Laṅkā to seek out Sītā, possessed power enough for the purpose, Devagandharvas backoned Surasā to them and told her as follows: "You mother of nāgas, do please assume a terrible form like a big mountain and appear before Hanūmān and obstruct his passage. As soon as she heard the injunction, she jumped before Hanūmān and attempted to devour him. In spite of Hanūmān’s earnest pleadings she stood before him with her mouth opened wide. Hanūmān then, by his power of illusion, grew ten yojanas in size. Then Surasā opened her mouth twenty yojanas wide. Hanūmān then grew thirty yojanas in size and Surasā opened her mouth forty yojanas wide. In this competition ultimately when Surasā opened her mouth hundred yojanas wide, Hanūmān reduced his size to that of a finger, entered Surasā’s mouth and came out through her ear. Surasā was pleased and blessed Hanūmān. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Sundara Kāṇḍa, Canto 1). Other information.

(i) Surasā lives in the court of Brahmā worshipping him. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 39).

(ii) Rohiṇī, mother of Balabhadrarāma, was an incarnation of Surasā. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 4). (See full article at Story of Surasā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Surasā (सुरसा).—A deva woman who danced at the birthday celebration of Arjuna. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 63).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Surasa (सुरस).—Mt. in India.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 21; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 90.

1b) A son of Śuki and Garuḍa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 450.

1c) A son of Raucya Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 104; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 109.

1d) A mountain west of the Śitoda.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 27.

2a) Surasā (सुरसा).—(River) in Bhārata varṣa, from the Ṛkṣa hill; (from the Vindhyas, Viṣṇu-purāṇa).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 18; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 29; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 11.

2b) A daughter of Dakṣa and one of the 13 wives of Kaśyapa; mother of Yātudhānas and 1000 snakes, of which 26 are chiefs; all these had sons and grandsons most of which were killed in the sacrifice of Janamejaya;1 in the chariot of Tripurāri.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 25, 28; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 1, 37-8, 42; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 54; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 124; 21. 19.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 133. 27; 146. 18.

2c) An Apsaras.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 7.

2d) A daughter of Krodhavaśa (Krodhā, vāyu-purāṇa.) and wife of Pulaha; mother of sarpas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 173, 443; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 205.

2e) A daughter of Sāraṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 168; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 166.

2f) A daughter of Anāyuṣā, gave birth to vyādhis.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 59.

2g) A mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 19.

2h) A R. of the Bhadra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 43. 25.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Surasa (सुरस) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.8, I.57, I.61.56) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Surasa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Surasā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. ).

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Surasā (सुरसा) refers to one of thirteen of Dakṣa’s sixty daughters given to Kaśyapa in marriage, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Dakṣa gets married to Asikni, the daughter of Prajāpati Viraṇa and begot sixty daughters. [He gave thirteen daughters to Kaśyapa]. Kaśyapa’s thirteen wives are Aditi, Diti, Danu, Ariṣṭā, Surasā, Svadhā, Surabhi, Vinatā, Tamrā, Krodhavasā, Irā and Muni. Surasā gave birth to the birds (khecara).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Surasā (सुरसा) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Surasā).

2) Surasā (सुरसा) is also the name of a Yakṣiṇī mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

surasa (सुरस).—a (S su Good, rasa Juice.) Tasty, spirited, savory, sapid, well-flavored, lit. fig.

--- OR ---

surasā (सुरसा).—m A double-pointed nail, a nail tapering from the middle towards both extremities, a toggel.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

surasa (सुरस).—a Tasty, savoury, sapid.

--- OR ---

surasā (सुरसा).—m A double-pointed nail, a toggel.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Surasa (सुरस).—a. well-flavoured, juicy, savoury.

2) sweet.

3) elegant (as a composition).

-saḥ, -sā the plant सिन्धुवार (sindhuvāra).

- Name of Durgā.

-sā, -sam the sacred basil. (-sam) 1 gum-myrrh.

Surasa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and rasa (रस).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Surasa (सुरस).—mfn.

(-saḥ-sā-saṃ) 1. Sweet. 2. Well-flavoured, sapid, juicy. 3. Elegant, (as a composition.) m.

(-saḥ) A plant, (Vitex trifolia.) nf.

(-saṃ-sā) Holy-basil. f.

(-sā) 1. The mother of the Nagas. 2. A plant, commonly Rasna, a kind of Ophiorrhiza, (Ophiorrhiza mangos.) 3. A sort of fennel, (Anethum sowa.) 4. The moon-plant, (Asclepias acida.) 5. A name of Durga. 6. A species of the Atidhriti-metre. n.

(-saṃ) 1. Gum-myrrh. 2. Cassia bark. 3. Fragrant grass. E. su excellent, rasa juice or flavour.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Surasa (सुरस).—I. adj. 1. well-flavoured. 2. sweet. 3. elegant. Ii. m. a plant, Vitex trifolia. Iii. f. , and n. 1. holy basil. 2. the name of several plants. Iv. f. , Durgā.

Surasa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and rasa (रस).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Surasa (सुरस).—[adjective] well-flavoured, juicy, savoury, sweet, lovely; [feminine] ā [Name] of a daughter of Dakṣa etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Surasa (सुरस):—[=su-rasa] [from su > su-yaj] a mf(ā)n. rich in water, [Bhāminī-vilāsa]

2) [v.s. ...] well-flavoured, juicy, sapid, savoury, [Rāmāyaṇa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Vāsavadattā]

3) [v.s. ...] sweet, lovely, charming, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Bhāminī-vilāsa]

4) [v.s. ...] elegant (as composition), [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] m. Vitex Negundo, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Andropogon Schonanthus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] the resin of Gossampinus Rumphii, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] mfn. holy basil, [Harṣacarita; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Surasā (सुरसा):—[=su-rasā] [from su-rasa > su > su-yaj] f. Name of various plants (Anethum Panmori; Vitex Negundo; a kind of jasmine; = rāsnā etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]

13) [v.s. ...] (in music) a [particular] Rāgiṇī, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Dakṣa (wife of Kaśyapa and mother of the Nāgas), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

16) [v.s. ...] of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

17) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Raudrāśva, [Harivaṃśa]

18) [v.s. ...] of a river, [Purāṇa]

19) Surasa (सुरस):—[=su-rasa] [from su > su-yaj] n. (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) resin

20) [v.s. ...] fragrant grass

21) [v.s. ...] gum-myrrh

22) [v.s. ...] Cassia bark

23) [=su-rasa] b etc. See p. 1232, col. 2.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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