Uttama, Uttamā: 28 definitions
Uttama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Uttamā (उत्तमा):—One of the sixty-eight Rasauṣadhi, very powerful drugs known to be useful in alchemical processes related to mercury (rasa), according to Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara (chapter 9).
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Uttama (उत्तम) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Uttama) various roles suitable to them.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Purāṇas
Uttama (उत्तम, “superioir”) refers to a classifications of maṇḍapa (halls attached to the temple), according to the Matsya-purāṇa (verses 270.1-30). The Matsyapurāṇa is one of the eighteen major purāṇas dating from the 1st-millennium BCE.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Uttama (उत्तम).—A King born in the dynasty of Svāyambhuva Manu who had two famous sons, of whom Priyavrata married Surūpā and Barhiṣmatī, two daughters of Viśvakarmā. Priyavrata begot three children, Uttama Tāmasa and Raivata by his wife Barhiṣmatī. These three sons attained exceptional prowess and became lords of the ages of Manu (Manvantarādhipatis). Priyavrata, with his children ruled the country in all happiness and prosperity for ten crores of years. (Devī Bhāgavata, 8th Skandha). Uttānapāda, the second son of Svāyambhuvamanu begot one son, Uttama by his wife Suruci and another son Dhruva by his wife Sunīti. (See under Dhruva). (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 11).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Uttama (उत्तम).—A favourite son of Suruci and Uttānapāda. Was embraced by Dhruva after his return from tapas. It was predicted that he would be killed by an Yakṣa in a hunting expedition, and that his mother going in search of him would die by falling into a forest fire. So it happened.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 8. 9 & 19; 9. 23 & 48; 10. 3; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 11. 2.
1b) A son of Priyavrata, and a manvantaraadhipati. He was Manu, the third. His sons were Pavana and others. In his epoch Pramada and other sons of Vasiṣṭha were the seven sages. The gods were Satyas, Vedaśrutas and Bhadras. Satyajit was Indra.1 According to Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa Suśānti was Indra; served as calf to milk the earth in that epoch.2
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 1. 28; VIII. 1. 23-24; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 6, 24.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 3 & 25, 37 & 41; 37. 16; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 13-15.
1c) One of the seven hills of Śālmalidvīpa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 36.
1d) The twenty-first Vedavyāsa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 122.
1e) A Bhārgava, and a sage of the Cākṣuṣa epoch.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 77.
1f) The father of Satyas.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 36.
1g) A sage of the Cākṣuṣa epoch.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 28.
1) Uttama (उत्तम) or Uttamamanvantara refers to the one of the fourteen Manvantaras, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, “In the Uttama Manvantara the Sudhāmās are the Gods having twelve groups like Pratardana, Śiva, Satya, Vaśavarti etc. Sudānti was the Indra. Raja, Gotra, Ardhabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapā and Śukra are the Seven sages.
2) Uttama (उत्तम) also refers to one of the seven sages (saptarṣi) in the Cākṣuṣamanvantara.—Accordingly, “In cākṣuṣamanvantara, Manojava was the Indra, Bhāva and others who were the progeny of Āyu were said to be the deities. The seven sages were Sudhāmā, Virajā, Haviṣmān, Uttama, Budha, Atri and Sahiṣṇu”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Uttama (उत्तम).—The best,the highest,the last:
2) Uttama.—The last letter of the consonantclasses, the nasal; cf, A.Pr.II.4.14; R.Pr.IV.3; cf. also अनुत्तम (anuttama) meaning non-nasal;
3) Uttama.—The उत्तमपुरुष (uttamapuruṣa) or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes मि, वस् (mi, vas) and मस् (mas) and their substitutes, cf. P.I.4.107.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas
Uttama (उत्तम) refers to a classification of pūjā (ritualistic worship) according to the Kāraṇāgama.—The Āgamas have several different classifications of nityapūjā (daily worship), based on the number of offerings, frequency, time duration and so on. The nomenclature also varies between Āgamas. The essence however is similar. Uttama is mentioned in the Kāraṇāgama (30.405) as “the pūjā that ends with saukhya”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)
Uttama (उत्तम) refers to a type of tone (coming from the head), which is used in chanting hyms.—Another [commentator] distinguishes three high tones, the kruṣṭa (also called tāra or krauñca), the madhyama, and the mandra, and assigns the madhyama to the Sāmidhenī hymns. The mandra notes come from the chest, the madhyama notes from the throat, the uttama notes from the head.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Uttama (उत्तम) refers to:—That which is topmost. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Uttama - Author of the Balavatara tika and the Lingatthavivaranatika. He was a native of Pagan. Gv.63, 73; see also Bode, op. cit., 22 and n.1.
