Mahendra, Māhendra, Mahemdra, Maha-indra: 49 definitions


Mahendra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: humindian: 108 names of Lord Krishna

One of the 108 names of Krishna; Meaning: "Lord Of Indra"

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) refers to:—(or Indra)King of the demigods, who rules from Amarāvati in the heaven known as Svarga. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Mahendra (महेन्द्र):—The Sanskrit name for a classification of a ‘temple’, according to the Suprabhedāgama, which describes a list of 13 types. This list represents the earliest form of the classification of temples in the South Indian Vāstuśāstra literature. The name is also mentioned in the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Mahendra is mentioned in another list of 40 temples, in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 57, where it is mentioned as one of the twenty temples being a favorite of Viṣṇu.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) (or Indra) refers to one of the deities to be installed in the ground plan for the construction of houses, according to the Bṛhatkālottara, chapter 112 (the vāstuyāga-paṭala).—The plan for the construction is always in the form of a square. That square is divided into a grid of cells (padas). [...] Once these padas have been laid out, deities [e.g., Mahendra] are installed in them. In the most common pattern 45 deities are installed.

Mahendra as a doorway deity is associated with the Nakṣatra called Viśākhā and the consequence is śrī. [...] The Mayasaṃgraha (verse 5.156-187) describes a design for a 9-by-9-part pura, a residential complex for a community and its lead figure. [...] This record lists a place for gateway at Indra, Sūrya and Satya (marubhṛnmukhe traye).

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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to Indra. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-88, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).

As such, Brahmā assigned Mahendra to the side of the stage (raṅgapīṭha). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of a mountain said to be located within the Dākṣiṇāpatha (Deccan) region. Countries within this region pertain to the Dākṣinātyā local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of the deity associated with Vīra or the “ heroic sentiment”, which represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa gaura i.e., radish white is the colour of this sentiment. Mahendra is the God of this sentiment. The Nāṭyaśāstra states that the vīra-rasa relates to the superior type of persons and has excitement as its basis.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Mahendra in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—One of the seven holy mountains (kulaparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—Father of the princess Pāṭalī. (See under Pāṭalīputra).

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—One of the holy mountains. This mountain has great Purāṇic importance.

2) After slaughtering the Kṣatriyas to extinction sage Paraśurāma made Mahendra his place of abode. (Śloka 53, Chapter 129, Ādi Parva).

2) Once Arjuna visited the mountain Mahendra. (Śloka 13, Chapter 214, Ādi Parva).

2) The presiding deity of this mountain sits in the court of Kubera worshipping him. (Śloka 30, Chapter 10, Sabhā Parva).

2) If one bathes in the pond of Rāmatīrtha on the top of this mountain one would get the benefit of performing an Aśvamedhayāga. (Śloka 16, Chapter 85, Vana Parva).

2) Brahmā once went to this mountain and conducted a yāga there. (Śloka 22, Chapter 87, Vana Parva).

2) Yudhiṣṭhira during his pilgrimage visited this mountain. (Śloka 30, Chapter 114, Vana Parva).

2) Paraśurāma gave a darśana (Interview) to Yudhiṣṭhira on a Caturdaśī day on this mountain. (Śloka 16, Chapter 117, Vana Parva).

2) Hanūmān when he was going in search of Sītā visited this mountain also along with the other monkeys. (Sundara Kāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) refers to Indra, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.14 (“The Birth of Tāraka and Vajrāṅga”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] The distressed Diti sought refuge in Kaśyapa and and serving him with devotion and observing the sacred rites she conceived. On coming to know of it, Indra [i.e., Mahendra] entered her womb forcibly and cut it off many a time with his thunderbolt. By the power of her sacred rites, the child in the womb did not die as she was sleeping at that time, by a stroke of good luck. They were cut into seven pieces and so she had seven sons. [...]”.

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of a Mountain, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.37 (“The letter of betrothal is dispatched”).—Accordingly, as Himavat prepared the wedding of Menā and Śiva: “[...] O celestial sage, listen to a detailed narration of the arrival of those mountains. [...] O dear, the delighted mountain Niṣadha came along with his attendants. He was very brilliant. The fortunate mountain Gandhamādana came with great pleasure along with his children and womenfolk. Mountains Karavīra and Mahendra of great wealth and prosperity also came there. Pāriyātra came with attendants, children and womenfolk. He was brilliant and delighted. He had brought many gems and jewels with him. [...]”.

Note: Mahendra, the same as Mahendragiri, was the name applied to the Eastern Ghats.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—A name of Indra (s.v.);1 in the Siṃsumāra.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 15. 12; Vāyu-purāṇa 39. 10; 53. 33; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I, 9. 18; V. 10. 36; 11. 14.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 95; Matsya-purāṇa 127. 24.

1b) A mountain a Kulaparvata of the Bhāratavarṣa;1 sacred to Indra and Hari and fit for śrāddha;2 Paraśurāma's penance here for 12 years, twice;3 aśvamedha at;4 during the war with Bhaṇḍa, the Devī enclosed M. all round by a wall of fire;5 rivers taking their origin from.6

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 16; VII. 14. 32; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 18; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 17, 31; 124. 21; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 89; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 3.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 13. 17.
  • 3) Ib. III. 44. 36; 46. 29; Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 79. 12; IX. 16. 26.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 47. 39, 45; 56. 23; 57. 1; 58. 3; IV. 21. 2; 31. 17; 44. 99.
  • 5) Ib. IV. 26. 17-32.
  • 6) Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 106.

1c) A tīrtha sacred to the Piṭrs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 44.

2) Māhendra (माहेन्द्र).—A Rākṣasa of the Atalam.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 18.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) refers to the name of a Mountain or Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.83.14, III.85.16, III.114.26, VI.10.10). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mahendra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Mahendra also refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.21).

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Mahendra) is named Mahāvrata. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is one of the twelve princes born to Kuṃkumā, consort to Mīnanātha, who is the incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas. Mahendra was one of the six princes not having the authority to teach.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Māhendra (माहेन्द्र) or Māhendrāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Kāraṇāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Māhendra Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Kāraṇa-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Mahendra in Kavya glossary
Source: Aspects of Bengal society: Ship-building and commerce

Mahendra is the name of an ancient city mentioned by the author of the Kavikankan’s Chandikāvya pp. 195-202.—Accordingly, after the performance of the usual ceremonies before sailing, the merchant Dhanapati passed the following places: [...]—all by the side of the Ganges. Then he reached the very celebrated inland port of Bengal known as Saptagram near the Tribeni. The poet here incidentally praised this port and gave it a superiour place among the following ports and places: [e.g., Mahendra, etc...]. According to the poet the merchants of the above places visit Saptagram but the merchants of Saptagram do never visit those ports and places.

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha

Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—One of the eight kulaparvatas (boundary-mountains) mentioned by Soḍḍhala.—Mahendra is the whole range of hills extending from Orissa to the District of Madurā and was known by the name of Mahendra Parvata. It included the eastern ghāts and the range extending from the northern circars to Goṇḍavānā, part of which, near Gañjam is still called Mahendra Mālā or the hills of Mahendra.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, Rājaśekhara mentions Mahendra in the mountains of south India. But Kālidāsa in his Raghuvaṃśa (IV. 39-40) says, Mahendra is situated in the Kaliṅga country. However Rājaśekhara includes Kaliṅga both in the group of eastern as well as southern countries. So it is probable that, Mahendragiri located near Ganjam was the northern boundary of the Kaliṅga country.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Māhendra (माहेन्द्र).—Name of very ancient, pre-Paninian grammar ascribed to इन्द्र (indra) of which some references only are available. The grammar work is also referred to as ऐन्द्र (aindra); cf. यान्युञ्जहार महेन्द्राद् व्यासो व्याकरणार्णवात् । पदरत्नानि किं तानि सन्ति पाणिनिगेष्पदे (yānyuñjahāra mahendrād vyāso vyākaraṇārṇavāt | padaratnāni kiṃ tāni santi pāṇinigeṣpade) Devabodha's com. on the Mahabharata. For details see p. 124-27 Vol. VII Mahaabhaasya, D. E. Society's Edition.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) or Mahendrasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a sāttvika type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika (e.g., Mahendra-saṃhitā). b. Rājasa. c. Tāmasa.

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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of a region whose waters (i.e., rivers) produce various negative conditions, as mentioned in verse 5.11-12 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] (those) [rivers, viz., nadī] rising with the Prācyas, Avantis, and Aparāntas [produce] hemorrhoids; (those) [rivers] coming from the Mahendra [produce] abdominal swellings, elephantiasis, and indisposition; [...]”.

Note: The Mahendra is the Orissa chain, which runs from Gondwana to Orissa and the Northern Circars.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Māhendra (माहेन्द्र) is the name of a sacred mountain presided over by the Goddess Mahātārikā, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The subsidiary seats (upapīṭha) the goddess created by her gaze (avalokana) are four sacred mountains, of which one is Arbuda. A goddess resides on each mountain and exerts her authority there at Kubjikā’s behest, granting success (siddhi) to her devotees. They are: 1) Śrīśaila—Barbarā 2) Māhendra—Mahātārikā 3) Kailāśa—Kamalā 4) Arbuda—Koṅkaṇā.

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of a sacred place classified as an Upadvāra, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—The eight seats are the main group of eight groups [i.e., Mahendra] of eight types of sacred sites. The figure sixty-four is a common ideal number as it is often configured into eight groups of eight.

3) Māhendra (माहेन्द्र) is associated with letter "Va" of the Meruprasta (Grid of Meru), according to the Ṭīkā (commentary) on the Manthānabhairavatantra.—Accordingly, [while describing the process to extract Navātman from the grid of Meru]: “Now one should extract (Navātman) again from the grid of Meru. [...] The one beginning with Ma is Māhendra, (the letter) Va. [...] Thus (we get) SAHAKṢAMALAVARAYA-ŪṂ. Such is the basic form in the entire tradition (and so) the extraction of Navātman is complete. [...]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) refers to “leading deity (of the Godes)” [?], according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] The fourteen worlds, all Gods headed by Mahendra, the three embodiments [of the ultimate reality], and also the groups of sages headed by Vasiṣṭha, come into existence or cease to exist, O goddess, by the opening and closing of your eyes, because you embody all”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) refers to a mountain belonging to “Dakṣiṇa or Dakṣiṇadeśa (southern division)” classified under the constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā represent the southern division consisting of [i.e., Mahendra] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to a dwelling place or resort of the celestial nymphs (apsaras). They live chiefly on earth around rivers or on mountains, as in the courts of all the gods.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Mahendra (महेन्‍द्र): A King who had attained heaven. Also the name of a mountain upon which Hanumana rushes while searching Sita, shaking it in wrath and frightening every beast that lived in its woods and caves.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Mahendra).

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) also refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of a mountain associated with Aṭṭaṭṭahāsa: the north-eastern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the thirty-fifth of sixty digits (decimal place) in an special enumeration system mentioned by Vasubandhu in his Abhidharmakośa (“treasury of knowledge”). The explanations of the measure of years, eons, and so forth must be comprehended through calculation based on a numerical system. Enumeration begins from one and increases by a factor of ten for each shift in decimal place. The sixtieth number in this series is called “countless”.

Among these decimal positions (e.g., mahendra), the first nine positions from one to one hundred million are called ‘single set enumeration’. From a billion up to, but not including countless is “the enumeration of the great companion” and is called the ‘recurring enumeration’.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Māhendra (माहेन्द्र) refers to a heavenly abode (kalpa) inhabited by Kalpopapanna gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The Kalpopapannas (‘those born in the heavens’) represent a sub-species of the Vaimānika gods, which in turn represents the fourth main classification of devas (gods). This kalpa is also known as Māhendrakalpa. In this specific kalpa, instead of bodily coition, a more and more refined sort of sexual satisfaction takes its place. The associated leśyā is lotus-pink. There are ten such kalpas being ruled over by sixty-four Indras (heavenly kings).

