Dhruva, aka: Dhruvā; 18 Definition(s)
Dhruva means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Dhruva (ध्रुव):—One of the three sons of Rantināva (son of Ṛteyu). (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.20.6)(Source): Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
1) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—One of the ten sons of Priyavrata, who was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.
2) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—One of the sons of Medhātithi, who was a son of Priyavrata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Priyavrata was a son o. Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
1) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—Birth and childhood. Manu Svāyambhuva the son of Brahmā, had two sons named Priyavrata and Uttānapāda. They were mighty heroes and of righteous character. Uttānapāda had two wives, Suruci and Sunīti. Suruci gave birth to Uttama and Sunīti to Dhruva. Uttānapāda showed more favour towards Uttama and Suruci. But he looked upon Dhruva and his mother with disfavour. (See full article at Story of Dhruva from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—He was the son of Nahuṣa and the brother of Yayāti. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 75, Stanza 30)
3) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A king. He sits in the council of Yama and serves him. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 10)
4) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A warrior who fought on the side of the Kauravas against the Pāṇḍavas. He was killed by Bhīmasena (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 155, Stanza 27)
5) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A king who supported Yudhiṣṭhira. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 158, Verse 39).
6) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A son born to Dharmadeva by his wife Dhūmrā. He was one of the aṣṭa Vasus (eight Vasus) (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 19).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—A son of Uttānapāda and Sunīti (bhā. p. & vi. p.)—(m., br. & vā. p. speak of Sūnṛtā as his mother). A grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu; hated by his father's more beloved wife, Suruci, took leave of his mother to go to the forest; met Nārada and was blessed, advised and initiated by the sage; as a child of five went to Madhuvana on the bank of the Yamunā; continued to meditate on the Lord's glory for a period of 10,000 years, sometime eating roots and fruits, and sometime fasting; sought refuge in Viṣṇu, standing on one foot to the great consternation of gods.1 Hari appeared before him, and touching his baby cheeks, conferred on him divine speech; his praise of the Lord; assuring him a place in the mansion of the luminaries, Hari asked him to go home and rule righteously which he did for 36,000 years. Dhruva's return was welcomed by the king and his queens; bowed to his parents and embraced Uttāna; was welcomed by the citizens; getting old, the king anointed Dhruva and retired to forest.2 Had two queens: one was Bhramī who gave birth to Kalpa and Vatsara; the other Ilā whose son was Utkala. (According to Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa one wife was Bhūmī who gave birth to Sṛṣṭi and Bhavya; according to Matsya-purāṇa Dhanyā, the daughter of Manas was one of his queens and her son was Śiṣṭa.).
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. ch. 8. (whole); Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 88-95; Matsya-purāṇa 4. 35-36; 143. 38; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 75-78.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. ch. 9. (whole).
- 1) Matsya-purāṇa 5. 21-3; 203. 3-4.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11-12; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 20-2.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 19; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 110-11.
1c) A son of Rantibhāra (Ranti, the righteous, Vāyu-purāṇa).*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 20. 6. Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 129.
1d) A son of Vasudeva and Rohiṇī.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 46.
1e) A son of Medhātithi and founder of the kingdom, Dhruvam, in Plakṣadvīpa; attained heaven by tapas.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 37-9; 30. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 33; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 4-5.
1f) A Vaikuṇṭha God.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 57.
1g) A God of Lekha group.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 75.
1h) A son of Angada.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 220.
1i) One of the eleven Rudras.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 153. 19.
1j) A son of Dharma and Sudevī.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 171. 46.
1k) A Rājaṛṣi.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 57. 122.
1l) The presiding deity on Uttiramandira etc. (music).*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 56.
1m) A son of Viśvāmitra.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 66. 68; Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 96.
1n) A son of Antīnara.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 4.
1o) —(c)—adjoining the Vaibhrāja hill in Plakṣadvīpa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 39; 19. 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 14.
1p) A Sukha god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 19.
1q) Same as Mahādruma.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 25.
1r) A mukhya gaṇa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 19.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Dhruvā (ध्रुवा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Gola, the sixth seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Dhruvā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).(Source): Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Dhruvā (ध्रुवा).—A type of song to which the Nāṭyaśāstra devotes all of chapter 32. Dhruvās figure prominently in the preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). About them Bharata says, “Just as a well-built dwelling does not become beatiful without color, so without song the drama gives no joy (Nāṭyaśāstra 32.23-24)”.(Source): Google Books: Plays of Kalidas
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) refers to one of the four varieties of the audible tāla, According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31. Accordingly, “the alternate placing (lit. falling) of these, is known as the pāta. These are to be known śamyā, tāla and sannipāta. The śamyā is of the right hand, the tāla of the left hand, and the two hands coming together is the sannipāta, and the dhruvā is stopping (lit. falling) for a mātrā, and it makes for the way of the rāgas, and moreover the placing (lit. falling) of the three kalās mentioned before, is also called dhruvā”. The tāla is so called because it measures time by a division of songs into kalās”.
2) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) refers to “songs”. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra verse 6.10, there are five kinds of songs defined:
- entering (praveśa), or ‘songs to indicate entering’,
- casual (ākṣepa), or ‘songs to indicate unexpected or interposed happening’,
- going out (niskrama), or ‘songs to indicate leaving’,
- pleasing (prāsādika), ‘songs to indicate pleasing’,
- and intermediate (āntara), or ‘songs for filling the gap’.
According to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32, “Songs consisting of one, two, three and four vastus are respectively called the Dhruvā, Parigītikā, Madraka and Catuṣpadā. The dhruvā is so called, because in it words, varṇas, alaṃkāra, tempo (laya), jāti and pāṇis are regularly (dhruvaṃ) connected with one another”.
The following ten dhrūvas are defined in this chapter:
The limbs (aṅga), according to verse 32.4-6, “the five classes of dhruvās have always the following limbs (aṅga)”:
The limbs (aṅga), according to verse 32.9-16, “depending on different conditions, the dhruvās are known to be of five classes. I shall speak of the seven limbs which they consist of”:
- Limbs of the Prāveśikī-dhruvā are Upaghāta, Pravṛtta, Vajra and Śīrṣaka.
- Limbs of the Aḍḍitā-dhruvā are Prastāra, Māṣaghātā, Mahājanika, Praveṇī and Upapāta.
- Limbs of the Avakṛṣṭā-dhruvā, are Mukha and Pratimukha,
- Limbs of the Sthitā Dhruvā, are Vaihāyasa and Antāharaṇa.
- Limbs of the Khañja-nātkuṭā-dhruvā, are Saṃhāra (Saṃharaṇa) and Caturasra.
- Limbs of the Antarā-dhruvā, are Sandhi and Prastāra.
- The limbs of all songs, which have been mentioned before are Vṛtta, Vivadha and Ekaka.
According to verse 32.24-25, “Dhruvās originating in various metres are of five kinds. According to Sentiments which they contain they are superior, middling and inferior. Dhruvās are of three classes: Kaniṣṭhikāgrahā, Sannipātāgrahā, and Apagrahā”.
3) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
1) Dhruva (ध्रुव).—Fixed,stationary, as contrasted with moving (ध्रुव (dhruva)) which is termed अपादान (apādāna) and hence put in the ablative case; cf ध्रुवमपायेऽपादानम् (dhruvamapāye'pādānam) P. I. 4.24;
2) Dhruva.—Repeated sound (नाद (nāda)) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it occurs at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; cf. R. Pr. VI. II and XI. 24.(Source): Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Dhruva (ध्रुव).—Pole of the celestial equator. Note: Dhruva is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.(Source): Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Dhruva (ध्रुव) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.191-194.—Accordingly, “Dhruva who is to be meditated upon, illumines ten directions. It is filled with the hairs in the body; and calm. Its age is sixteen years. It has the eyes resembling lotus. He holds the discus having brilliance all round and bears the mace in the body and śakti as having the name ādhāra. He stands like a pillar in the mansion of the universe. He is in the form of sky and air and thus different with diverse character”.
These Vibhavas (eg., Dhruva) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in.(Source): archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
General definition (in Hinduism)
1) Dhruva (ध्रुव) in the Sūtras denotes the pole star, being mentioned in connexion with the marriage ritual, in which the star is pointed out to the bride as an emblem of constancy. In the Maitrāyaṇī-upaniṣad, a late work, the movement of the Dhruvā (dhruvasya pracalanam) is mentioned. Jacobi sees in the motion of the Dhruvā the possibility of fixing a date, on the ground that the only star which could have been deemed a pole star, as ‘ immovable,’ was one (α Draconis) of the third millenium b.c.
