Dhruva, Dhruvā: 41 definitions


Dhruva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Dhruva (ध्रुव):—One of the three sons of Rantināva (son of Ṛteyu). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.20.6)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—One of the ten sons of Priyavrata, who was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

2) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—One of the sons of Medhātithi, who was a son of Priyavrata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Priyavrata was a son o. Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—Birth and childhood. Manu Svāyambhuva the son of Brahmā, had two sons named Priyavrata and Uttānapāda. They were mighty heroes and of righteous character. Uttānapāda had two wives, Suruci and Sunīti. Suruci gave birth to Uttama and Sunīti to Dhruva. Uttānapāda showed more favour towards Uttama and Suruci. But he looked upon Dhruva and his mother with disfavour. (See full article at Story of Dhruva from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—He was the son of Nahuṣa and the brother of Yayāti. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 75, Stanza 30)

3) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A king. He sits in the council of Yama and serves him. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 10)

4) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas against the Pāṇḍavas. He was killed by Bhīmasena (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 155, Stanza 27)

5) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A king who supported Yudhiṣṭhira. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 39).

6) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A son born to Dharmadeva by his wife Dhūmrā. He was one of the aṣṭa Vasus (eight Vasus) (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 19).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A son of Uttānapāda and Sunīti (bhā. p. & vi. p.)—(m., br. & vā. p. speak of Sūnṛtā as his mother). A grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu; hated by his father's more beloved wife, Suruci, took leave of his mother to go to the forest; met Nārada and was blessed, advised and initiated by the sage; as a child of five went to Madhuvana on the bank of the Yamunā; continued to meditate on the Lord's glory for a period of 10,000 years, sometime eating roots and fruits, and sometime fasting; sought refuge in Viṣṇu, standing on one foot to the great consternation of gods.1 Hari appeared before him, and touching his baby cheeks, conferred on him divine speech; his praise of the Lord; assuring him a place in the mansion of the luminaries, Hari asked him to go home and rule righteously which he did for 36,000 years. Dhruva's return was welcomed by the king and his queens; bowed to his parents and embraced Uttāna; was welcomed by the citizens; getting old, the king anointed Dhruva and retired to forest.2 Had two queens: one was Bhramī who gave birth to Kalpa and Vatsara; the other Ilā whose son was Utkala. (According to Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa one wife was Bhūmī who gave birth to Sṛṣṭi and Bhavya; according to Matsya-purāṇa Dhanyā, the daughter of Manas was one of his queens and her son was Śiṣṭa.).

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. ch. 8. (whole); Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 88-95; Matsya-purāṇa 4. 35-36; 143. 38; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 75-78.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. ch. 9. (whole).

1b) A Vasu,1 married Dharaṇī and gave birth to several cities.2 Father of Bhava, Kāla and Lokaprakālana.3

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 5. 21-3; 203. 3-4.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11-12; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 20-2.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 19; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 110-11.

1c) A son of Rantibhāra (Ranti, the righteous, Vāyu-purāṇa).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 20. 6. Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 129.

1d) A son of Vasudeva and Rohiṇī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 46.

1e) A son of Medhātithi and founder of the kingdom, Dhruvam, in Plakṣadvīpa; attained heaven by tapas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 37-9; 30. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 33; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 4-5.

1f) A Vaikuṇṭha God.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 57.

1g) A God of Lekha group.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 75.

1h) A son of Angada.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 220.

1i) One of the eleven Rudras.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 153. 19.

1j) A son of Dharma and Sudevī.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 46.

1k) A Rājaṛṣi.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 57. 122.

1l) The presiding deity on Uttiramandira etc. (music).*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 56.

1m) A son of Viśvāmitra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 66. 68; Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 96.

1n) A son of Antīnara.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 4.

1o) —(c)—adjoining the Vaibhrāja hill in Plakṣadvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 39; 19. 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 14.

1p) A Sukha god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 19.

1q) Same as Mahādruma.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 25.

1r) A mukhya gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 19.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Dhruva (ध्रुव) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.17) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Dhruva) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to the son of Uttānapāda: one of the two sons of Manu-svāyaṃbhuva and Śatarūpā, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] By penance Śatarūpā got Manu as her husband. As a result two sons—Priyavrata and Uttānapāda and two daughters—Ākūti and Prasūti were born. [...] Uttānapāda’s son was Dhruva who achieved the highest place of worshipping Nārāyaṇa. Dhruva had four sons—Sṛṣṭi, Dhanya, Harya and Śaṃbhu; they all were Vaiṣṇavas.

2) Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to one of the eight Vasus who are the sons of Vasu, according to another account of Vaṃśa.—Accordingly, the ten wives of Dharma are [viz., Vasu]. The Vasus were born from Vasu. The eight Vasus are Āpa, Nala, Soma, Dhruva, Anila, Anala, Pratyuṣa and Prabhāsa. But the Pañcalakṣaṇa text gives Dhara instead of Nala. Kāla (the chastiser of the world) is the son of Dhruva.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā

Dhruvā (ध्रुवा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Gola, the sixth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (e.g. Dhruvā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to “certainly”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] If one torments the body with rain, cold and heat, …, devoted to recitation and meditation, this is called the Great Observance. A woman skilled in the pleasures of love-making, endowed with beauty and youth; such a woman one should procure, holding one’s senses back from the objects of the senses, and one should kiss and embrace [her], placing the penis upon her sex while remaining focussed upon recitation and meditation—one performs [thus] the Sword-Blade Observance. If one should succumb to the control of desire, then one certainly (dhruva) falls into hell. [...]”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to “(one who is) immovable” and is used to describe Amṛteśa, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 9.5-11, while explaining the universality of Amṛteśa]—“Amṛteśa is supreme. He is free of disease. His nature is inherent, fully enumerated, constant, eternal, and immovable (dhruvadhruvam). [He has] no form or color, and is the highest truth. Because of that, he is omnipresent. The splendid Deva delights in all āgamas, pervades all mantras, and grants all siddhis. In this way, he is like a transparent crystal sewn onto a colored thread, always reflected with its color, [and] seeking [to] look like this and that. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

Kavya (poetry)

Source: Google Books: Plays of Kalidas

Dhruvā (ध्रुवा).—A type of song to which the Nāṭyaśāstra devotes all of chapter 32. Dhruvās figure prominently in the preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). About them Bharata says, “Just as a well-built dwelling does not become beatiful without color, so without song the drama gives no joy (Nāṭyaśāstra 32.23-24)”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Kavya from relevant books on Exotic India

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) refers to one of the four varieties of the audible tāla, According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “the alternate placing (lit. falling) of these, is known as the pāta. These are to be known śamyā, tāla and sannipāta. The śamyā is of the right hand, the tāla of the left hand, and the two hands coming together is the sannipāta, and the dhruvā is stopping (lit. falling) for a mātrā, and it makes for the way of the rāgas, and moreover the placing (lit. falling) of the three kalās mentioned before, is also called dhruvā”. The tāla is so called because it measures time by a division of songs into kalās”.

2) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) refers to “songs”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra verse 6.10, there are five kinds of songs defined:

  1. entering (praveśa), or ‘songs to indicate entering’,
  2. casual (ākṣepa), or ‘songs to indicate unexpected or interposed happening’,
  3. going out (niskrama), or ‘songs to indicate leaving’,
  4. pleasing (prāsādika), ‘songs to indicate pleasing’,
  5. and intermediate (āntara), or ‘songs for filling the gap’.

According to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32, “Songs consisting of one, two, three and four vastus are respectively called the Dhruvā, Parigītikā, Madraka and Catuṣpadā. The dhruvā is so called, because in it words, varṇas, alaṃkāra, tempo (laya), jāti and pāṇis are regularly (dhruvaṃ) connected with one another”.

The following ten dhrūvas are defined in this chapter:

  1. Ṛk,
  2. Pāṇikā,
  3. Gāthā,
  4. Madraka,
  5. Ullopyaka,
  6. Aparāntaka,
  7. Prakarī,
  8. Oveṇaka,
  9. Rovindaka,
  10. Uttara.

The limbs (aṅga), according to verse 32.4-6, “the five classes of dhruvās have always the following limbs (aṅga)”:

  1. Mukha,
  2. Pratimukha,
  3. Vaihāyasaka,
  4. Sthita,
  5. Pravṛtta,
  6. Vajra,
  7. Sandhi,
  8. Saṃharaṇa,
  9. Prastāra,
  10. Upavarta,
  11. Māṣaghāta,
  12. Caturasra,
  13. Upapāta,
  14. Praveṇī,
  15. Śīrṣaka,
  16. Saṃpiṣṭaka,
  17. Antāharaṇa,
  18. Mahājanika.