2. Uttama - The name given to a cetiya connected with Sikhi Buddha. Asanatthavika Thera, in a previous birth, came across this cetiya while wandering in the forest and did obeisance to it. Ap.i.255.
3. Uttama - A general of Manabharana. He was defeated at Vacavataka by Rakkha. Cv.lxx.295.
-- or --
1. Uttama - A theri. She was born in a bankers family in Savatthi and, having heard Patacara preach, entered the Order. She could not attain the climax of her insight, till Patacara, seeing the state of her mind, gave her admonition. Uttama thereupon became an arahant (Thig.vv.42-4; ThigA.46ff).
According to the Apadana (quoted in ThigA.) she joined the Order at the age of seven and attained arahantship within a fortnight.
In the time of Vipassi Buddha she had been a slave girl in a house in Bandhumati. At that time King Bandhuma (Vipassis father) kept fast days, gave alms and attended sermons, and the people followed his pious example. The slave girl joined in these pious acts, and on account of her thoroughness in the observance of fast days, she was, after death, reborn in Tavatimsa. She became the chief queen of the king of the devas sixty four times, and she was a Cakkavattis wife in sixty three births.
She is evidently identical with Ekuposathika of the Apadana. Ap.ii.522f.
2. Uttama - A theri. She was the daughter of an eminent Brahmin of Kosala. Having heard the Buddha preach during one of his tours, she left the world and soon won arahantship. She, too, had been a slave girl in Bandhumati in Vipassis time. One day, seeing an arahant seeking alms, she gladly offered him cakes (Thig.vv.45-7; ThigA.49f).
She is probably identical with Modakadayika of the Apadana (ii.524f).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Uttama (उत्तम) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Uttama).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Uttama (उत्तम, “best”) or Utkṛṣṭa refers to a classification of a śrāvaka (laymen), based on his progress through the pratimās, according to Āśādhara. Uttama refers to the tenth and eleventh pratimās, also known as a Bhikṣuka.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
Uttama (“best”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Uttama) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
uttama : (adj.) highest; best; noble; excellent.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Uttama, (adj.) (superl. of ud°, to which compar. is uttara. See etym. under ud°) “ut-most”, highest, greatest, best Sn. 1054 (dhammaṃ uttamaṃ the highest ideal = Nibbāna, for which seṭṭhan Sn. 1064; cp. Nd2 317); Dh. 56; Nd1 211; Nd2 502 (in paraphrase of mahā combd. with pavara); KhA 124; DhA. I, 430: PvA. 1, 50.—dum-uttama a splendid tree Vv 393; nar° the best of men Sn. 1021 (= narāsabha of 996); pur° the most magnificent town Sn. 1012; puris° the noblest man Th. 1, 629, 1084; nt. uttamaṃ the highest ideal, i.e. Arahantship J. I, 96.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
uttama (उत्तम).—a (S) Excellent, very good, best. 2 First, chief, principal.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
uttama (उत्तम).—a Excellent, best; chief, first.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Uttama (उत्तम).—a. [ud-tamap]
1) Best, excellent (oft. in comp.); उत्तमे शिखरे देवी (uttame śikhare devī) Mahānār. Up.15.5. स उत्तमः पुरुषः (sa uttamaḥ puruṣaḥ) Ch. Up.8.12.3. उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः (uttamaḥ puruṣastvanyaḥ) Bg.15.17. द्विजोत्तमः (dvijottamaḥ) the best of Brāhmaṇas; so सुर°, नर° (sura°, nara°) &c.; प्रायेणाधममध्यमोत्तमगुणः संसर्गतो जायते (prāyeṇādhamamadhyamottamaguṇaḥ saṃsargato jāyate) Bh.2.67.
2) Foremost, uppermost, highest (opp. hīna, jaghanya).
3) Most elevated, chief, principal.
4) Greatest, first; स गच्छत्युत्तमस्थानम् (sa gacchatyuttamasthānam) Ms.2.249.
-maḥ 1 Name of Viṣṇu.
2) The third person (= first person according to English phraseology). (pl.) Name of a people; Mb.
-mā 1 An excellent woman.
2) A kind of pustule or pimple.
3) The plant Asclepias Rosea Roxb. (dugdhikā; Mar. bhuī- āṃvaḷī, aḷitā).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Uttama (उत्तम).—(1) (nt. ?), top part (of a building), roof or top story: Divyāvadāna 321.17 (yuvatayo) rodanti veśmottame; (2) (m. or nt.; = Pali id., see [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] s.v. kāsika), upper garment: kāśikottama-dhāriṇaḥ (mss. °vāriṇaḥ) Mahāvastu i.296.4. In Pali also, apparently, only after kāsika; (3) m., name of a nāga king: Mahā-Māyūrī 247.27.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Chief, principal, first, best. 2. Greatest, highest. m.
(-maḥ) 1. The third Menu, son of Priyavrata. 2. The best kind of lover or hero. f.
(-mā) 1. An excellent woman: one who is handsome, healthy, and affectionate. 4. A plant, (Asclepias rosea.) E. ut much, tam to desire, affix ac.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Uttama (उत्तम).—i. e. ud + tama, I. adj., f. mā. 1. Supreme,
Uttama (उत्तम).—([superlative]) upmost, highest, first or best of (—°); chief, excellent; extreme, last; better than, superior to ([ablative]); [masculine] the first person ([grammar]).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Uttama (उत्तम):—[=ut-tama] mfn. (superlative [from] 1. ud; opposed to avama, adhama, etc.; cf. an-uttama), uppermost, highest, chief
2) [v.s. ...] most elevated, principal
3) [v.s. ...] best, excellent, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Pañcatantra] etc. (often ifc., e.g. dvijottama, best of the twice-born id est. a Brāhman, [Manu-smṛti])
4) [v.s. ...] first, greatest
5) [v.s. ...] the highest (tone), [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
6) [v.s. ...] the most removed or last in place or order or time, [Ṛg-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.
7) [=ut-tama] m. the last person (= in European grammars the first person), [Pāṇini; Kātyāyana; Kāśikā-vṛtti] etc.
8) [v.s. ...] Name of a brother of Dhruva (son of Uttāna-pāda and nephew of Priya-vrata), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
9) [v.s. ...] of a son of Priya-vrata and third Manu
10) [v.s. ...] of the twenty-first Vyāsa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
11) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] Name of people, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa; Mahābhārata]
12) Uttamā (उत्तमा):—[=ut-tamā] [from ut-tama] f. a kind of Piḍakā or pustule, [Suśruta]
13) [v.s. ...] the plant Oxystelma Esculentum (Asclepias Rosea Roxb.), [Suśruta]
14) [v.s. ...] an excellent woman (one who is handsome, healthy, and affectionate), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Uttama (उत्तम):—[utta+ma] (maḥ-mā-maṃ) a. Chief.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
--- OR ---
1) a) uttamottama der vorzüglichste unter den vorzüglichen [WEBER, Rāmatāpanīya Upaniṣad 355.] [PRASAṄGĀBH. 13,a.] atyuttamā ganz vorzüglich [Kathāsaritsāgara 87, 4.] — b) trīṇi mandraṃ madhyamamuttamaṃ ca sthānānyāhuḥ saptayamāni vācaḥ [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 13, 17.] [BENFEY] fasst uttamam [Mahābhārata 5, 7109] als adv. in der Bed. very loudly, aber es ist als acc. mit śaṅkhapravaram zu verbinden und gehört zu a). — c) [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 1, 25. 5, 21.] Bez. der Nasale [4, 11] (so zu lesen). [Prātiśākhya zur Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 1, 85. 89. 4, 113. 7, 11] (dieses die richtigen Zahlen). [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda 1, 6. 11. 99. 2, 5. 20.] —
