Surupa, Surūpā, Surūpa, Su-rupa: 25 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Surupa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Surūpā (सुरूपा, “wise, learned”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ सुरूपायै नमः
oṃ surūpāyai namaḥ.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Surūpā (सुरूपा) is another name for Bhāraṅgī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Clerodendrum serratum (beetle killer). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 5.149-150), which is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Surūpā (सुरूपा) is another name for Śāliparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Desmodium gangeticum (sal leaved desmodium), from the Fabaceae or “legume” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.17-20 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Surūpā and Śāliparṇī, there are a total of twenty-nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Surūpā (सुरूपा).—A daughter of Viśvakarman. Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu married Surūpā and Barhiṣmatī, the beautiful daughters of Viśvakarman. Surūpā had ten sons. They had a younger sister called Ūrjasvatī. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Surūpa (सुरूप) refers to the “beautiful embodied form” (viz., of the sacrifice), as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.27. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] once a great sacrifice was started by Dakṣa, [...] In that altar, sacrifice itself was present in its beautiful embodied form (surūpa). The excellent sages became the holders of the Vedas. The sacrificial fire evinced its diverse forms in a thousand ways, during the sacrificial festivities, in order to receive the sacrificial offerings of Dakṣa”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Surūpa (सुरूप).—A son of Śukī and Garuḍa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 450.

1b) An Asura in the sabhā of Hiraṇyakaśipu.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 161. 80.

1c) A son of Maṇivara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 161.

1d) The adopted son of Asamanjasa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 141.

1e) An Andhaka.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa 96. 141.

1f) A group of gods of Tāmasa Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 43.

2a) Surūpā (सुरूपा).—A daughter of Marīci and wife of Atharvan Angīras; had ten sons.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 102; Matsya-purāṇa 196. 1; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 98, 105.

2b) A daughter of Rohiṇī; mother of two sons.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 74-5.

2c) A kala giving energy to Agni.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 83.

2d) A daughter of Vṛkadevī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 180.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Surūpa (सुरूप) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.9.14, XIV.8.12, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Surūpa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Surūpa (सुरूप) is the deity to be worshipped in the month Caitra for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In Caitra, the tooth-brush is that of jambu-wood. The food taken is karpura. The deity to be worshipped is Surūpa. The flowers used in worship are arkapatra. The naivedya offerings is kaṃsara. The result  accrued equals naramedha.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Surūpa (सुरूप) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Surūpa (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour oí his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a goat. A flower is in his right band and a viṇa is in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Surūpa) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Surūpa (सुरूप) or Kurūpa is the name of a king of Benares according to the Avadānaśataka and Dvāviṃśatyavadāna mentioned in a note on the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIX).—“The king of Benares, Surūpa (variant Kurūpa) offered his son, his wife and his own body as food to Śakra transformed into a Yakṣa, in order to hear the stanza (...)”. According to the Mahāvastu II, the same (?) Surūpa, head of a herd of antelope, gave up his own body to Śakra disguised as a hunter for the price of the gāthā (...).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Surūpā (सुरूपा) is the name of a Yakṣiṇī mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Surūpā).

Source: De Gruyter: A Fragment of the Vajrāmṛtamahātantra

Surūpā (सुरूपा) refers to one of the eight wisdoms (vidyās) described in the ‘śrī-amṛtakuṇḍalin-utpatti’ chapter of the 9th-century Vajrāmṛtatantra or Vajrāmṛtamahātantra: one of the main and earliest Buddhist Yoginītantras. Chapter 9 begins with the visualisation of Amṛtakuṇḍalin [...] The practitioner should visualize a sword in his hand; afterwards, he should visualize the eight Wisdoms [viz., Surūpā] along with the door-guardians; eventually he should project the eight Wisdoms into the petals.

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Surūpā (सुरूपा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Surūpa forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Surūpā] and Vīras are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Surūpa (सुरूप) refers to a class of bhūta deities according to the Śvetāmbara tradition of Jainism, while Digambara does not recognize this class. The bhūtas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas).