The limbs (aṅga), according to verse 32.9-16, “depending on different conditions, the dhruvās are known to be of five classes. I shall speak of the seven limbs which they consist of”:

  1. Limbs of the Prāveśikī-dhruvā are Upaghāta, Pravṛtta, Vajra and Śīrṣaka.
  2. Limbs of the Aḍḍitā-dhruvā are Prastāra, Māṣaghātā, Mahājanika, Praveṇī and Upapāta.
  3. Limbs of the Avakṛṣṭā-dhruvā, are Mukha and Pratimukha,
  4. Limbs of the Sthitā Dhruvā, are Vaihāyasa and Antāharaṇa.
  5. Limbs of the Khañja-nātkuṭā-dhruvā, are Saṃhāra (Saṃharaṇa) and Caturasra.
  6. Limbs of the Antarā-dhruvā, are Sandhi and Prastāra.
  7. The limbs of all songs, which have been mentioned before are Vṛtta, Vivadha and Ekaka.

According to verse 32.24-25, “Dhruvās originating in various metres are of five kinds. According to Sentiments which they contain they are superior, middling and inferior. Dhruvās are of three classes: Kaniṣṭhikāgrahā, Sannipātāgrahā, and Apagrahā”.

3) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Natyashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—Fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव (dhruva)) which is termed अपादान (apādāna) and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् (dhruvamapāye'pādānam) P. I. 4.24;

2) Dhruva.—Repeated sound (नाद (nāda)) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; cf. R. Pr. VI. II and XI. 24.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Dhruva (ध्रुव) or Dhruvaketu refers to a particular type of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).— Accordingly, “Raśmi Ketu is a comet possessing a tail slightly coloured like smoke; it appears in the constellation of Kṛttikā. The effects are the same as those assigned to Sveta Ketu. Dhruva Ketu is a comet possessing no fixed course, colour or shape and appears anywhere in the heavens, in the sky and on Earth. When it appears glossy, mankind will be happy. To those whose death might be near this Ketu appears in the several divisions of the King’s army, in houses, in trees, in hills and in household utensils”.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Dhruva (ध्रुव).—Pole of the celestial equator. Note: Dhruva is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Jyotisha from relevant books on Exotic India

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.191-194.—Accordingly, “Dhruva who is to be meditated upon, illumines ten directions. It is filled with the hairs in the body; and calm. Its age is sixteen years. It has the eyes resembling lotus. He holds the discus having brilliance all round and bears the mace in the body and śakti as having the name ādhāra. He stands like a pillar in the mansion of the universe. He is in the form of sky and air and thus different with diverse character”.

These Vibhavas (e.g., Dhruva) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Pancaratra from relevant books on Exotic India

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Dhruva [ध्रुवा] in the Hindi language is the name of a plant identified with Pleurolobus gangeticus (L.) J.St.-Hil. ex H.Ohashi & K.Ohashi from the Fabaceae (Pea) family having the following synonyms: Desmodium gangeticum, Hedysarum gangeticum. For the possible medicinal usage of dhruva, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Dhruva [ध्रुवा] in the Sanskrit language, ibid. previous identification.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) is another name for Śāliparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Desmodium gangeticum (sal leaved desmodium), from the Fabaceae or “legume” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.17-20 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Dhruvā and Śāliparṇī, there are a total of twenty-nine Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to:—A devotee who, when only five years old, performed severe austerities and realized the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who awarded him the Pole Star. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Vaishnavism from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) refers to one who is “fixed one”, and is used to describe the Goddess, according to the Bhairavīstotra in the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Victory! Victory (to you) O goddess (bhagavatī)! [...] Omnipresent goddess! Rudrāṇī! Raudrī! Firmly fixed one (dhruvā)! Salvation from the world of transmigration, which is terrible and hard to traverse! Salutation (to you) whose nature is inaccessible (to the fettered)! Deformed one! Supreme one! Daughter of the Himalayas! Mother of the world! Seed of the universe! [...]”

2) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) refers to the “abode of Rudra” and is used to describe the Goddess.—The Kubjikāmatatantra declares that by its power the adept: “sees all things before him and knows (them as they truly are)”. In the highest stage of her ascent Rudraśakti first reaches the abode of Rudra which the ancient Pāśupatas called Dhruva—the world of the pole star which is “Fixed” or “Stable” (both meanings of the word “dhruva”). From there she rises to the summit of Kubjikā’s universe, where she herself resides in the form of the Command. [...]

3) Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to “well-fixed”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “The plane of the One-footed (ekapāda i.e. the letter E) is where the Skyfarer is in the Skyfarer within the Cavity of the Hair. Śrīdeva is above Meru (the triangle above the head) (merupaścima) in the essential nature of the Void, which is the threefold measure (of energy). (This is) where everything consists of Space and is the Cavity (vivara), which is the nectar of Fire (vāḍava). There, above, in the Void is the supreme god. (He is) the moonbeam (candrāṃśu) that, well-fixed [i.e., dhruva], oozes (nectar). The (energy of the) Full Moon (pūrṇamāsā) resides as the teacher's being (gurutva) on the plane of the Skyfarer”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

1) Dhruva (ध्रुव) in the Sūtras denotes the pole star, being mentioned in connexion with the marriage ritual, in which the star is pointed out to the bride as an emblem of constancy. In the Maitrāyaṇī-upaniṣad, a late work, the movement of the Dhruvā (dhruvasya pracalanam) is mentioned. Jacobi sees in the motion of the Dhruvā the possibility of fixing a date, on the ground that the only star which could have been deemed a pole star, as ‘ immovable,’ was one (α Draconis) of the third millenium b.c.

2) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा, ‘fixed’) as an epithet of Diś, ‘cardinal point’, denotes the ground under one’s feet.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Dhruva (ध्रुव): Dhruva was the prince blessed to eternal existence and glory as the Pole Star (Dhruva Nakshatra in Sanskrit) by Lord Vishnu. The story of Dhruva's life is often told to Hindu children as an example for perseverance, devotion, steadfastness and fearlessness.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Dhruva).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Dhruva (ध्रुव, “permanent”).—What is the meaning of permanent /lasting (dhruva) knowledge? The lasting knowledge (for a long time) of an object is called dhruva knowledge e.g. knowledge of the top / dome of the temple.

The opposite (setara) of dhruva is adhruva (transitory).—The knowledge which does not stay constant for long after its complete acquisition once e.g. knowing the clouds when they appeared and then not knowing them after they disappear.

according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.16, “The subdivisions of each of these (kinds of mati, or ‘mind-based knowledge’) are: more, many kinds, quick, hidden, unexpressed, lasting (dhruva), and their opposites”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Dhruva (ध्रुव) (Cf. Nityatā) refers to “(that which is) permanent”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] But there is nothing in the world which is permanent (dhruvana kiṃcit saṃsāre samuditaṃ dhruvam) except the natural characteristics of knowledge and perception of the self. This is contemplation on the transitory nature of things. He who contemplates thus is free from intense attachment to persons and things, and hence he does not feel stress when he loses them or separates from them as in the case of the garlands used and cast off”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geography

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras

Dhruva (ध्रुव) is another name for Nirupama of the Rāṣṭrakūṭa line of kings, is mentioned in the Paṭṭaṇakuḍi plates of Avasara II.—“Govindarāja was followed be Nirupama (Dhruva); and after him, Jagattuṅga (Gōvinda III)”.

These copper plates (mentioning Dhruva) were found by a Brāhmaṇa of Khārepāṭan, a town in the Devagaḍ tālukā of the Ratnāgiri District. The inscription refers itself to the reign of the Śilāra king, Māṇḍalika Raṭṭarāja. As his predecessors were loyal feudatories of the Rāṣṭrakūṭas, it gives first the genealogy of that family from Dantidurga to Kakkala. The inscription is dated, in lines 41-42, on the full-moon tithi of Jyeṣṭha in the śaka year 930, the cyclic year being Kīlaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Dhruva.—(EI 16, 32; HD), [a collector of] the fixed royal share of grains; contraction of Dhruv-ādhikaraṇika; cf. the Gujarātī family name Dhruva; same as dhruva-sthāna. See Bomb. Gaz., Vol. I, Part i, p. 477. (IE 7-1-2), ‘one’. (CII 1), regular. Note: dhruva is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Dhruvā.—(CII 1), certainty. Note: dhruvā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Dhruva in India is the name of a plant defined with Desmodium gangeticum in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Hedysarum collinum Roxb. (among others).