2) b) älterer Bruder Dhruva's [Oxforder Handschriften 69,b,7.] ein Muni [80,a,14.] —
4) n. = uttamāṅga Kopf in mṛgottama (s. d.) = mṛgaśiras .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. (f. ā) — a) der höchste , oberste. — b) die höchste Stelle einnehmend , der vorzüglichste , trefflichste , beste , summus. Am Ende eines Comp. der trefflichste unter. — c) höher stehend , vorzüglicher als (Abl.). — d) der höchste (vom Tone). — e) der äusserste , letzte (im Raume , in der Reihenfolge , in der Zeit). —
2) m. — a) die erste Person [241,27,29.] — b) der letzte Laut in einem Varga , ein Nasal. — c) Nomen proprium — α) eines Bruders des Dhruva , eines Vyāsa , eines Manu und eines Ṛṣi unter dem 6ten Manu ([Viṣṇupurāṇa 3,1,28]). — β) Pl. eines Volkes [Mahābhārata 6,9,41.] — γ) eines Berges [Indische studien von Weber 10,281.] —
3) f. ā — a) eine Art Pustel. — b) Oxystelma_esculentum R._Br. — c) die drei Myrobalanen [Bhāvaprakāśa 3,98.] — d) die erste Nacht im Karmamasa [Indische studien von Weber 10,296.] —
4) n. = uttamāṅga Kopf , in mṛgottama.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+68): Uttama-charitra-kathanaka, Uttama-dani, Uttama-ganda-mada, Uttama-gosasa, Uttamabala, Uttamabhagavata, Uttamabhakti, Uttamabhava, Uttamacaritra, Uttamadarshana, Uttamadashatala, Uttamadevi, Uttamadevi Vihara, Uttamadhama, Uttamadhamamadhyama, Uttamadhikari, Uttamadravya, Uttamagandhadhya, Uttamagati, Uttamagaya.
Ends with (+36): Adhamottama, Amarottama, Anuttama, Ati-uttama, Atyuttama, Auttama, Bhuttama, Brahmuttama, Dhanyottama, Dipaduttama, Dumuttama, Dvijottama, Ekadashottama, Gandhottama, Guruttama, Hayottama, Jaluttama, Januttama, Jinavaruttama, Ketuttama.
Full-text (+440): Uttamarna, Uttamanga, Uttamalabha, Anuttama, Uttamarnin, Uttamata, Uttamarnika, Uttamashlokatirtha, Uttamaha, Uttamasamgraha, Dhanyottama, Uttamaphalini, Uttamavid, Uttamacaritra, Uttamarddhya, Uttamashloka, Uttamaujas, Uttamarani, Uttamapurusha, Uttamardhya.
Search found 59 books and stories containing Uttama, Uttamā, Ut-tama, Ut-tamā; (plurals include: Uttamas, Uttamās, tamas, tamās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 4.9.2 < [Part 9 - Incomplete Expression of Mellows (rasābhāsa)]
Verse 4.9.40 < [Part 9 - Incomplete Expression of Mellows (rasābhāsa)]
Verse 2.4.38 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.1.167 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya (renunciation)]
Verse 2.4.208-209 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Verse 2.1.178 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya (renunciation)]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 7.16 < [Chapter 7 - Vijñāna-Yoga (Yoga through Realization of Transcendental Knowledge)]
Verse 18.54 < [Chapter 18 - Mokṣa-yoga (the Yoga of Liberation)]
Verse 1.7 < [Chapter 1 - Sainya-Darśana (Observing the Armies)]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Tenneri < [Uttama Chola]
Temples in Kalidindi < [Chapter IV - Temples of Rajendra I’s Time]
Temples in Pachchil Amalisvaram (Gopurapatti) < [Aditya I]
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Kilappaluvur < [Chapter II - Temples of Parantaka I’s Time]
Temples in Tirumalpuram (Tirumarpperu) < [Chapter II - Temples of Parantaka I’s Time]
Temples in Tirumalpuram and Govindapadi (12th to 41st years) < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]