Madhu: 47 definitions


Madhu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey”, according to the Skandapurāṇa 2.2.13 (“The Greatness of Kapoteśa and Bilveśvara”).—Accordingly: as Jaimini said to the Sages: “[...] [Dhūrjaṭi (Śiva)] went to the holy spot Kuśasthalī. He performed a very severe penance near Nīla mountain. [...] By the power of his penance that holy spot became one comparable to Vṛndāvana, the forest near Gokula. Its interior was rendered splendid by lakes, ponds, reservoirs and rivers. It was full of different kinds of trees and creepers (laden) with fruits and flowers of all seasons. It was resonant with the humming sounds of bees inebriated with honey [i.e., madhu-matta-dvirepha]. It was full of different kinds of flocks of birds. It was a comfortable place of resort for all creatures. Since by means of his penance Śiva became (small) like a dove, he came to be called Kapoteśvara at the behest of Murāri (Viṣṇu). It is at his bidding that the Three-eyed Lord always stays here along with Mṛḍānī (Pārvatī). [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Madhu (मधु)—Honey was used with food by the Ṛgvedic Indians. The Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa mentions honey as the life-sap of the sky. It even calls it a form of Soma, and shows its use in the ritual. The madhuparka offered to guests is mentioned in the Atharva-veda. Kauṭilya mentions it many times even in similes. It includes also the juice of grapes in ‘honey’ (madhu). With the Vāyu-purāṇa honey is amongst its favourites, and we find even a river of honey mentioned.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Madhu (मधु).—One of the Asuras born from the ear-wax of Mahāviṣṇu. The other was named Kaiṭabha. (For details see under KAIṬABHA).

2) Madhu (मधु).—Once there lived in a forest-garden on the shores of the Yamunā an Asura of name. Madhu. Śatrughna killed this Madhu and established there a city called Mathurāpurī. (Uttara Kāṇḍa, Kamba Rāmāyaṇa). While Indrajit, son of Rāvaṇa, was performing penance Madhu carried away a demoness named Kumbhīnasī and there ensued a fight on that account between Madhu and Rāvaṇa in which Madhu was killed.

3) Madhu (मधु).—A king who used to sit in the court of Yama and worship him. (Śloka 16, Chapter 8, Sabhā Parva).

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Madhu is recommended as an offering to be made to the goddess Śyāmā (verse 800). Various sorts of food preparations sweetened with honey are referred to (verses 503, 691). Another name of honey is Kṣaudra (verse 694). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey” and can be used in the Tailadhārā ceremony, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“Oil-Dhārā [viz., tailadhārā] shall be performed on Śivaliṅga for harassing enemies. Success in the enterprise is certain. If scented oil is used, worldly pleasures will be increased. If mustard oil (sarṣapa) is used, enemies will be exterminated undoubtedly. If honey (madhu) is used, the devotee will become Kubera (God of wealth). The Dhārā of sugarcane juice (ikṣurasa) is conducive to all pleasures. [...] In all these Dhārās Mṛtyuñjaya-mantra shall be muttered ten thousand times. Eleven Brahmins shall be fed”.

2) Madhu (मधु) and Kaiṭabha are the names of two Asuras.—Madhu and Kaiṭabha sprang from the ear of Viṣṇu while he was asleep at the end of a Kalpa. As soon as born they tried to kill Brahmā who was lying on the lotus sprung from Viṣṇu’s navel. Viṣṇu killed them and obtained the names Kaitabhajit and Madhusūdana.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Madhu (मधु).—A son of Bindumān and Sanghā; his son was Vīravrata.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 15. 15.

1b) The father of Asura Lavaṇa;1 killed by Hari.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 11. 14.
  • 2) Ib. VII. 9. 37; X. 40. 17. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 37. 2; III 63. 38; IV. 29. 75.

1c) A son of Kārtavīryārjuna; he had a hundred sons of whom Vṛṣni was the eldest.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 27, 29; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 11. 21.

1d) A son of Devakṣatra (Devakṣetra Matsya-purāṇa and Viṣṇu-purāṇa) and father of Kuruvaśa (Puravasa Matsya-purāṇa) (Kumāravaṃśa, Viṣṇu-purāṇa).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 5; Matsya-purāṇa 44. 44; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 12. 42.

1e) A son of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 90. 33.

1f) A month sacred to Dhātā;1 good for the gift of the varāha p.;2 the king of seasons; generally spring, a kin of the God of Love;3 the month of Citra (Veda), the first of the six ṛtus.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 33; Matsya-purāṇa 53. 41.
  • 2) Ib. 154. 211.
  • 3) Ib. 154. 256; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 4; 50. 201.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 4, 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 8; 31. 49; 45. 27; 50. 201; 52. 5.

1g) An Ātreya and a sage of the Cākṣuṣa epoch.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 78; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 66.

1h) A son of Praheti: a Rākṣasa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 91; Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 165.

1i) A son of Khaśā and a Rākṣasa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 133.

1j) A son of Devana and father of Nandana, Puruvasu Manu, and Manuvaśa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 70. 46; Vāyu-purāṇa 95. 45.

1k) A Marīci god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 58.

1l) A son of Auttama Manu.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 12.

1m) A Rākṣasa who attacked Nārāyaṇa; was slain by Viṣṇu.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 135. 49; 178. 6, 18.

1n) A mind-born son of Lord Viṣṇu born with Kaiṭabha representing rajas and tamas qualities;1 with Kaiṭabha shook the lotus stand of Brahmā in the navel of Viṣṇu lying in waters after interview with Rudra; then Brahmā appealed to Viṣṇu in fear; Bhū, Bhuva and Suva entered Brahmā; Viṣnu and Jiṣṇu fought with Madhu Kaitabha when Brahmā acted as arbitrator; the battle continued for thousands of years; Brahmā entered into contemplation when Mohini or Viṣṇumāya appeared to the great grief of the Asuras; both were killed when Brahmā asked for permission to create four kinds of creatures; with a view to this he performed austerities when he was filled with rage and tears out of which came wind, bile and kapha besides poisonous serpents; Brahmā's grief knew no bounds, and he swooned and lost his life; when Rudra appeared in eleven forms out of his face, revived him and helped him in his creation as his son.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 170. 1.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 25. 30-80.

1o) A son of Viśveśā.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 49.

1p) Honey fit for ceremonies;1 used for the ablution of deities;2 fit for piṇḍa at Gayā.3

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 204. 5 and 7.
  • 2) Ib. 266. 51, 55.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 151; 56. 12; 105. 34.

1q) A son of Lāngalī, the avatār of the Lord.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 200.

1r) A son of Vṛṣa; had a hundred sons of whom Vṛṣṇi was the eldest.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 11. 26-7, 29.

1s) A son of Cākṣuṣa Manu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 28.

1t) A tribe whose Lord was Kṛṣṇa;1 related to the Pāṇḍavas;2 defended Dvārakā;3 relieved by Kaṃsa's death;4 heard of Kṛṣṇa's going to Mithilā and met him with presents;5 their praise of the heroic deeds of Viṣṇu;6 fought with their kinsmen and ended themselves.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 8. 42; 10. 26.
  • 2) Ib. I. 14. 25; IX. 24. 63.
  • 3) Ib. I. 11. 11.
  • 4) Ib. X. 45. 15.
  • 5) Ib. X. 86. 20.
  • 6) Ib. IX. 24. 63.
  • 7) Ib. XI. 30. 18.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Madhu (मधु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.7.1, IX.36.9, IX.44.67) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Madhu) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Madhu (मधु) represents the food taken in the month Mārgaśīrṣa for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In the month of Mārgaśīrṣa, the performer should brush his teeth with the piece of mallikā-wood. The food taken is madhu. The deity to be worshipped is Anaṅga. The flowers used in worship are malati. The naivedya offerings are Fruits. The result accrued is ten aśvamedha sacrifices.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Madhu (मधु) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., madhu) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Madhu (मधु) refers to “flower juice” or “honey”, as mentioned in a list of four synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Madhu] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey” according to the Ṛgveda IV.45.3, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Honey was possibly, the earliest sweet thing Indians knew. Vedic literature even attests the procurement of it from the combs of two different types of bees which are āraṅgāra and sāragha. It is prescribed as a sweetening ingredient at the time of Vedic period. Brāhmaṇa literature taboos its use for women and students. Pāṇini even mentions that the term madhura, the Sanskrit word for sweetness is derived from the term honey (madhu).

Different types of wines are described in the works of Kālidāsa. Madya and madira are described in Ṛtusamhāra, āsava, madhu and śīdhu in Raghuvaṃśa IV.42, vāruṇī in Kumārasaṃbhava and kādambarī in Abhijñānaśākuntala.

Madhu or “honey” is of eight kinds according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana):—

  1. mākṣika,
  2. bhrāmara,
  3. kṣaudra,
  4. pautika,
  5. chātrala,
  6. arghya,
  7. uddāla,
  8. dāla.

Madhu (honey) is also mentioned in a list of remedies for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., ambupānātyaya (delay in drinking water)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., madhu (honey)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey”, and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Madhu. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey”, and is part of the diet in the treatment of horses, according to sections on the treatment of Horses (Gajāyurveda or Aśvāyurveda) in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—The diet also plays a role during the treatment because the food imparts a greater strength and vigour to the horses and acts as a general prophylactic against diseases. The following diets are mentioned for the horses in Garuḍapurāṇa, which are according to the doṣa: [...] The diet in pittaja-vikāra: In diseases due to the action of the deranged and aggravated Pitta, the diet should consist of a karṣa (12gm) weight of maṃsarasa (meat soup) mixed with madhu (honey), mudgarasa (green gram soup/ gravy) and ājya (clarified butter). [...]

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Madhu (मधु) or “honey” is used in the treatment of snake-bites such as those caused by the Uṣṇa, Śopha, Pītta or Ghoṇasa varietes of Maṇḍalī-snakes, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Accordingly, the treatment is mentioned as follows: “A drink prepared from butter, curd, salt, honey (madhu) and Kaṭutraya is the generic treatment for Maṇḍalī snakes. Cooked Kadamba mixed with ghee and water must be consumed. White sesame also helps in alleviating this poison. Paste made out of ginger, pepper, long pepper, and salt in equal measures mixed with butter , when applied , forms an efficacious antidote”.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

1) Madhu (मधु) is identified with Madhuca indica, the flowers of which are used in the process of producing long lasting fruits (on the tree) [e.g., anāśi-phalatva], according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “A ball made out of the mixture of flowers of the Madhuca indica [e.g., Madhu-Puṣpa], Nymphaea caerulea, honey, crystalline sugar and Glycyrrhiza glabra kept in a hole made at the root of a tree produces long lasting fruits (on the tree)”.

2) Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey”, and is used in certain bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda.—Accordingly, “If bulbs of various species of Nymphaea are uprooted tied together firmly with threads, smeared with melted butter and honey (madhu) and then planted they produce those respective species in bunches (on a single creeper)”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Madhu (मधु) refers to “wine”, mentioned in verse 3.45 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] as the (humours and the gastric fire) irritate one another this way, one shall turn to all (substances) that (are) applicable to all humours and promotive of the (gastric) fire: a cathartic enema after one’s body has been purged (with a vomitive etc.), old grain, prepared soups, game-meat, broths, old wine [viz., madhu] and ariṣṭa liqueur [...]”.

Note: Madhu, equated by the commentators to mārdvīka (“wine”), has been interpreted as sbraṅ-rtsi chaṅ—“honey-spirits, mead” (for which v. 22 reads sbraṅ-chaṅ), while ariṣṭa (“arista liqueur”) has been left untranslated. The latter seems to be little known in Tibet, because it has been neglected once before (see v. 22). Here it may again be held that ariṣṭa is not missing but is represented by chaṅ (like in 5.70), while madhu has, in accordance with its literal meaning “honey”, been reproduced by sbraṅ-rtsi. Yet the whole sentence-construction runs counter to such a formalistic interpretation, and that sbraṅ-rtsi should not be separated from chaṅ is also indicated by the variant sbraṅ-rtsi-can (“provided with honey”) in CD, which may be explained as denoting any kind of honey beverage.

Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: Jajjaṭa’s Nirantarapadavyākhyā and Other Commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā

Madhu (मधु) is a synonym of Madhuka, which refers to Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., and is a medicinal plant mentioned in the 7th-century Nirantarapadavyākhyā by Jejjaṭa (or Jajjaṭa): one of the earliest extant and, therefore, one of the most important commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā.—Synonyms of Madhuka: Madhu, Madhukāhva.—(Cf. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Bṛhattrayī 292, Singh and Chunekar, 1999).—(Cf. Indian Medicinal Plants 3:84, Arya Vaidya Sala, 1993-96.)

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra

Madhu (मधु) and Kaiṭabha were slain by Lord Hayaśīrṣa, as mentioned in the 9th century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra (Ādikāṇḍa chapter 1).—“[...] Maheśvara said: Mighty Lord Hayaśīrṣa—who was the slayer of Madhu and Kaiṭabha—when he was in the cosmic ocean–was asked by you Bhṛgu about the Pañcarātra. O Intelligent one, please tell me of the four Vedas, which were consigned, all of that at great length, O four-faced one”.

Note: The story of Madhu and Kaiṭabha appears in many Pañcarātra texts, including the Jayākya-saṃhitā, it is also in the Mahābhārataas well as in the Uttarakāṇḍa of the Vālmiki Rāmāyaṇa. The development of the story has been traced by Andreas Bock. Bock traces the development of the story from what he sees as its first appearance in the Mahābhārata till its later development in various Pāñcarātra sources. With regards to the version told [of Madhu and Kaiṭabha ] in the Hayaśīrṣa Pañcarātra Bock sees it as directly dependent on the Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa1.15, The Mahābhārata 12. 335, Jayākhya-saṃhitā s and Ahirbudhnya-saṃhitā 41.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey” and represents one of the “five ambrosial ingredients” (Pañcāmṛta), used on special occasions for bathing śrī-guru or the deity), according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Accordingly, while explaining mantras to sanctify the Pañcāmṛta Ingredients (pañcāmṛta-śodhana-mantras), for honey (madhu):—“oṃ madhu bātā ṛtāyate madhu kṣaranti sindhavaḥ mādhvīrnaḥ santv oṣadhīḥ madhu-naktam utoṣaso madhumat pārthivaṃ rajaḥ madhu dyaur astu naḥ pitā madhumān no vanaspatiḥ madhumān astu sūryaḥ mādhvīr gāvo bhavantu naḥ. oṃ madhu oṃ madhu oṃ madhu”.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Madhu (मधु) refers to:—A demon killed by Śrī Viṣṇu. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If Mercury should see the eclipsed disc, honey and oil [i.e., madhughṛtamadhutailakṣayāya] will become scarce; princes will suffer. If Mars should see the eclipsed disc, there will be war in the land and fear from fire and robbers. If Venus should see the eclipsed disc, crops will be injured and there will be drought and famine in the land and the mankind will have fear from robbers”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey” and represents one of the items offered to the nine planets (navagraha), according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[verse 302-303: Faggots to be burned]—These two verses prescribe different faggots to be burned for grahas with offerings of honey [i.e., madhu], ghee, dadhi, and milk. It is interesting to note that some of the faggots (i.e. parāśa, khadira, pippala, and śamī) mentioned here are also used in the Suśrutasaṃhitā in the context (Uttaratantra chapters 27-37) of curing the diseases caused by grahas, which, in this case, are not planetary. [verse 304-305: Cooked rice (odana) to be offered to grahas]

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: HAL: The function of the Vṛṣasārasaṃgraha in the Śivadharma corpus (ds)

Madhu (मधु) or “alcohol” should be avoided by Saṃnyāsas (renouncers), according to the Vṛṣasārasaṃgraha: A Sanskrit text of twenty-four chapters contained in the Śivadharma corpus dealing with Dharma (religious duties).—Accordingly, [verse 11.45-46]: “He should avoid honey/alcohol (madhu) and meat, as well as others’ wives. He should avoid staying [in a place] for long and also staying at others’ places. He should avoid food that has been thrown away and he should avoid food from a single house. He should always refrain from accumulating [wealth] and from self conceit”.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Madhu (in several Indo-Aryan languages) means honey or sweet. It also means mead and is used for alcohol. The word originates in Sanskrit and has cognates in most Indo-European languages.

Madhu has been used for millennia in a similar metaphorical sense as wine is in English, e.g. "the wine of truth," and employed in that manner in Hindu religious literature. For example, the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad contains a chapter called the Madhu Brahmana and "the secret essence of the Vedas themselves, was called the madhu-vidya or honey doctrine."

Etymology: Madhu (Hindustani: मधु or مدهو). Madhu, and the related terms mad (मद, مد) and madira (मदिरा, مدِرا), also mean alcohol. These words are all derived from the Sanskrit language, and are Indo-European cognates of the English mead, Greek μέθυ, Avestan madu, Persian may, Latvian and Lithuanian medus, German Met and Old Church Slavonic – мєдъ (medŭ).

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Madhu (मधु) refers to “honey” (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “Pills should be made of pungent mustard seed oil, honey (madhu), oleander-flower, nāgapuṣpa and powder. Then the pills should be thrown into the Nāga lake. After the mantra has been recited 108 times, and merely upon throwing [pills] into the lake, all Nāgas rejoice. They send forth great rain showers. If it does not rain on the same day, the bodies of those Nāgas will be destroyed. They will have head diseases, there will be suffering for them”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Madhu (मधु, “sweet”) or Madhusāgara refers to one of the “seven oceans” (sāgara) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 126). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., madhu). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Madhu (मधु, “honey”) refers to one of the ten classifications of food (āhāra), also known as vikṛtis, according to the 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.130) by Hemacandra. Madhu refers to honey, which may be of three kinds: made by bees (bhrāmara), by flies (makṣikā), or by kuttiya.

Honey (madhu) is forbidden to consume for Jain laymen. The five udumbara fruits and three forbidden vikṛtis: meat (māṃsa), alcohol (madya), and honey (madhu)—from which abstention is enjoined have one aspect in common: they are all used as offerings to the spirits of the ancestors (pitṛs). For Amitagati, in the Subhāṣita-ratna-sandoha, the common characteristic of meat, alcohol, and honey is their aphrodisiac quality.

Honey (madhu) is condemned by Somadeva, in his Yaśastilaka, because “it is pressed out of the young eggs in the womb of bees and resembles the embryo inthe first stage of its growth”. To provide but a single drop, says Amṛtacandra, in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya, bees have to be killed and even if they have been driven by some artifice from the comb or if the honey has dripped down of itself hiṃsā will still occur since other living creatures find their way into it.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Madhu (मधु) refers to one of the nine Prativāsudevas (enemies of Vāsudevas), according to chapter 1.6 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism. Accordingly: “[...] Aśvagrīva, Tāraka, Meraka, Madhu, Niśumbha, Bali, Pralhāda (Prahlāda), Laṅkeśa, Magadheśvara, rivals of the Vāsudevas, all fighting with the cakra, will perish from their own cakras which have gone to the hands of the Vāsudevas”.

2) Madhu (मधु) is the name of a mountain, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.1 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa].—Accordingly:—“[...] One day, Kiṣkindhi made a procession to Sumeru in honor of the eternal Arhats and on his return he saw Mt. Madhu. Kiṣkindhi’s mind dwelt more and more on sporting in a beautiful garden, which extended in all directions on it like another Meru. He, energetic, founded Kiṣkindhapura on it (Mount Madhu) and settled there with his followers, like the King of Yakṣas (Śiva) on Kailāsa. [...]”.

3) Madhu (मधु) is the son of Harivāhana (king from Mathurā), according , according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.2 [Rāvaṇa’s expedition of conquest].—Accordingly, “[...] Destroyer of Marutta’s sacrifice, strong like the wind, he went then to the city Mathurā, very powerful. Its king, Harivāhana, came to Daśagrīva with his son Madhu, who had a spear, like Īśāna. Daśakandhara, delighted, talked with him who was standing near with devotion and asked him, ‘Where did your son get this spear for a weapon?’ Madhu, instructed by his father by a gesture of his eye-brow, replied gently: ‘[...]’”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Tessitori Collection I (history)

Madhu (मधु) (or Manohara) is the son of Tāraṇa Sāha: the minister of king Candrasena from Līlāvatī, according to the “Madhu-Mālatī-copaī” by Caturbhujadāsa (classified as Rajasthani literature), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—In Līlāvatī reigned king Candrasena who had a beautiful daughter, Mālatī. Madhu, also called Manohara, was the son of his minister Tāraṇa Sāha. They fell in love when Mālatī looked through the curtain separating them as they were studying at school. Mālatī succeeded in overpowering Madhu with the assistance of her companion Jaitmal through the use of a vaśīkaraṇa charm and they loved each other through gandharva marriage.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Madhu in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Glycyrrhiza glabra from the Fabaceae (Pea) family. For the possible medicinal usage of madhu, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Madhu in India is the name of a plant defined with Acacia intsia in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Mimosa caesia L. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Flora Caroliniana (1788)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Species Plantarum.
· A Numerical List of Dried Specimens (5250)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Madhu, for example extract dosage, diet and recipes, side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

madhu : (nt.) honey; wine made from the blossom of Bassia Latifolia.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Madhu, (cp. Vedic madhu, Gr. mέqu wine, Lith. medùs honey, midùs wine, Ohg. metu=Ger. met wine. Most likely to root *med to be full of juice: see under madati) honey J. I, 157 sq.; IV, 117; Dh. 69 (madhū vā read as madhuvā); Mhvs 5, 53; DhsA. 330; DhA. II, 197 (alla° fresh honey).—pl. madhūni Mhvs 5, 31.—The Abhp (533) also gives “wine from the blossom of Bassia latifolia” as meaning.—On madhu in similes see J. P. T. S. 1907, 121.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

maḍhū (मढू).—a (Vulgar. madhu S) Sweet;--used of kinds of fruittrees and fruits; as maḍhū-ciñca-bōra-karavanda-limba.

--- OR ---

madhu (मधु).—n (S) Honey. 2 The nectar or honey of flowers. 3 Spirituous liquor distilled from the blossoms of Bassia latifolia. 4 m The month caitra (March-April). 5 m The season of spring.

--- OR ---

madhu (मधु).—a (S) Sweet, lit. fig.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

madhu (मधु).—n Honey. a Sweet. madhukara m A bee,

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Madhu (मधु).—a. (-dhu or -dhvī f.) [मन्यत इति मधु, मन्-उ नस्य धः (manyata iti madhu, man-u nasya dhaḥ) Uṇādi-sūtra 1.18) Sweet, pleasant, agreeable, delightful; आपापयति गोविन्दपादपद्मासवं मधु (āpāpayati govindapādapadmāsavaṃ madhu) Bhāgavata 1.18.12; त्वया सह निवत्स्यामि वनेषु मधुगन्धिषु (tvayā saha nivatsyāmi vaneṣu madhugandhiṣu) Uttararāmacarita 2.18. -f. Name of a plant (jīvā, jīvantī). -n. -(dhu) 1 Honey; एतास्ता मधुनो धाराश्च्योतन्ति सविषास्त्वयि (etāstā madhuno dhārāścyotanti saviṣāstvayi) Uttararāmacarita 3.34; मधु तिष्ठति जिह्वाग्रे हृदये तु हलाहलम् (madhu tiṣṭhati jihvāgre hṛdaye tu halāhalam).

2) The juice or nectar of flowers; मधु द्विरेफः कुसुमैकपात्रे पपौ प्रियां स्वामनुवर्तमानः (madhu dvirephaḥ kusumaikapātre papau priyāṃ svāmanuvartamānaḥ) Kumārasambhava 3.36; देहि मुखकमलमधुपानम् (dehi mukhakamalamadhupānam) Gītagovinda 1.

3) A sweet intoxicating drink, wine, spirituous liquor; विनयन्ते स्म तद्योधा मधुभिर्विजयश्रमम् (vinayante sma tadyodhā madhubhirvijayaśramam) R.4.65; Ṛs. 1.3.

4) Water.

5) Sugar.

6) Sweetness.

7) Anything sweet.

8) Ved. Soma juice.

9) Milk or anything produced from milk (Ved.).

1) A bee-hive; केचित्- पीत्वापविध्यन्ति मधूनि मधुपिङ्गलाः (kecit- pītvāpavidhyanti madhūni madhupiṅgalāḥ) Rām.5.62.1.

11) Bee-wax; Manusmṛti 1.88. -m. (dhuḥ) 1 The spring or vernal season; मधुरया मधुबोधितमाधवी (madhurayā madhubodhitamādhavī) Śiśupālavadha 6.2; क्व नु ते हृदयंगमः सखा कुसुमायोजितकार्मुको मधुः (kva nu te hṛdayaṃgamaḥ sakhā kusumāyojitakārmuko madhuḥ) Kumārasambhava 4.24,25;3.1,3.

2) The month of Chaitra; भास्करस्य मधुमाधवाविव (bhāskarasya madhumādhavāviva) R.11.7; मासे मधौ मधुरकोकिलभृङ्गनादै रामा हरन्ति हृदयं प्रसभं नराणाम् (māse madhau madhurakokilabhṛṅganādai rāmā haranti hṛdayaṃ prasabhaṃ narāṇām) Ṛtusaṃhāra 6. 25.

3) Name of a demon killed by Viṣṇu.

4) Name of another demon, father of Rāvaṇa and killed by Śatrughna.

5) The Aśoka tree.

6) Name of king Kārtavīrya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madhu (मधु).—mfn. (-dhuḥ-dhvī-dhu) Sweet, literally or figuratively. n. (-dhu) 1. Spirituous liquor, distilled from the blossoms of the Bassia latifolia, or according to some explanations wine, or spirit distilled from grapes. 2. Honey. 3. The nectar, or honey of flowers. 4. Water. 5. Milk. 6. Sugar. 7. Sweetness, in flavour, sound, or disposition. m.

(-dhuḥ) 1. The month Chaitra, (March-April.) 2. The season of spring. 3. A tree, (Bassia latifolia.) 4. The name of Daitya or demon, slain by Vishnu. 5. The Asoka tree, (Jonesia asoca.) 6. Liquorice. 7. The name of a Rakshasa killed by Satrughna. 8. An epithet of king Kartavirya. f.

(-dhuḥ) A plant, (Celtis orientalis.) E. man to mind or respect, Unadi aff. u, and dha substituted for the final.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madhu (मधु).—I. adj. Sweet, Chr. 291, 6 = [Rigveda.] i. 85, 6; Megh, 67. Ii. m. 1. Liquorice. 2. A tree, Bassia latifolia. 3. The month Caitra, March

— April, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 6, 24. 4. The season of spring, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] [distich] 26. 5. The name of a Daitya slain by Viṣṇu; cf. madhubhid. Iii. n. 1. Honey, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 81, M. M. 2. The nectar of flowers. 3. Milk. 4. Sugar. 5. Spirituous liquor from the blossoms of the Bassia latifolia, or wine, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 93; [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 4, 60. 6. Water.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madhu (मधु).—([feminine] madhu, madhū & madhvī) sweet, pleasant, agreeable. [masculine] [Name] of the first month of the year, the spring, [Name] of two Asuras & [several] princes; [neuter] sweet food or drink, [especially] milk, honey, Soma, mead, wine, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Madhu (मधु) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—and dharmādhikaraṇa madhu poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Madhu (मधु):—mf(U or )n. ([genitive case] n. [Vedic or Veda] madhvas, madhos, or madhunas; [instrumental case] madhvā; [dative case] madhune; [locative case] madhau) sweet, delicious, pleasant, charming, delightful, [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

2) bitter or pungent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) m. Name of the first month of the year (= Caitra, March-April), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

4) the season of spring, [Varāha-mihira; Kālidāsa]

5) Bassia Latifolia, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Jonesia Asoka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) liquorice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

9) of two Asuras (the one killed by Viṣṇu, the other by Śatru-ghna), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

10) of one of the 7 sages under Manu Cākṣuṣa, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

11) of a son of the third Manu, [Harivaṃśa]

12) of various princes (of a son of Vṛṣa, of Deva-kṣatra, of Bindu-mat, of Arjuna Kārtavīrya), [Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

13) of a son of Bhaṭṭa-nārāyaṇa, [Kṣitīśa-vaṃśāvalī-carita]; of a teacher (= madhva or ananda-tīrtha), [Colebrooke]

14) of a mountain, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

15) ([plural]) the race of Madhu (= the Yādavas or Māthuras), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

16) (u) f. a [particular] plant (= jīvā or jīvantī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) n. anything sweet ([especially] if liquid), mead etc., [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

18) Soma (also somyam madhu), [Ṛg-veda]

19) honey (said to possess intoxicating qualities and to be of 8 kinds; madhuno leha m. licker of honey a bee, [Horace H. Wilson]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

20) milk or anything produced from milk (as butter, ghee etc.), [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra]

21) the juice or nectar of flowers, any sweet intoxicating drink, wine or spirituous liquor, [Kāvya literature; Varāha-mihira; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

22) sugar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) pyrites, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

25) Name of a Brāhmaṇa, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]; a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]

26) cf. [Greek], μέθυ, μέθη, [Slavonic or Slavonian] medŭ; [Lithuanian] midús, medús; [German] meth; [English] mead.

27) Mādhu (माधु):—[from mādhava] Vṛddhi form of madhu in [compound]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Madhu (मधु):—(dhu) 2. n. Spirituous liquor; honey; milk; water; sugar; sweetness; Chaitra, the month of spring; name of a tree; of a demon. f. A plant (Celtis orientalis). a. Sweet, agreeable.

2) Mādhu (माधु):—karī (rī) 3. f. Alms obtained from five places by ascetics.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Madhu (मधु) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Mahu.

[Sanskrit to German]

Madhu in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Madhu (मधु):—(nm) honey; wine, liquor; juice of flowers; the spring; -[ṛtu] the spring (season); ~[kaṃṭha] having a melodious voice; a cuckoo; ~[kara] a large black bee; ~[karī] female black bee; cooked food gathered in alms from different sources; ~[kośa] bee-hive; ~[pa] a large black bee; ~[parka] a beverage prepared in olden times by mixing curd, honey, sugar and water; ~[pāyī] a large black bee; a liquoraddict, one who consumes liquor; ~[makkhī/makṣikā] honey-bee, bee; •[pālana] apiculture; bee-keeping; ~[matta] intoxicated, deep drunk; ~[maya] sweet; attractive, beautiful; ~[māsa] the month of [caita] heralding the spring; ~[meha] diabetes; ~[mehī] a diabetic; diabetes patient; ~[yāminī] the first night of a couple’s union; ~[rasa] honey-dew; ~[rāja/lolupa] a large black bee; one who goes in quest of sweetness; ~[śarkarā] sugar prepared from honey; ~[śālā] a bar; ~[sūdana] an epithet of Lord Krishna.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Madhu (ಮಧು):—

1) [adjective] sweet; delicious.

2) [adjective] delightful; pleasant.

--- OR ---

Madhu (ಮಧು):—

1) [noun] the saccharine secretion of a plant, which attracts the insects or birds that pollinate the flower; the nectar.

2) [noun] a sweet, viscid fluid produced by bees from the nectar collected from flowers, and stored in nests or hives as food; honey.

3) [noun] any intoxicating liquor.

4) [noun] water.

5) [noun] sugar.

6) [noun] the quality of being delicious; deliciousness.

7) [noun] milk or any any food item made using milk.

8) [noun] a natural habitation of bees; a beehive.

9) [noun] a plastic, dull-yellow, non-glycerine substance secreted by bees for building their combs; bees-wax.

10) [noun] Caitra, the first month in the Hindu lunar calendar year.

11) [noun] the period of first two months (Caitra and Vaiśakha) of the Hindu lunar calendar year; the spring season.

12) [noun] the tree Jonesia asoca ( = Saraca indica) of Caesalpiniaceae family; Ashoka tree.

13) [noun] the plant Coleogyne ovalis of Orchidaceae family.

14) [noun] a honey-bee.

15) [noun] a large variety of honey-bee.

16) [noun] a soft, silver-white, crystalline, malleable metallic chemical element, used in plating, soldering, etc.; tin.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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