2) Dhruva is also identified with Ficus benghalensis It has the synonym Ficus cotoneaefolia Vahl (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Linnaea (1850)
· Plant Systematics and Evolution (1987)
· Fl. Indo-Chine (1920)
· Methodus (Moench) (1794)
· Encyclopédie Méthodique, Botanique (1805)
· Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1963)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Dhruva, for example pregnancy safety, health benefits, diet and recipes, side effects, chemical composition, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Biology from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dhruva (ध्रुव).—m (S) The polar star; also the north pole. 2 The twelfth of the twenty-seven astronomical Yog. 3 The introductory stanza of a song. It is repeated after each of the stanzas as a burden or chorus.

--- OR ---

dhruva (ध्रुव).—a S Fixed, stable, firm, constant, established.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dhruva (ध्रुव).—m The polar star; the north pole.

--- OR ---

dhruva (ध्रुव).—a Fixed, stable, firm, constant, established.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dhruva (ध्रुव).—a.

1) (a) Fixed, firm, immovable, stable, permanent, constant, unchangeable; इति ध्रुवेच्छाम- नुशासती सुताम् (iti dhruvecchāma- nuśāsatī sutām) Kumārasambhava 5.5. (b) Perpetual, everlasting, eternal; ध्रुवेण भर्त्रा (dhruveṇa bhartrā) Kumārasambhava 7.85; Manusmṛti 7.28.

2) Fixed (in astrology).

3) Certain, sure, inevitable; जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च (jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyurdhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.27; यो ध्रुवाणि परित्यज्य अध्रुवं परिषेवते (yo dhruvāṇi parityajya adhruvaṃ pariṣevate) Chāṇ.63; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.419.

4) Retentive, tenacious; as in ध्रुवा स्मृति (dhruvā smṛti) Ch. Up.7.26.2.

5) Strong, fixed, settled (as a day).

-vaḥ 1 The polar star; शरत्प्रसन्नैर्ज्योतिर्भिर्विभावर्य इव ध्रुवम् (śaratprasannairjyotirbhirvibhāvarya iva dhruvam) (anvayuḥ) R.17.35; 18.34; ध्रुवेण भर्त्रा ध्रुवदर्शनाय प्रयुज्यमाना प्रियदर्शनेन (dhruveṇa bhartrā dhruvadarśanāya prayujyamānā priyadarśanena) (sā dṛṣṭā) Kumārasambhava 7.85.

2) The pole of any great circle.

3) The distance of a planet from the beginning of the sidereal zodiac, polar longitude.

4) The Indian figtree.

5) A post, stake.

6) The stem or trunk (of a tree lopped off).

7) The introductory stanza of a song (repeated as a kind of chorus; see Gīt.).

8) Time, epoch, era.

9) An epithet of Brahmā.

1) Of Viṣṇu.

11) Of Śiva.

12) A constant arc.

13) The tip of the nose.

14) A sacrificial vessel.

15) Name of the son of Uttānapāda and grandson of Manu. [Dhruva is the polar star, but personified in mythology as the son of Uttānapāda. The account of the elevation of an ordinary mortal to the position of the polar star runs thus: Uttānapāda had two wives, Suruchi and Sunīti, but the latter was disliked by him. Suruchi had a son named Uttama, and Sunīti gave birth to Dhruva. One day the boy tried, like his elder brother, to take a seat in his father's lap, but he was contemptuously treated both by the King and his favourite wife. The poor child went sobbing to its mother who told him in consolatory terms that fortune and favour were not attainable without hard exertions. At these words the youth left the paternal roof, retired to the woods, and, though quite a lad, performed such rigorous austerities that he was at last raised by Viṣṇu to the position of the Polar Star.]

16) Peg Nm.

17) Name of an astrological yoga (Nm.).

-vam 1 The sky, atmosphere.

2) Heaven.

3) The fixed point (from which a departure takes place); P.I.4.24.

4) A certain Yoga (amṛtasiddhi); सेनामाज्ञापयामासुर्नक्षत्रेऽहनि च ध्रुवे (senāmājñāpayāmāsurnakṣatre'hani ca dhruve) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.63.18. (Com. rohiṇyāmuttararātraye ca ahani vāre dhruve ravivāre uttarārke'mṛtasiddhi- yoge).

-vā 1 A sacrificial ladle (made of wood); साधारण्यान्न ध्रुवायां स्यात् (sādhāraṇyānna dhruvāyāṃ syāt) Jaiminisūtras.

2) A virtuous woman.

3) A cow who stands still when being milked; सहस्रं धारा द्रविणस्य मे दुहां ध्रुवेव धेनुरनपस्फुरन्ती (sahasraṃ dhārā draviṇasya me duhāṃ dhruveva dhenuranapasphurantī) Av.12.1.45.

4) A bow-string.

5) clapping the hands together to show a particular measure of time in music; स्रुचि मौर्व्यां तालभेदे स्त्रियाम् (sruci maurvyāṃ tālabhede striyām) Nm.

6) The upper quarter (ūrdhva); किंदेवतोऽस्यां ध्रुवायां दिशि (kiṃdevato'syāṃ dhruvāyāṃ diśi) Bṛ. Up.3.9.24. (MW's meaning is adhara- diśā?)

-vam ind. Certainly, surely, verily; R.8.49; ध्रुवं स नीलोत्पलपत्रधारया समिल्लतां छेत्तुमृषिर्व्यवस्यति (dhruvaṃ sa nīlotpalapatradhārayā samillatāṃ chettumṛṣirvyavasyati) Ś.1.18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dhruva (ध्रुव).—(1) name of a śreṣṭhin, instructed and saved by Buddha: legend referred to Mahāvastu i.177.14, told 184.19 ff.; (2) name of a king: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 625.16; (3) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 72

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhruva (ध्रुव).—mfn.

(-vaḥ-vā-vaṃ) 1. External. 2. Fixed, stable, firm. 3. Continual, permanent. 4. Certain, ascertained. 5. Spread, extended. m.

(-vaḥ) 1. A name of Bramha. 2. Siva. 3. Vishnu. 4. The polar star or north pole itself; in mythology, personified by Dhruva, the son of Uttanapada, and grandson of the first Manu. 5. The pole of any great circle, particularly either of the celestial poles. 6. (In Astronomy,) The distance of a planet from the beginning of the sydereal zodiac. 7. Any epoch to which a computation of dates is referred. 8. One of the demi-gods called Vasus. 9. The trunk of a lopped tree. 10. The Indian fig tree, (Ficus Indica.) 11. One of the twenty-seven astronomical Yogas, or the Yoga star of the twelfth lunar asterism, supposed to be Leonis. 12. A sort of bird: see śarāṭi. n.

(-vaṃ) 1. Ascertainment, certainty. 2. Logic, reasoning, discussion. 3. Heaven. f.

(-vā) 1. A sacrificial vase made in the shape of the Indian fig leaf, and of the wood of the Flacourtia sapida. 2. A plant, (Hedysarum gangeticum.) 3. A small tree from the fibres of which bow strings are made: see mūrbbā. 4. The introductory stanza of a song: it is distinct form the verses of the song, after each of which it is again repeated as a burden or chorus. 5. A virtuous woman. E. dhru to be fixed affix ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhruva (ध्रुव).— (akin to dhṛ), I. adj., f. . I. Firm, stable, Mahābhārata 1, 808; [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 60, 17. 2. Permanent, [Nala] 6, 11. 3. Fixed (as a day), Mahābhārata 14, 1888. 4. Certain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 169. Ii. m. The polar star, Mahābhārata 8, 2105; personified as son of Uttānapāda and grandson of Manu, 13, 195. 2. A name of Viṣṇu, 2, 1510. 3. The name of a Vasu, 1, 2528, and others. Iii. n. Permanence, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 3959. Iv. adv. ºvam, Certainly, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhruva (ध्रुव).—[adjective] steady, firm, constant, certain, safe; [neuter] [adverb]

— [masculine] the polar star, a man’s name; [feminine] ā the largest of the three sacrificial, ladles.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dhruva (ध्रुव):—mf(ā)n. ([probably] [from] √dhṛ, but cf.dhru and dhruv) fixed, firm, immovable, unchangeable, constant, lasting, permanent, eternal, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (e.g. the earth, a mountain, a pillar, a vow etc.; with svāṅga n. an inseparable member of the body, [Pāṇini 6-2, 177]; with dhenu f. a cow which stands quiet when milked, [Atharva-veda xii, 1, 45]; with diś f. the point of the heavens directly under the feet [reckoned among the quarters of the sky cf. 2. diś] [Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa] ; with smṛti f. a strong or retentive memory, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad vii, 26, 2]; cf. also under karaṇa and nakṣatra)

2) staying with ([locative case]), [Ṛg-veda ix, 101, 12]

3) settled, certain, sure, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) ifc. = pāpa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) m. the polar star (personified as son of Uttāna-pāda and grandson of Manu), [Gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) celestial pole, [Sūryasiddhānta]

7) the unchangeable longitude of fixed stars, a constant arc, [ib.]

8) a knot, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā v, 21; 30]

9) a post, stake, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) the Indian fig-tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) tip of the nose (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) a [particular] water-bird, [ib.]

13) the remaining (id est. preserved) Graha which having been drawn in the morning is not offered till evening, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Vaitāna-sūtra]

14) (in music) the introductory verse of a song (recurring as a kind of burthen) or a [particular] time or measure (tāla-viśeṣa)

15) any epoch to which a computation of dates is referred, [Horace H. Wilson]

16) Name of an [astrology] Yoga

17) of the syllable Om, [Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad]

18) of Brahmā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) of Viṣṇu, [Mahābhārata]

20) of Śiva, [Śivagītā, ascribed to the padma-purāṇa]

21) of a serpent supporting the earth, [Gṛhya-sūtra; Taittirīya-āraṇyaka]

22) of a Vasu, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

23) of a son of Vasu-deva and Rohiṇī, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

24) of an Āṅgirasa (supposed author of [Ṛg-veda x, 173]), [Anukramaṇikā]

25) of a son of Nahuṣa, [Mahābhārata]

26) of a follower of the Pāṇḍus, [ib.]

27) of a son of Ranti-nāra (or Ranti-bhāra), [Purāṇa]

28) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा):—[from dhruva] f. the largest of the 3 sacrificial ladles, [Atharva-veda xviii, 4, 5, 6] (with juhū & upabhṛt), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

29) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] vṛtti) a [particular] mode of life, [Baudhāyana-dharma-śāstra]

30) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] strī) a virtuous woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

31) [v.s. ...] Desmodium Gangeticum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

32) [v.s. ...] Sanseviera Zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

33) [v.s. ...] (in music) the introductory verse (cf. above)

34) Dhruva (ध्रुव):—n. the fixed point (from which a departure takes place), [Pāṇini 1-4, 24]

35) the enduring sound (supposed to be heard after the Abhinidhāna), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

36) air, atmosphere, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

37) a kind of house, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

38) cf. [Zend] drva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhruva (ध्रुव):—[(vaḥ-vā-vaṃ) a.] Fixed, eternal, certain. m. Brahmā; Vishnu; Shiva; the polar star. f. A sacrificial vase. n. Certainty; logic.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dhruva (ध्रुव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Dhuva.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dhruva in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Dhruva (ध्रुव) [Also spelled dhruv]:—(nm) a pole; the polar star; (a) fixed, firm; permanent; —[tārā] the polar star; ~[darśaka] a compass; —[vṛtta] the meridian line; —[satya] eternal truth.

context information


Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dhruva (ಧ್ರುವ):—

1) [adjective] not moving; unchangeable; firm; fixed; constant.

2) [adjective] not to be doubted; certain.

3) [adjective] permanent; eternal.

--- OR ---

Dhruva (ಧ್ರುವ):—

1) [noun] that which is eternal.

2) [noun] a slightly variable, super giant, binary star, the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor, with a magnitude of 2.1, used as a guide for navigation, since it is the closest star to the north; North Star; Pole Star; Polaris.

3) [noun] a mythological man personifying this star.

4) [noun] one of a class of deities (known as Vasus, eight in number) who are the attendants upon Indra, the chief of gods.

5) [noun] either end of any axis, as of the earth, of the celestial sphere, of a mitotic spindle during cell division, etc.; a pole.

6) [noun] either of two ends of a magnet, opposed to each other; a magnetic pole.

7) [noun] either of two opposed or extremes of opinion.

8) [noun] a length of wood pointed at one end which is driven into the ground, for tying or supporting something; a stake.

9) [noun] the lower portion of a tree, above the ground, trimmed by cutting off branches.

10) [noun] a wooden roller used in an oil mill.

11) [noun] (astrol.) a particular combination of astrological planets.

12) [noun] (mus.) a cycle of time that has fourteen units (4+2+4+4).

13) [noun] a variety of musical composition.

14) [noun] the first verse of a song that is repeated at the end of each of the following verses.

15) [noun] a spot on the skin of a horse where hair is curled.

16) [noun] the tip of one’s nose.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of dhruva in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Related products

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: