Saman, Sāman, Shaman, Śāman, Sāmāṉ: 14 definitions


Saman means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śāman can be transliterated into English as Saman or Shaman, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Sāman (सामन्).—Equalization of tones; cf. वर्णानां मध्यमवृत्त्योच्चारणम् । (varṇānāṃ madhyamavṛttyoccāraṇam |)

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Sāman (सामन्) refers to the “Sāman-hymns”, according to the Mattavilāsaprahasana.—Accordingly, as the Kāpālika cries out: “My darling, look. This pub resembles the Vedic sacrificial ground. For its signpost resembles the sacrificial pillar; in this case alcohol is the Soma, drunkards are the sacrificial priests, the wine glasses are the special cups for drinking Soma, the roasted meat and other appetizers are the fire oblations, the drunken babblings are the sacrificial formulae, the songs (gīta) are the Sāman-hymns (sāman), the pitchers are the sacrificial ladles, thirst is the fire and the owner of the pub is the patron of the sacrifice”

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Saman in the Konkani language is the name of a plant identified with Putranjiva roxburghii from the Putranjivaceae (Puranjiva) family having the following synonyms: Drypetes roxburghii, Nageia putranjiva. For the possible medicinal usage of saman, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Shaman in India is the name of a plant defined with Pisum sativum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Lathyrus oleraceus Lam. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Cytologia (1976)
· Cytologia (1993)
· Protoplasma (1979)
· Bulletin of the Hiroshima Agricultural College (1989)
· Genetika
· Nucleus (1982)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Shaman, for example chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, diet and recipes, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śāman (शामन्).—n. Appeasing, conciliation.

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Sāman (सामन्).—n. [so-manin Uṇādi-sūtra 4.152]

1) Appeasing, calming, comforting, soothing.

2) Cenciliation, pacific measures, negotiation, (the first of the four upāyas or expedients to be used by a king against an enemy); सामदण्डौ प्रशंसन्ति नित्यं राष्ट्राभिवृद्धये (sāmadaṇḍau praśaṃsanti nityaṃ rāṣṭrābhivṛddhaye) Manusmṛti 7.19.

3) Conciliatory or mild means; pacific or conciliatory conduct, gentle words; यो दुर्बलो ह्यण्वपि याच्यमानो बलीयसा यच्छति नैव साम्ना (yo durbalo hyaṇvapi yācyamāno balīyasā yacchati naiva sāmnā) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.26,48.

4) Mildness, gentleness.

5) A metrical hymn or song of praise; सप्तसामोपगीतं त्वाम् (saptasāmopagītaṃ tvām) R. 1.21; ब्रहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम् (brahatsāma tathā sāmnāṃ gāyatrī chandasāmaham) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 1.35.

6) A verse or text of the Sāmaveda; सस्तोभस्वरकालाभ्यास- विकारायां हङ्कारप्रणवप्रस्तावोद्गीथप्रतिहारोपद्रवनिधनवत्यामृचि गीतौ सामशब्दोऽभियुक्तैरुपचर्यते (sastobhasvarakālābhyāsa- vikārāyāṃ haṅkārapraṇavaprastāvodgīthapratihāropadravanidhanavatyāmṛci gītau sāmaśabdo'bhiyuktairupacaryate) ŚB. on MS.7.2.1; स्तोभादिविशिष्टा ऋक् साम (stobhādiviśiṣṭā ṛk sāma) ibid.

7) The Sāmaveda itself (said to have been produced from the sun; cf. Manusmṛti 1.23).

8) Voice, sound; स्वरः सामशब्देन लोकऽभिधीयते । सुसामा देवदत्त इति सुस्वरो देवदत्त इति । स्वरो घोषो नाद इति समानार्थाः । स सामशब्देनोच्यते (svaraḥ sāmaśabdena loka'bhidhīyate | susāmā devadatta iti susvaro devadatta iti | svaro ghoṣo nāda iti samānārthāḥ | sa sāmaśabdenocyate) | ŚB. on MS.7.2.7; त्रिःसामा हन्यतामेषा दुन्दुभिः शत्रुभीषणा (triḥsāmā hanyatāmeṣā dundubhiḥ śatrubhīṣaṇā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.2.1.

9) A particular kind of sacred text or verse from the Vedas; प्रस्तौता साम प्रस्तौति (prastautā sāma prastauti); Bṛ. Up.1.3.28.

-sāmnā ind. Willingly, gladly; तत्र स्म गाथा गायन्ति साम्ना परमवल्गुना (tatra sma gāthā gāyanti sāmnā paramavalgunā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.43.28.

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Sāman (सामन्).—n. Likeness, similarity; वर्णः स्वरः । मात्रा बलम् । साम संतानः (varṇaḥ svaraḥ | mātrā balam | sāma saṃtānaḥ) | T. Up.2.1; Bri. Up.1.6.1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śāman (शामन्).—n.

(-maṃ) Conciliation, appeasing, reconciling. E. śam to appease, aff. manin, and the vowel made long; also śāmana .

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Sāman (सामन्).—n. (-ma) 1. The Sama-Veda, the prayers of which composed in metre, are always sung or chanted: the Ch'handogya Upanishad belongs to this Veda. 2. Conciliation, reconciling, appeasing. 3. Calming, tranquillizing. 4. Speaking kindly or tenderly. 5. Gentleness. 6. Negociation, (one of the four means of success against an enemy.) f. (-nī) A rope, for tying cattle. E. ṣo to destroy, (sin,) Unadi aff. manin, and ṅīṣ added for the fem. form.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śāman (शामन्).— (vb. śam, cf. sāman), n. Conciliation, appeasing.

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Sāman (सामन्).—probably for śāman (cf. śāntva, sāntvana), i. e. śam + man, n. 1. Calming, [Nalodya, (ed. Benary.)] 1, 41. 2. Conciliation. 3. Speaking kindly, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1847. 4. Mildness, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 187; instr. mnā, Willingly, voluntarily, [Pañcatantra] iv. [distich] 27. 5. Negotiation, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 107. 6. Peaceable way, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 421; Chr. 20, 17. 7. The name of the third Veda, the Sāma- Veda, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 23. 8. Song, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 10, 35; [Indralokāgamana] 2, 28.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sāman (सामन्).—1. [neuter] acquisition, property, wealth.

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Sāman (सामन्).—2. [neuter] song, [especially] sacred song, a Vedic stanza arranged for chanting; [plural] the Sāmaveda.

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Sāman (सामन्).—3. [neuter] consolation, conciliation, mild speech, kindness.

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Saman (समन्).—think, suppose, take for (2 [accusative]); intend, purpose; esteem, honour. [Causative] honour, revere. — Cf. a/numata, abhimata, vimata, saṃmata.

Saman is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sa and man (मन्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śāman (शामन्):—[from śāma] n. (cf. sāman) appeasing, reconciling, conciliation, [Horace H. Wilson]

2) Saman (समन्):—[=sam-√an] [Parasmaipada] -aniti, to breathe, live, [Ṛg-veda]

3) Sāman (सामन्):—1. sāman n. ([from] √1. = san1) acquisition, possession, property, wealth, abundance, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]

4) 2. sāman n. (m. only in [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]; [probably] connected with √sāntv; [according to] to some [from] √1. ; cf. 3. sāman) calming, tranquillizing, ([especially]) kind or gentle words for winning an adversary, conciliation, negotiation (one of the 4 Upāyas or means of success against an enemy, the other 3 being dāna, bheda, and daṇḍa, qq.vv.; [in the beginning of a compound] or [instrumental case] sg. and [plural], ‘by friendly means or in a friendly way, willingly, voluntarily’), [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]; etc.

5) 3. sāman n. (of doubtful derivation; [according to] to [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 152] [from] √so = 2, as ‘destroying sin’; in [Nirukta, by Yāska vii, 12] apparently connected with sammita; by others derived [from] √1. san, , sāntv, and perhaps not to be separated [from] 1. and 2. sāman) a metrical hymn or song of praise, ([especially]) a [particular] kind of sacred text or verse called a Sāman (intended to be chanted, and forming, with ṛc, yajus, chandas, one of the 4 kinds of Vedic composition mentioned first in [Ṛg-veda x, 90, 9]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

6) any song or tune (sacred or profane, also the hum of bees), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

7) the faculty of uttering sounds (?), [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa] ([Scholiast or Commentator])

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śāman (शामन्):—(ma) 5. n. Conciliation, reconciliation.

2) Sāman (सामन्):—(ma) 5. n. The Sāma Veda; conciliation, speaking kindly. f. (ī) Rope for tying cattle.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sāman (सामन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sāma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Saman in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Shaman in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) (the act or process of) pacification, allaying; quenching; suppression; —[karana] to pacify, to allay; to quench; to suppress..—shaman (शमन) is alternatively transliterated as Śamana.

2) Saman in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) summons; —[tamila karana] to serve summons (on)..—saman (समन) is alternatively transliterated as Samana.

3) Saman in Hindi refers in English to:—(a) equal, equivalent; similar, alike, identical; tantamount; ~[ta] equality, equivalence; parity, similarity, likeness..—saman (समान) is alternatively transliterated as Samāna.

4) Saman in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) goods; luggage, bag and baggage; material, stuff; stock; ~[ghara] luggage office; —[karana] to make preparations; to prepare the ground (for)..—saman (सामान) is alternatively transliterated as Sāmāna.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Sāmāṉ (ஸாமான்) noun < Urdu sāmān. Goods. See சாமான். [saman.]

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Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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