2) Dhruvā (ध्रुवा, ‘fixed’) as an epithet of Diś, ‘cardinal point’, denotes the ground under one’s feet.
Dhruva (ध्रुव): Dhruva was the prince blessed to eternal existence and glory as the Pole Star (Dhruva Nakshatra in Sanskrit) by Lord Vishnu. The story of Dhruva's life is often told to Hindu children as an example for perseverance, devotion, steadfastness and fearlessness.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
General definition (in Jainism)
Dhruva (ध्रुव, “permanent”).—What is the meaning of permanent /lasting (dhruva) knowledge? The lasting knowledge (for a long time) of an object is called dhruva knowledge e.g. knowledge of the top / dome of the temple.
The opposite (setara) of dhruva is adhruva (transitory).—The knowledge which does not stay constant for long after its complete acquisition once e.g. knowing the clouds when they appeared and then not knowing them after they disappear.
according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.16, “The subdivisions of each of these (kinds of mati, or ‘mind-based knowledge’) are: more, many kinds, quick, hidden, unexpressed, lasting (dhruva), and their opposites”.(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Dhruva (ध्रुव) is another name for Nirupama of the Rāṣṭrakūṭa line of kings, is mentioned in the Paṭṭaṇakuḍi plates of Avasara II.—“Govindarāja was followed be Nirupama (Dhruva); and after him, Jagattuṅga (Gōvinda III)”.
These copper plates (mentioning Dhruva) were found by a Brāhmaṇa of Khārepāṭan, a town in the Devagaḍ tālukā of the Ratnāgiri District. The inscription refers itself to the reign of the Śilāra king, Māṇḍalika Raṭṭarāja. As his predecessors were loyal feudatories of the Rāṣṭrakūṭas, it gives first the genealogy of that family from Dantidurga to Kakkala. The inscription is dated, in lines 41-42, on the full-moon tithi of Jyeṣṭha in the śaka year 930, the cyclic year being Kīlaka.(Source): What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
dhruva (ध्रुव).—m (S) The polar star; also the north pole. 2 The twelfth of the twenty-seven astronomical Yog. 3 The introductory stanza of a song. It is repeated after each of the stanzas as a burden or chorus.
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dhruva (ध्रुव).—a S Fixed, stable, firm, constant, established.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
dhruva (ध्रुव).—m The polar star; the north pole.
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dhruva (ध्रुव).—a Fixed, stable, firm, constant, established.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) (a) Fixed, firm, immovable, stable, permanent, constant, unchangeable; इति ध्रुवेच्छाम- नुशासती सुताम् (iti dhruvecchāma- nuśāsatī sutām) Ku.5.5. (b) Perpetual, everlasting, eternal; ध्रुवेण भर्त्रा (dhruveṇa bhartrā) Ku.7.85; Ms.7.28.
2) Fixed (in astrology).
3) Certain, sure, inevitable; जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च (jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyurdhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca) Bg.2.27; यो ध्रुवाणि परित्यज्य अध्रुवं परिषेवते (yo dhruvāṇi parityajya adhruvaṃ pariṣevate) Chāṇ.63; Pt.1.419.
4) Retentive, tenacious; as in ध्रुवा स्मृति (dhruvā smṛti) Ch. Up.7.26.2.
5) Strong, fixed, settled (as a day).
-vaḥ 1 The polar star; शरत्प्रसन्नैर्ज्योतिर्भिर्विभावर्य इव ध्रुवम् (śaratprasannairjyotirbhirvibhāvarya iva dhruvam) (anvayuḥ) R.17.35; 18.34; ध्रुवेण भर्त्रा ध्रुवदर्शनाय प्रयुज्यमाना प्रियदर्शनेन (dhruveṇa bhartrā dhruvadarśanāya prayujyamānā priyadarśanena) (sā dṛṣṭā) Ku.7.85.
2) The pole of any great circle.
3) The distance of a planet from the beginning of the sidereal zodiac, polar longitude.
4) The Indian figtree.
5) A post, stake.
6) The stem or trunk (of a tree lopped off).
7) The introductory stanza of a song (repeated as a kind of chorus; see Gīt.).
8) Time, epoch, era.
9) An epithet of Brahmā.
1) Of Viṣṇu.
11) Of Śiva.
12) A constant arc.
13) The tip of the nose.
14) A sacrificial vessel.