The deities such as the Surūpas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

2) Surūpa (सुरूप) is the wife of Yaśasvin aka Yaśomān, who is a kulakara (law-giver) according to Śvetāmbara sources, while Digambara names his wife as Kāntamālā. The kulakaras (similair to the manus of the Brahmanical tradition) figure as important characters protecting and guiding humanity towards prosperity during ancient times of distress, whenever the kalpavṛkṣa (wishing tree) failed to provide the proper service.

These law-givers and their wifes (e.g., Surūpā) are listed in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Surūpā (सुरूपा) is the daughter of Candrakāntā and Cakṣuṣmat, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly,

“[...] the last period of the life of Cakṣuṣmat and Candrakāntā having arrived, twins Yaśasvin and Surūpā were born.Having the (same) joints, figure and color (as their parents), a little shorter lived, they gradually attained growth, like strength and intellect. Always going together, seven hundred and fifty bows tall, the two had the appearance of pillars of an arch.

[...] When their lives were almost ended, Yaśasvin and Surūpā had a girl and boy together like knowledge and humility. They named the son, as bright as the moon, Abhicandra, and the daughter who resembled the priyaṅgu-creeper, Pratirūpā. [...] When his life was completed, Yaśasvin was born among the Abdhikumāras; and at the same time Surūpā among the Nāgakumāras”.

2) Surūpā (सुरूपा) also refers to one of the four Dikkumārīs coming from Rucakadvīpa, according the same chapter.

Accordingly,

“[...] Four Dikkumārīs [viz., Surūpā] came from Rucakadvīpa. They cut the Lord’s navel-cord, leaving three inches, made a hole in the ground, and deposited it there. They filled the hole with diamonds and jewels quickly, and made a platform covered with durvā-grass over it. To the east, south and north of the Lord’s birth-house, they created three houses of plantain like houses of Śrī. In each one of them, they created an extensive four-room apartment adorned with a lion-throne, resembling their own palaces. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

surūpa : (adj.) handsome.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

surūpa (सुरूप).—a S Of good-looking countenance or figure; beautiful, handsome, pretty.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

surūpa (सुरूप).—a Handsome, beautiful.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Surūpa (सुरूप).—a.

1) well-formed, handsome, lovely; सुरूपा कन्या (surūpā kanyā).

2) wise, learned.

-paḥ an epithet of Śiva.

Surūpa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and rūpa (रूप).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Surūpa (सुरूप).—(1) name of a legendary king who gave son, wife, and himself to be eaten by an ogre in exchange for religious instruction: Mahāvastu i.92.13 (briefly told); Avadāna-śataka i.188.1 ff. (at length; the demon is Śakra in disguise); (2) name of another legendary king, with similar history: Mahāvastu i.94.2; (3) name of a deer (the Bodhisattva) in the Surūpasya mṛga- rājño Jātakam (colophon, ii.257.5): Mahāvastu ii.255.11 ff.; (4) name of a yakṣa(?): Samādhirājasūtra p. 43 line 21.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Surūpa (सुरूप).—mfn.

(-paḥ-pā or -pī-paṃ) 1. Handsome, well-formed. 2. Wise, learned. E. su excellent, and rupa form.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Surūpa (सुरूप).—[adjective] handsome-figured, beautiful. Abstr. † [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Surūpa (सुरूप):—[=su-rūpa] [from su > su-yaj] mf(ā)n. well-formed, handsome, beautiful, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] wise, learned, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] m. Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

4) [v.s. ...] of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) a class of deities under Manu Tāmasa, [Purāṇa]

6) Surūpā (सुरूपा):—[=su-rūpā] [from su-rūpa > su > su-yaj] f. Name of various plants (Glycine Debilis; Jasminum Sambac etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] of an Apsaras, [Harivaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] of the daughter of a serpent-demon, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

9) [v.s. ...] of a mythical cow, [Mahābhārata]

10) Surūpa (सुरूप):—[=su-rūpa] [from su > su-yaj] n. the mulberry tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of two Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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