Surupa, aka: Su-rupa, Surūpā, Surūpa; 12 Definition(s)

Introduction

Surupa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[Surupa in Shaktism glossaries]

Surūpā (सुरूपा, “wise, learned”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ सुरूपायै नमः
oṃ surūpāyai namaḥ.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[Surupa in Ayurveda glossaries]

Surūpā (सुरूपा) is another name for Bhāraṅgī, which is a Sanskrit word referring to Clerodendrum serratum (beetle killer). It is classified as a medicinal plant in the system of Āyurveda (science of Indian medicine) and is used throughout literature such as the Suśrutasaṃhita and the Carakasaṃhitā. The synonym was identified in the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 5.149-150), which is a 13th-century medicinal thesaurus.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana

[Surupa in Purana glossaries]

Surūpā (सुरूपा).—A daughter of Viśvakarman. Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu married Surūpā and Barhiṣmatī, the beautiful daughters of Viśvakarman. Surūpā had ten sons. They had a younger sister called Ūrjasvatī. (Devī Bhāgavata, Skandha 8).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Surūpa (सुरूप).—A son of Śukī and Garuḍa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 450.

1b) An Asura in the sabhā of Hiraṇyakaśipu.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 161. 80.

1c) A son of Maṇivara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 161.

1d) The adopted son of Asamanjasa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 141.

1e) An Andhaka.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa 96. 141.

1f) A group of gods of Tāmasa Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 43.

2a) Surūpā (सुरूपा).—A daughter of Marīci and wife of Atharvan Angīras; had ten sons.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 102; Matsya-purāṇa 196. 1; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 98, 105.

2b) A daughter of Rohiṇī; mother of two sons.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 74-5.

2c) A kala giving energy to Agni.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 83.

2d) A daughter of Vṛkadevī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 180.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

[Surupa in Shilpashastra glossaries]

Surūpa (सुरूप) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Surūpa (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour oí his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a goat. A flower is in his right band and a viṇa is in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Surūpa) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

(Source): archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

[Surupa in Itihasa glossaries]

Surūpa (सुरूप) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.9.14, XIV.8.12, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Surūpa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[Surupa in Mahayana glossaries]

Surūpa (सुरूप) or Kurūpa is the name of a king of Benares according to the Avadānaśataka and Dvāviṃśatyavadāna mentioned in a note on the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIX).—“The king of Benares, Surūpa (variant Kurūpa) offered his son, his wife and his own body as food to Śakra transformed into a Yakṣa, in order to hear the stanza (...)”. According to the Mahāvastu II, the same (?) Surūpa, head of a herd of antelope, gave up his own body to Śakra disguised as a hunter for the price of the gāthā (...).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Surupa in Jainism glossaries]

1) Surūpa (सुरूप) refers to a class of bhūta deities according to the Śvetāmbara tradition of Jainism, while Digambara does not recognize this class. The bhūtas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas).

The deities such as the Surūpas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

2) Surūpa (सुरूप) is the wife of Yaśasvin aka Yaśomān, who is a kulakara (law-giver) according to Śvetāmbara sources, while Digambara names his wife as Kāntamālā. The kulakaras (similair to the manus of the Brahmanical tradition) figure as important characters protecting and guiding humanity towards prosperity during ancient times of distress, whenever the kalpavṛkṣa (wishing tree) failed to provide the proper service.

These law-givers and their wifes (eg., Surūpā) are listed in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[Surupa in Pali glossaries]

surūpa : (adj.) handsome.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[Surupa in Marathi glossaries]

surūpa (सुरूप).—a Handsome, beautiful.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Surupa in Sanskrit glossaries]

Surūpa (सुरूप).—a.

1) well-formed, handsome, lovely; सुरूपा कन्या (surūpā kanyā).

2) wise, learned.

-paḥ an epithet of Śiva.

Surūpa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms su and rūpa (रूप).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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