15) Name of the son of Uttānapāda and grandson of Manu. [Dhruva is the polar star, but personified in mythology as the son of Uttānapāda. The account of the elevation of an ordinary mortal to the position of the polar star runs thus: Uttānapāda had two wives, Suruchi and Sunīti, but the latter was disliked by him. Suruchi had a son named Uttama, and Sunīti gave birth to Dhruva. One day the boy tried, like his elder brother, to take a seat in his father's lap, but he was contemptuously treated both by the King and his favourite wife. The poor child went sobbing to its mother who told him in consolatory terms that fortune and favour were not attainable without hard exertions. At these words the youth left the paternal roof, retired to the woods, and, though quite a lad, performed such rigorous austerities that he was at last raised by Viṣṇu to the position of the Polar Star.]
16) Peg Nm.
17) Name of an astrological yoga (Nm.).
-vam 1 The sky, atmosphere.
3) The fixed point (from which a departure takes place); P.I.4.24.
4) A certain Yoga (amṛtasiddhi); सेनामाज्ञापयामासुर्नक्षत्रेऽहनि च ध्रुवे (senāmājñāpayāmāsurnakṣatre'hani ca dhruve) Mb.14.63.18. (Com. rohiṇyāmuttararātraye ca ahani vāre dhruve ravivāre uttarārke'mṛtasiddhi- yoge).
-vā 1 A sacrificial ladle (made of wood); साधारण्यान्न ध्रुवायां स्यात् (sādhāraṇyānna dhruvāyāṃ syāt) Jaiminisūtras.
2) A virtuous woman.
3) A cow who stands still when being milked; सहस्रं धारा द्रविणस्य मे दुहां ध्रुवेव धेनुरनपस्फुरन्ती (sahasraṃ dhārā draviṇasya me duhāṃ dhruveva dhenuranapasphurantī) Av.12.1.45.
4) A bow-string.
5) clapping the hands together to show a particular measure of time in music; स्रुचि मौर्व्यां तालभेदे स्त्रियाम् (sruci maurvyāṃ tālabhede striyām) Nm.
6) The upper quarter (ūrdhva); किंदेवतोऽस्यां ध्रुवायां दिशि (kiṃdevato'syāṃ dhruvāyāṃ diśi) Bṛ. Up.3.9.24. (MW's meaning is adhara- diśā?)
-vam ind. Certainly, surely, verily; R.8.49; ध्रुवं स नीलोत्पलपत्रधारया समिल्लतां छेत्तुमृषिर्व्यवस्यति (dhruvaṃ sa nīlotpalapatradhārayā samillatāṃ chettumṛṣirvyavasyati) Ś.1.18.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Dhruvāyarta (ध्रुवायर्त).—the point on the crown of the head from which the hair radiate. Deriv...
Dhruvākṣara (ध्रुवाक्षर).—an epithet of Viṣṇu (om). Derivable forms: dhruvākṣaraḥ (ध्रुवाक्षरः)...
Dhruvaśīla (ध्रुवशील).—a. having a fixed residence.Derivable forms: dhruvaśīlaḥ (ध्रुवशीलः).Dhr...
Dhruvabhāga (ध्रुवभाग).—the unchangeable longitude of fixed stars. Derivable forms: dhruvabhāga...
dakṣiṇa-dhruva (दक्षिण-ध्रुव).—m South pole.
uttara-dhruva (उत्तर-ध्रुव).—m North pole.
Dhruvayoni (ध्रुवयोनि).—a. having a firm resting place. Dhruvayoni is a Sanskrit compound consi...
Search found 48 books and stories containing Dhruva or Dhruvā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa I, adhyāya 3, brāhmaṇa 2 < [First Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa I, adhyāya 4, brāhmaṇa 5 < [First Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa I, adhyāya 3, brāhmaṇa 4 < [First Kāṇḍa]
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 12 - Dhruva Maharaja Goes Back to Godhead < [Canto IV - The Creation of the Fourth Order]
Chapter 10 - Dhruva Maharaja’s Fight With the Yaksas < [Canto IV - The Creation of the Fourth Order]
Chapter 11 - Svayambuva Manu Advises Dhruva Maharaja to Stop Fighting < [Canto IV - The Creation of the Fourth Order]
The Story of Dhruva < [First Section]
Some Astronomy < [Second Section]
Priyavrata and Bharata < [Second Section]
Baudhāyana Dharmasūtra (by Baudhāyana)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)