Sumukhi, Sumukhī: 14 definitions

Introduction:

Sumukhi means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Sumukhī (सुमुखी):—Sanskrit name of one of the thirty-two female deities of the Somamaṇḍala (second maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra) according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. These goddesses are situated on a ring of sixteen petals and represent the thirty-two syllables of the Aghoramantra. Each deity (including Sumukhī) is small, plump and large-bellied. They can assume any form at will, have sixteen arms each, and are all mounted on a different animal.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Sumukhī (सुमुखी) is the name of an Apsara created for the sake of a type of dramatic perfomance. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.46-51, after Brahmā asked Bharata for materials necessary for the Graceful Style (kaiśikī: a type of performance, or prayoga), Bharata answered “This Style cannot be practised properly by men except with the help of women”. Therefore, Brahmā created with his mind several apsaras (celestial nymphs), such as Sumukhī, who were skillful in embellishing the drama.

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Sumukhī (सुमुखी) refers to “the fair-faced one” and is the presiding deity of jita (‘subdued’), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 67-84. Jita represents one of the sixteen words that together make up the elā musical composition (prabandha). Elā is an important subgenre of song and was regarded as an auspicious and important prabandha (composition) in ancient Indian music (gāndharva). According to nirukta analysis, the etymological meaning of elā can be explained as follows: a represents Viṣṇu, i represents Kāmadeva, la represents Lakṣmī.

Sumukhī is one of the sixteen deities presiding over the corresponding sixteen words of the elā-prabandha, all of which are defined in the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”): a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sumukhī (सुमुखी) refers to the “sweet-faced lady” and is used to describe Pārvatī (i.e., Umā/Śivā), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.7.—Accordingly, after the Goddess (Umā/Śivā) incarnated as Pārvatī by becoming the daughter of Menā:—“[...] In an auspicious hour, in the company of the sages, Himavat named his daughter Kālī and assigned other pleasing names to her. [...] The child was fondly attached to every member of the family, Hence the kinsmen called her Pārvatī, a name befitting her family. The girl had all the qualities of good conduct and behaviour. Afterwards when Kālī wanted to perform a penance she was forbidden by her mother who said—“O, no (Umā). Hence O sage, the sweetfaced lady [i.e., sumukhī] came to be called Umā in the world. [...]”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Sumukhī (सुमुखी).—Mother of the serpent called Aśvasena who dwelt on the serpent faced arrow (Sarpamukhabāna) of Karṇa in the battle of Kurukṣetra. She got the name Sumukhī as she protected her son by her mukha (face). (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 90, Verse 42).

2) Sumukhī (सुमुखी).—An apsarā woman of Alakāpurī. She once danced at Kubera’s court in honour of Aṣṭāvakra muni. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 45).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Sumukhī (सुमुखी).—A Laukikya Apsaras.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 10.

1b) A daughter of the Gandharvas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 10.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Sumukhī (सुमुखी) refers to a type of mūrchanā (melodic mode), and its illustration as a Goddess (according to 15th-century Indian art) is as follows.—The colour of her body is golden. She holds nafari with both hands. She wears a bodice of rosy colour, and a scarf of rosy colour, with a crimson-coloured design. She wears a lower garment of saffron-colour bearing a black design.

The illustrations (of, for example Sumukhī) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Sumukhī (सुमुखी) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Sumukhī corresponds to Drutapādagati (according to Bharata). Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

2) Sumukhī (सुमुखी) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (e.g., Sumukhī) in 20 verses.

3) Sumukhī (सुमुखी) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., sumukhī) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Sumukhī (सुमुखी) is the name of a antarasama-catuṣpadi metre (also known as Ardhasama), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Sumukhī is made up of 10 (4, 4, [S]) and 13 (4, 4, [S]) mātrās in their odd and even lines respectively.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Sumukhī (सुमुखी) is the name of an Apsaras, instructed by Śakra to help in the preparations of Ṛṣabha’s wedding-preparations, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly,

“[...] Then having ascertained the Lord’s purpose, Purandara at once summoned gods for the tasks of the wedding-preparations.—‘[...] What are you thinking, Mārīcī? What are you looking at, Sumukhī? Why are you not on this side, Gāndharvī?  [...]’. From the bustling of the Apsarases instructing each other in this way, and frequently calling names, a mighty tumult arose”.

2) Sumukhī (सुमुखी) is the name of a Vidyādhara-city, situated on mount Vaitāḍhya (in the southern row), according to chapter 1.3.—Accordingly,

“[...] Taking their families and all their retinue and ascending the best of cars, they went to Vaitāḍhya. [...] Ten yojanas above the earth, King Nami made fifty cities on the mountain in a southern row [viz., Sumukhī]. Nami himself lived in Śrīrathanūpuracakravāla, the capital city among these cities. [...] The two rows of Vidyādhara-cities looked very magnificent, as if the Vyantara rows above were reflected below. After making many villages [viz., Sumukhī] and suburbs, they established communities according to the suitability of place. The communities there were called by the same name as the community from which the men had been brought and put there. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sumukhī (सुमुखी):—[=su-mukhī] [from su-mukha > su > su-ma] f. a handsome woman, [Horace H. Wilson]

2) [v.s. ...] a mirror, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Kedāra’s Vṛtti-ratnākara]

4) [v.s. ...] (in music) a [particular] Mūrchanā, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

5) [v.s. ...] Clitoria Ternatea, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Evolvulus Asinioides, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sumukhī (सुमुखी) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sumuhī.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sumukhi in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sumukhī (सुमुखी):—(a and nm) (a) pretty-faced (woman), beautiful.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sumukhi (ಸುಮುಖಿ):—

1) [noun] a woman having a beautiful face; a beautiful woman.

2) [noun] (pros.) a meter having eleven syllables (uuu, u-u, u-u, u,-).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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