Virodha: 20 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Virodha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Virodh.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Virodha (विरोध) refers to “incompatibility”, and more specifically, it refers to foods that should not be taken together. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Virodha (विरोध):—Suppression, Obstruction

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Virodha (विरोध).—A son of Vāta, the Rākṣasa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 96.

1b) A son of Bāṣkala.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 79.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Virodha (विरोध, “hindrance”) refers to ‘frustration’ or impediment to the successful progression of the plot. Virodha represents one of the thirteen pratimukhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. This element is also known by the name Nirodha. Pratimukhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the progressing part (pratimukha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Virodha (विरोध) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Ancient Ālaṃkārikas Bhāmaha (III/24) Udbhaṭa (V/9), Daṇḍin (II/333) have treated the figure named virodha. Vāmana (IV/3.12), Mammaṭa (X/166) Viśvanātha (X/89) and Jagannātha (II/P. 427) and some others have mentioned the word ābhāsa in the definition of virodha. Some Ālaṃkarikas like Appyyadīkṣita and kavikarṇapura have given the name virodhābhāsa.

Cirañjīva and Jayadeva (the author of Candrāloka) has treated the figures virodha and virodhābhāsa separately. When contradiction appears in mutual connection among genus, attribute, action and substance it is the figure virodha. Cirañjīva (K.V.II/P. 34) defines it as—“virodho’nupapattiśced guṇadravyakriyādiṣu”. This definition occurs verbatim in the Candrāloka of Jayadeva (C.L.V/74). Cirañjīva is silent about the varieties of this virodha. In the Sāhityadarpaṇa of Viśvanātha the varieties of virodha have been mentioned clearly.

Example of the virodha-alaṃkāra:—

sa kīdṛśaḥ śītakaro yo māṃ dahati santatam |
sa ca kālaḥ kathaṃ krūro yo me śaraṇatāṃ gataḥ ||

“What type of pacifier is he who always torments me. How the god of death (Yama) under whom I have taken refuge be merciless”.

Notes: In this verse the pacifying nature of a person who is the tormentor is contradictory, similarly the cruelty of Yama under whom one has taken refuge is contradictory in nature. So this verse is an examples of virodha.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Natyashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Virodha (विरोध).—Opposition or conflict between two rules where, the rule which is subsequently mentioned is regarded as stronger and given preference to, as far as its application is concerned; cf. तुल्यबलयोर्विरोधो विप्र-तिषेधः । विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (tulyabalayorvirodho vipra-tiṣedhaḥ | vipratiṣedhe paraṃ kāryam) P.I.4.2; (2) contradiction where one thing prevents another; cf. सर्वनामस्थाने इति अनुवर्तमानमपि विरोधादिह न संबध्यते (sarvanāmasthāne iti anuvartamānamapi virodhādiha na saṃbadhyate) Kāś.on P.VII.1.86.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Virodha in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Virodha (विरोध, “contradiction”) refers to one of the various Alaṅkāras (‘figures of speech’) classified as Artha (‘sense’), as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—In the poem Bhīṣmacarita, the poet has deliberately used ‘virodha-alaṅkāra’. For instance, in VIII.4 the poet has aptly depicted the sorrow of king due to separation from Satyavatī, his beloved lady. During that time the king feels cool breeze of Monsoon even hot. The other example is I.9.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Kavya from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Virodha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

virodha : (m.) opposition; contradiction; obstruction.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Virodha, (vi+rodha1) obstruction, hindrance, opposition, enmity S. I, 111; IV, 71, 210; Sn. 362; Pug. 18, 22; Kvu 485; Miln. 394; DhsA. 39.—avirodha absence of obstruction, gentleness M. II, 105=Th. 1, 875; Pv III, 73. (Page 635)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

virōdha (विरोध).—m (S) Opposition; action or influence against; antagonism, contrariety, hostility. For ex. of comp. see under viruddha. 2 Inconsistency (in argument). 3 Antithesis or contrast.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

virōdha (विरोध).—m Opposition. Inconsistency. Contrast.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Virodha (विरोध).—

1) Opposition, obstruction, impediment.

2) Blockade, siege, investment.

3) Restraint, check.

4) Inconsistency, incongruity, contradiction; विरोधो न विद्यते ब्रह्माद्वितीयमेव सत्यम् (virodho na vidyate brahmādvitīyameva satyam) | (-tripādvibhūtimahānārāyaṇopaniṣat 4.2.)

5) Antithesis, contrast.

6) Enmity, hostility; विरोधो विश्रान्तः (virodho viśrāntaḥ) U.6.11; Pt.1.332; R.1.13.

7) A quarrel, disagreement.

8) A calamity, misfortune.

9) (In Rhet.) An apparent incongruity which is merely verbal and is explained away by properly construing the passage; it consists in representing objects as antithetical to one another though in the nature of things they are not so; representing things as being together though really they cannot be together; (this figure is largely used by Bāṇa and Subandhu; puṣpavatyapi pavitrā, kṛṣṇo'pyasudarśanaḥ, bharato'pi śatrughnaḥ being familiar instances;) it is thus defined by Mammaṭa :-विरोधः सोऽविरोधे- ऽपि विरुद्धत्वेन यद्वचः (virodhaḥ so'virodhe- 'pi viruddhatvena yadvacaḥ) K. P.1; this figure is also called विरोधाभास (virodhābhāsa)).

Derivable forms: virodhaḥ (विरोधः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodha (विरोध).—m.

(-dhaḥ) 1. Enmity, animosity. 2. Restraint, check, control, confinement. 3. Opposition, contradiction. 4. Preventing, hindrance. 5. War. 6. Calamity, misfortune. 7. Surrounding, investing, siege, blockade. 8. Impediment to a successful progress of the story, (in a play.) 9. Antithesis, contrast. 10. Opposition of qualities, (in articles of food or medicine, &c.) 11. Inconsistency, (in argument.) f. (-dhī) Fixed rule, ordinance, institute. E. vi before rudh to stop, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodha (विरोध).—i. e. vi-rudh + a, I. m. 1. Hindrance, impediment. 2. Restraint, check. 3. Opposition, [Pañcatantra] 162, 14; Chr. 56, 16; contradiction, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 211, 18; [Kusumāñjali, (ed. Cowell.)] 3, 8; i. [distich] 147. 4. Inconsistency (in argument). 5. Surrounding. 6. Siege, blockade. 7. Enmity, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 146, 1; [Pañcatantra] 148, 10. 8. War. 9. Calamity. Ii. f. dhī, Fixed rule, institute.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodha (विरोध).—[masculine] obstruction, hindrance, disturbance; opposition, contradiction; adversity, injury, detriment, calamity; hostility, contest between ([instrumental] ±saha or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Virodha (विरोध) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[nyāya] Oppert. Ii, 887. 1164.
—by Gadādhara. Oppert. Ii, 3802.

2) Virodha (विरोध):—[nyāya] by Gadādhara. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 85.

3) Virodha (विरोध):—[nyāya] by Gadādhara. Hz. 1248.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Virodha (विरोध):—[=vi-rodha] [from vi-rudh] m. opposition, hostility, quarrel, strife between ([genitive case], rarely [instrumental case], or [compound]) or with ([instrumental case] with or without saha, or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] hostile contact of inanimate objects (as of planets etc.), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

3) [v.s. ...] (logical) contradiction, contrariety, antithesis, inconsistency, incompatibility, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kaṇāda’s Vaiśeṣika-sūtra] [Kapila] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) conflict with, injury of ([instrumental case] = at the cost or to the detriment of), [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata]

5) [v.s. ...] hindrance, prevention, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra]

6) [v.s. ...] blockade, siege, [Horace H. Wilson]

7) [v.s. ...] adversity, calamity, misfortune, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] perversity, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

9) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) an apparent contradiction or incongruity (e.g. bharato pi śatru-ghnaḥ), [Kāvyaprakāśa]

10) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) impediment to the successful progress of a plot, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodha (विरोध):—[vi-rodha] (dhaḥ) 1. m. Enmity; barrier; restraint; opposition; obstacle; contrast; incompatibility; inconclusiveness; siege. f. Fixed rule, institute.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Virodha (विरोध):—(wie eben) m.

