Virodha; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Virodha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Virodha (विरोध) refers to “incompatibility”, and more specifically, it refers to foods that should not be taken together. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana

Virodha in Purana glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

1a) Virodha (विरोध).—A son of Vāta, the Rākṣasa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 96.

1b) A son of Bāṣkala.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 79.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Virodha (विरोध, “hindrance”) refers to ‘frustration’ or impediment to the successful progression of the plot. Virodha represents one of the thirteen pratimukhasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. This element is also known by the name Nirodha. Pratimukhasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the progressing part (pratimukha)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Virodha (विरोध) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Ancient Ālaṃkārikas Bhāmaha (III/24) Udbhaṭa (V/9), Daṇḍin (II/333) have treated the figure named virodha. Vāmana (IV/3.12), Mammaṭa (X/166) Viśvanātha (X/89) and Jagannātha (II/P. 427) and some others have mentioned the word ābhāsa in the definition of virodha. Some Ālaṃkarikas like Appyyadīkṣita and kavikarṇapura have given the name virodhābhāsa.

Cirañjīva and Jayadeva (the author of Candrāloka) has treated the figures virodha and virodhābhāsa separately. When contradiction appears in mutual connection among genus, attribute, action and substance it is the figure virodha. Cirañjīva (K.V.II/P. 34) defines it as—“virodho’nupapattiśced guṇadravyakriyādiṣu”. This definition occurs verbatim in the Candrāloka of Jayadeva (C.L.V/74). Cirañjīva is silent about the varieties of this virodha. In the Sāhityadarpaṇa of Viśvanātha the varieties of virodha have been mentioned clearly.

Example of the virodha-alaṃkāra:—

sa kīdṛśaḥ śītakaro yo māṃ dahati santatam |
sa ca kālaḥ kathaṃ krūro yo me śaraṇatāṃ gataḥ ||

“What type of pacifier is he who always torments me. How the god of death (Yama) under whom I have taken refuge be merciless”.

Notes: In this verse the pacifying nature of a person who is the tormentor is contradictory, similarly the cruelty of Yama under whom one has taken refuge is contradictory in nature. So this verse is an examples of virodha.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Virodha (विरोध).—Opposition or conflict between two rules where, the rule which is subsequently mentioned is regarded as stronger and given preference to, as far as its application is concerned; cf. तुल्यबलयोर्विरोधो विप्र-तिषेधः । विप्रतिषेधे परं कार्यम् (tulyabalayorvirodho vipra-tiṣedhaḥ | vipratiṣedhe paraṃ kāryam) P.I.4.2; (2) contradiction where one thing prevents another; cf. सर्वनामस्थाने इति अनुवर्तमानमपि विरोधादिह न संबध्यते (sarvanāmasthāne iti anuvartamānamapi virodhādiha na saṃbadhyate) Kāś.on P.VII.1.86.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Virodha in Pali glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

virodha : (m.) opposition; contradiction; obstruction.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Virodha, (vi+rodha1) obstruction, hindrance, opposition, enmity S. I, 111; IV, 71, 210; Sn. 362; Pug. 18, 22; Kvu 485; Miln. 394; DhsA. 39.—avirodha absence of obstruction, gentleness M. II, 105=Th. 1, 875; Pv III, 73. (Page 635)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Virodha in Marathi glossary... « previous · [V] · next »

virōdha (विरोध).—m (S) Opposition; action or influence against; antagonism, contrariety, hostility. For ex. of comp. see under viruddha. 2 Inconsistency (in argument). 3 Antithesis or contrast.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

virōdha (विरोध).—m Opposition. Inconsistency. Contrast.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Virodha (विरोध).—

1) Opposition, obstruction, impediment.

2) Blockade, siege, investment.

3) Restraint, check.

4) Inconsistency, incongruity, contradiction; विरोधो न विद्यते ब्रह्माद्वितीयमेव सत्यम् (virodho na vidyate brahmādvitīyameva satyam) | (-tripādvibhūtimahānārāyaṇopaniṣat 4.2.)

5) Antithesis, contrast.

6) Enmity, hostility; विरोधो विश्रान्तः (virodho viśrāntaḥ) U.6.11; Pt.1.332; R.1.13.

7) A quarrel, disagreement.

8) A calamity, misfortune.

9) (In Rhet.) An apparent incongruity which is merely verbal and is explained away by properly construing the passage; it consists in representing objects as antithetical to one another though in the nature of things they are not so; representing things as being together though really they cannot be together; (this figure is largely used by Bāṇa and Subandhu; puṣpavatyapi pavitrā, kṛṣṇo'pyasudarśanaḥ, bharato'pi śatrughnaḥ being familiar instances;) it is thus defined by Mammaṭa :-विरोधः सोऽविरोधे- ऽपि विरुद्धत्वेन यद्वचः (virodhaḥ so'virodhe- 'pi viruddhatvena yadvacaḥ) K. P.1; this figure is also called विरोधाभास (virodhābhāsa)).

Derivable forms: virodhaḥ (विरोधः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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