In Jain iconography, the associated animal symbol of the Māhendra-kalpa is a lion (prakrit: sīha, sanskrit: siṃha). These animals are depicted in a cosmological text of the Śvetāmbara tradition known as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna (“jewel of the compilation”), also known as the Trailokyadīpikā (“illumination of the triple world”), written by Śrīcandra in the 12th century.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Mahendra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Māhendra (माहेन्द्र) is the name of a Vidyādhara-city, situated on mount Vaitāḍhya (in the northern row), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Taking their families and all their retinue and ascending the best of cars, they went to Vaitāḍhya. [...] Ten yojanas above the earth, King Vinami made at once sixty cities [viz., Māhendra] in a northern row at the command of the Nāga-king. [...]”.

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of an ancient king from Pāṭalīkhaṇḍa, according to chapter 3.5 [supārśva-caritra].

3) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of an ancient king from Śrīnandanapura, according to chapter 5.2 [śāntinātha-caritra].

4) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of an ancient king from the similarly-named city, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.2 [Rāvaṇa’s expedition of conquest].—Accordingly, “Now in this same Bharata on Mount Dantin near the ocean there was a Vidyādhara king, Mahendra, in the city Mahendra. By his wife Hṛdayasundarī he had a daughter, Añjanasundarī, besides a hundred sons, Arindama, etc. [...]”;

5) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of a mountain, according chapter 7.6 [Bringing news of Sītā].—Accordingly, “Māruti [i.e., Hanumat] bowed to Rāghava [i.e., Rāma] and went with his attendants to Laṅkāpurī in a very swift aerial car. As he went through the air, he saw the town, Mahendrapura, of his maternal grandfather, Mahendra, on the summit of Mount Mahendra. Hanumat thought: ‘That is Mahendra’s city, by whom my mother, though innocent, was banished at that time’ [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Māhendra (माहेन्द्र) refers to one of the sixteen heavens (kalpa) hosting the sixteen classes of empyrean celestial beings (vaimānika), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.19. The living beings residing in the vimānas are called the empyrean gods (vaimānika) and represents one of the four classes of Devas.

What is the number of layers in Sanatkumāra and Māhendra heavens? There are seven layers there. Which thought-colourations are there in Sānatkumāra-Māhendra gods? They have yellow and pink thought-colourations. What is the maximum lifespan of deities in Sānatkumāra and Māhendra kalpa? It is seven ocean-measured-periods (sāgara) for both.

Source: HereNow4u: Jain Dharma ka Maulika Itihasa (2)

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of an ancient king from Kampilapura.—[...] The ‘Śrī Pāsanāha Cariyaṃ’ gives the following description of Lord Pārśvanātha’s Gaṇadharas (principal disciples).—“[...] Vasiṣṭha was the Lord's third Gaṇadhara. He was the son of the king Mahendra of Kampilapura. He came to the Lord's first Samavaśaraṇa and being initiated there, became the third Gaṇadhara. ”.

Source: Tessitori Collection I

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of an ancient King, according to the “Añjanā-māhāsatī ro rāsa” (dealing with the lives of Jain female heroes), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—Accordingly, “Añjanā, the daughter of King Mahendra, was married to Pavana, son of Prahlāda. A conversation he had overheard before marriage persuaded him that Añjanā was attracted by another young man, whom her parents had vaguely considered as a possible match. He was no longer keen to marry her but finally got convinced to do so. However, he refused to come to her and did not consummate the marriage. [...]”.

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) or Mahendrasūri is the name of a teacher mentioned in the Bṛhadgaccha-gurvāvalī (dealing with Jain lineages history) (in Sanskrit/Prakrit/Gujarati).

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) is the name of one of the seven kulaparvata (clan mountain) of Bhāratavarṣa, associated with a distinct country or tribe.—As ascertained by Professor Hemachandra Raychaudhuri, Mahendra is the mountain par excellence of the Kaliṅgas. Among the kulaparvatas, Mahcedra comes first. Under the name of Mahida, it is said In the Nasik eulogy to have been conquered by Gautamīputra Śātakarṇi. About tbe term Mahcedra-giri in Allahabad Inscription of Samudragupta, we are not certain whether it denotes the famous kulaparvata or it is the name of a king.

Mr. Pargiter identified the Mahendra range with the portion of Eastern Ghats between the Godāvarī and Mahānadī rivers, part of which near Ganjam in Orissa. This portion of Eastern Ghats is still known by the names of Mahendra-giri and Mahendrā-cala. Raghuvaṃśa places Mahendra in Kaliṅga and Bhāgavata-purāṇa, between Gaṅgā-Sāgara-Saṅgama and Sapta-Godāvarī.

Source: Chaitanya’s life and teachings (history)

Mahendra is one of the places visited by Chaitanya during his pilgrimage in Southern India between April 1510 and January 1512.—Mahendra hill.—There is a peak of this name in the Travancore State, but too far from Cape Comorin.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) refers to one of the seven kulaparvatas (chief mountains) mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa. Mahendra refers to the eastern Ghats. Teste. Law, B. C. Historical Geography of Ancient India, pp. 19-23.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mahēndra (महेंद्र).—m S One of the seven principal chains of mountains in India.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Māhendra (माहेन्द्र).—a. (-ndrī f.)

1) Relating to or fit for Indra; माहेन्द्रमम्भः प्रथमं पृथिव्या (māhendramambhaḥ prathamaṃ pṛthivyā) Kumārasambhava 7.84; R.12.86.

2) Eastern.

-dram A kind of pearl; Kau. A.2.11.29.

-drī 1 The east.

2) A cow.

3) Name of Indrāṇī.

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Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—

1) 'the great Indra', Name of Indra; इयं महेन्द्रप्रभृतीनधिश्रियः (iyaṃ mahendraprabhṛtīnadhiśriyaḥ) Kumārasambhava 5.53; R.13.2; Manusmṛti 7.7.

2) a chief or leader in general.

3) Name of a mountain range; पतिर्महेन्द्रस्य महोदधेश्च (patirmahendrasya mahodadheśca) R.6.54;4.39,43. °चापः (cāpaḥ) rain-bow. °नगरी (nagarī) Name of Amarāvatī, the capital of Indra. °मन्त्रिन् (mantrin) m. an epithet of Bṛhaspati. °वाहः (vāhaḥ) the elephant Airāvata; महेन्द्रवाहप्रतिमो महात्मा (mahendravāhapratimo mahātmā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 9.17.52.

Derivable forms: mahendraḥ (महेन्द्रः).

Mahendra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms mahā and indra (इन्द्र).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—(1) m., a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 8023 (compare indra 2); (2) name of a king of Kanyakubja and of the Madras, father of Sudarśanā who married Kuśa; also Mahendraka 1, q.v.; in the Pali Kusa Jātaka (Pali) he is called Madda (= Madra), king of Sāgala: Mahāvastu ii.460.8; iii.27.19 (here °dra-nātha-; both prose); (3) name of a king of Hastinā- pura (also Mahendraka 2, q.v.): Mahāvastu iii.432.11; 433.4; the story told here is basically (tho with some confusion) the same that is told of Uruvela-Kassapa and his brothers in Pali (see Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names) 1.433 f.), in which Mahinda (3 in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)) is the father of the Buddha Phussa ([Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] Puṣya); (4) n. [Page427-b+ 71] of the well-known apostle to Ceylon (= Pali Mahinda 1 in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names)): Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 63.1; (5) name of a nāga king: Mahā-Māyūrī 246.15.

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Mahendra (महेन्द्र) or Mahendraka.—(1) 2: Mahāvastu ii.441.7; 442.9 etc. (prose); iii.13.16 (verse); (2) = Mahendra 3: Mahāvastu iii.432.16 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—m.

(-ndraḥ) Indra, the ruler of Swarga. 2. A range of mountains, one of the seven principal chains in Bharata-Barsha or India, and apparently the northern part of the Ghats of the peninsula. E. mahā chief, great, indra the deity.

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Māhendra (माहेन्द्र).—mfn.

(-ndraḥ-ndrā-ndraṃ) Relating to or belonging to Indra, fit or proper for, (as an oblation to him, &c.) f. (-ndrī) 1. The wife of Indra. 2. A cow. 3. The east. E. mahendra the deity, and aṇ aff.; also with cha, māhendriya, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Māhendra (माहेन्द्र).—i. e. mahā-indra + a, adj. Relating to Indra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mahendra (महेन्द्र).—[masculine] the great Indra ([abstract] tva† [neuter]) or a great king, [Name] of [several] kings.

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Māhendra (माहेन्द्र).—[feminine] ī great Indra's eastern; [with] dhanus [neuter] rainbow.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—guru of Jayasiṃha (Nyāyasāradīpikā). Io. 213.

2) Mahendra (महेन्द्र):—poet. [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva]

3) Mahendra (महेन्द्र):—Dravyāvalī.

4) Mahendra (महेन्द्र):—Vaidyakasaṃgraha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र):—[from mahā > mah] a m. the great Indra, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc. (also applied to Viṣṇu [Rāmāyaṇa] and Śiva [Śivagītā, ascribed to the padma-purāṇa])

2) [v.s. ...] a [particular] star, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] a great chief or leader (sarva-devānām), [Nalopākhyāna]

4) [v.s. ...] a [particular] high number, [Buddhist literature]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a younger brother (or son) of Aśoka (who carried the Buddhist doctrine into Ceylon), [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 59]

6) [v.s. ...] of another prince (= Kumāra-gupta), [Inscriptions]

7) [v.s. ...] of a poet, [Catalogue(s)]

8) [v.s. ...] of various other writers and teachers (also with ācārya and sūri), [ib.]

9) [v.s. ...] of a mountain or range of m° (said to be one of the 7 principal chains in India, and sometimes identified with the northern parts of the Ghats), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] of a Place, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

11) Mahendrā (महेन्द्रा):—[from mahendra > mahā > mah] f. Name of a river, [Mahābhārata]

12) Mahendra (महेन्द्र):—b etc. See p. 802, col. 1.

13) Māhendra (माहेन्द्र):—[from māhā] a mf(ī)n. ([from] mahendra) relating or belonging to great Indra, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc. (dram dhanus n. the rainbow; dram ambhas n. rain-water)

14) [v.s. ...] eastern, running or flowing eastward, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

15) [v.s. ...] m. (with, or [scilicet] graha q.v.) a [particular] ladleful, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

16) [v.s. ...] = śubha-daṇḍa-viśeṣa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) Name of the 7th Muhūrta

18) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) Name of a Kalpa (q.v.), [Dharmaśarmābhyudaya]

19) [v.s. ...] [patronymic] [Pravara texts]

20) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a dynasty, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

21) [from māhā] n. the asterism Jyeṣṭha, [Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā]

22) b See [column]2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mahendra (महेन्द्र):—[mahe+ndra] (ndraḥ) 1. m. Indra the ruler of heaven; a range of mountains.

2) Māhendra (माहेन्द्र):—[(ndraḥ-ndrī-ndraṃ) a.] Relating to Indra. f. Wife of Indra.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mahendra (महेन्द्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Mahiṃda, Māhiṃda.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mahendra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mahēṃdra (ಮಹೇಂದ್ರ):—

1) [noun] Indra, the lord of gods.

2) [noun] a man who rules, guides or inspires others; a leader.

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Māhēṃdra (ಮಾಹೇಂದ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] relating to Indra, the lord of gods.

2) [adjective] in, of, to, toward, facing or from the east.

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Māhēṃdra (ಮಾಹೇಂದ್ರ):—[noun] name of one of the mythological mountains.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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