1) feindseliges Auftreten, Feindseligkeit, Zwist, Hader, Streit [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 7, 25. 3, 4, 24, 154.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 730.] uttarottaravākyaṃ tu virodha iti saṃjñitaḥ [Bharata] [NĀṬYAŚ. 19, 92. 65.] anurodhavirodhābhyām [Mahābhārata 12, 9980.] virodhāya zum Streite [?1, 2502. 4, 1588. Harivaṃśa 5271. Spr. 5185. Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 8, 51 (pl.).] ko virodhaḥ wozu nützt das Streiten [Prabodhacandrodaja 22, 19.] antara [86, 19] (Gegens. sāhitya). pūrva [Pañcatantra 148, 10.] virodhaṃ nādhigacchati [Spr. 4354.] viśrānta [UTTARAR. 107, 17 (146, 1).] śamana [DAŚAR. 1, 42.] naisargiko tyutsasṛje virodhaḥ [Raghuvaṃśa 6, 46.] devānāṃ daityānāṃ ca [Harivaṃśa 238.] yādavānām mit [5266.] virodho vā sneho vāpīha dehinām [Kathāsaritsāgara 23, 30.] kurupāṇḍavānāṃ tīvro virodhaḥ [Spr. (II) 1406.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 47, 13.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 13, 44.] tatastayormithastatra virodhaḥ samajāyata [Mahābhārata 1, 3285.] teṣāṃ virodho nyonyamudyayau [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 687.] virodhaṃ janayāmāsa tayoḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 75, 15.] virodhe tu mahadyuddhamabhavat [16 (77, 19] [Gorresio).] virodhaḥ syādyathā tābhyāmanyonyena [Mahābhārata 1, 7699.] iṣṭamitraiḥ [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 89, 11.] virodhe devadānavaiḥ zwischen den Göttern und den Dānava [Mahābhārata 9, 2949.] bhrātrā jyeṣṭhena virodhaṃ gantumarhati [Harivaṃśa 7385.] na virodho balavatā kṣamo rāvaṇa tena te [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 1, 49 (53 Gorresio).] [Spr. 1950.] mitraiḥ saha virodhaṃ ca prāpnute [Mahābhārata 3, 1046. 13080.] [Mṛcchakaṭikā 98, 14.] kṛtvā virodhaṃ viṣayasthitānām (rājā) [Spr. (II) 1760.] virodhaṃ kurute cānyā daṃpatyoḥ verwickelt sie in Streit [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 51, 29.] [Spr. (II) 1760] (die Uebersetzung demnach zu verbessern). [Pañcatantra 91, 8.] akāraṇavirodhaṃ ca vayaṃ tāvanna kurmahe einen Streit beginnen [Kathāsaritsāgara 45, 166.] anyonyaṃ na kartavyo virodhaḥ [50, 114.] yadubhiḥ [Harivaṃśa 8024.] [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 11, 14.] yatibhiḥ saha [Harivaṃśa 15648.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 6, 126.] [Pañcatantra 162, 14.] brāhmaṇa Streit mit [Mahābhārata 13, 2108. 2162.] [Raghuvaṃśa 10, 13.] [Spr. (II) 316. 2224. (I) 2147.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 45, 147. 49, 66.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 5, 47.] pitāputra zwischen Vater und Sohn [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 239.] [Mahābhārata 13,] [?2878.Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 3, 27. 5, 21. 9, 32. 11, 10. 17, 4. 53, 41.] paraspara [Kathāsaritsāgara 15, 140.] a freundliches Verhältniss: kriyatāmavirodhastu rāghaveṇa [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 95, 14.] brahmakṣatrāvirodhena pūjāṃ ca prāpnuyāmaham [Mahābhārata 13, 1935.] devāsurāṇāṃ sarveṣāmavirodhaḥ [Harivaṃśa 8752.] feindliche Berührung unbelebter Gegenstände: aṃśuvirodhe wenn die Strahlen (zweier Planeten) in feindliche Berührung mit einander kommen [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 17, 5.] —

2) (logischer) Widerstreit, Widerspruch, Unvereinbarkeit; = vipratipatti, vyāghāta, asahabhāva Comm. zu [NYĀYAS. 1, 1, 23.] arthadravya [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 1, 4, 16. 5, 5. 4, 3, 9. 25, 11, 10.] [KAṆ. 10, 1, 1.] [Kapila 1, 36. 114.] [Yogasūtra 2, 15.] [Amarakoṣa 3, 6, 8, 46.] smṛtyoḥ [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 21.] daivaṃ hi mānuṣopetaṃ bhṛśaṃ sidhyati parasparavirodhāddhi siddhirasti na caitayoḥ [Mahābhārata 5, 7471.] visarjayati yadyeka (Vogel) ekaśca pratiṣedhati . sa virodho śubho yātuḥ [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 86, 54.] cittaceṣṭā [104, 7.] ekagrahasya phalayorvirodhe [BṚH. 8, 23.] iti mahati virodhe vartamāne samāne [Spr. 1443.] [] zu [Bṛhadāranyakopaniṣad] [S. 30. 39.] tarkaiḥ [Madhusūdanasarasvatī’s Prasthānabheda] in [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 19, 24. 26. 20, 2. 3.] svavacana [Sāhityadarpana 6, 19. 718.] tulyabalayoḥ [?738. Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 4, 2, Scholiast Kullūka zu Manu’s Gesetzbuch 11, 82.] nahi virodha ubhayam [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 6, 9, 35.] [Vedānta lecture No. 90.] [KUSUM. 17, 3. 30, 1.] loka das im Widerspruch-Stehen mit der Ansicht des Volkes [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 58, 29.] [Nīlakaṇṭha 164.] [Siddhāntakaumudī] zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 6, 1, 150. 7, 2, 10.] [SARVADARŚANAS. 9, 15. fg. 14, 20. 16, 1. 22, 15. 42, 15. 45, 1. 61, 20. 122, 7.] a (s. auch bes.) [89, 2.] virodha unter den Arthālaṃkāra [Oxforder Handschriften 208,b,5.] —

3) Conflict mit so v. a. Beeinträchtigung: prāṇavirodhena auf Kosten von [Mahābhārata 3, 16960.] a Abwesenheit eines Conflictes mit so v. a. Nichtbeeinträchtigung: pitṛdravyāvirodhena ohne Nachtheil für [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 118. 175.] avirodhena dharmasya [Mahābhārata 1, 3270.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 27, 4. 109, 8.] dharmāvirodhena [66, 4.] śarīrasyāvirodhena [Mahābhārata 3, 16959.] svārthāvi [Spr. (II) 1460. 1684.] [KĀM. NĪTIS. 14, 39.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 3, 7, 32. 22, 33.] —

4) das in Noth-Gerathen (vyasanaprāpti) [Sāhityadarpana 359.] Widerwärtigkeit [WEBER, Rāmatāpanīya Upaniṣad 356] (pl.). —

5) Verkehrtheit: kurvaṃścāvidhinā karma virodhaphalamaśnute [Kathāsaritsāgara 64, 14.] —

6) fehlerhaft für nirodha [Mahābhārata 14, 573] (ed. Bomb. ni) . [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 76] in der Unterschr. cittavṛtti [Weber’s Indische Studien 1, 22, 19.fg.]

--- OR ---

Virodha (विरोध):—

2) am Ende [VĀMANA 4, 3, 12] hinzuzufügen. Es ist die scheinbare Ungereimtheit als eine Form der Upamā gemeint.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Virodha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Virodha (विरोध) [Also spelled virodh]:—(nm) opposition, antagonism; hostility; resistance, objection; antimony, contrariety; protest; contradiction; —[karanā] to oppose; to resist; to object; to protest; to contradict; to contest; to strike a blow against; to set one’s face against.

context information

...

Discover the meaning of virodha in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: