Kunjara, Kuñjara, Kumjara: 26 definitions

Introduction:

Kunjara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kuñjara (कुञ्जर).—A great monkey. Añjanā mother of Hanūmān was the daughter of Kuñjara. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Kiṣkindhā Kāṇḍa; Canto 66, Verse 9).

2) Kuñjara (कुञ्जर).—A well-known serpent. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 35, Verse 15).

3) Kuñjara (कुञ्जर).—A prince of the Sāuvīra country. He was a follower of Jayadratha, and was killed by Arjuna. (Vana Parva, Chapter 271).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kuñjara (कुञ्जर).—An Asura in Atalam (fourth tala or {%gabhastalam, Vāyu-purāṇa)1 A commander of Tāraka with a chariot of horses; killed by Kapāli and other Rudras after a terrific fight.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 20. 32; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 31.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 148. 42-50; 153. 29-30, 51-68.

1b) Father of Añjanā, and father-in-law of Kesari; a Nāga.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 223 and 233, 350.

1c) (Mt.) abode of Agastya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 163. 79.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.15, I.35, II.48.20, II.48.25) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kuñjara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर) is a synonym (another name) for the Elephant (Gaja), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर) refers to “elephants”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the course of Saturn should just precede that of Venus, the Mlecchas, cats, elephants [i.e., kuñjara], asses, buffaloes, black grains, hogs, Pulindas (barbarians), the Śūdras and travellers in the south will suffer by diseases of the eye and by windy disorders. If the course of Mars should just precede that of Venus, mankind will suffer from fire, from weapons, from hunger, from drought and from thieves; all the creatures and objects of the north will suffer and the sky will be filled with fire, lightning and dust”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर) refers to “elephants”, according to the Mahābhārata 10.8.64–68.—Accordingly, “Good sir, they saw her, Kālarātri, standing, smiling, alone, blue-black in hue, with red mouth and eyes, garlands and unguents of crimson, red robes, a noose in one hand, a peacock feather [in her hair], binding men, horses and elephants (kuñjara) with her horrifying fetters while she stood, capturing many headless ghosts trapped in her noose, leading those asleep in their dreams to other Nights. And at all times the best soldiers saw the son of Droṇa slaughtering. From the time when the battle between the Kuru and Pāṇḍava armies began, they saw [both] that evil spirit and the son of Droṇa. The son of Droṇa later felled those who had first been struck by this divinity [Kālarātri], terrorizing all creatures while shouting out ferocious bellows”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर) refers to an “elephant”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If a tiger [steps over a cord], there is [the bone of] an elephant (kuñjarāsthi) [beneath the site]. If an elephant (kuñjara) steps over [a cord], [there is the bone of] a camel [beneath the site].[...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर) represents the number 8 (eight) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 8—kuñjara] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Devanampiyatissas elephant, tied to the plough which marked the sima of the Mahavihara. Dpv.xiv.28; Mbv.134; see also Mhv., p.331.

2. One of the chief lay patrons of Revata Buddha. Bu.vi.23.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Kuñjara).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kuñjara.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘eight’. Note: kuñjara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kunjara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kuñjara : (m.) elephant.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kuñjara, (m.) (Deriv. unknown. The sound is not unlike an elephant’s trumpeting & need not be Aryan, which has hasti. The Sk. of the epics & fables uses both h° and k°) an elephant Vin. II, 195; M. I, 229, 375; S. I, 157; Dh. 322, 324, 327; J. V, 336; Vv 51; Pv. I, 113; DhA. IV, 4; ThA. 252; Miln. 245.—deva° chief of the gods, Ep. of Sakka Vv 477; J. V, 158.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kuñjara (कुंजर).—m (S) An elephant. 2 In comp. Preeminent; as puruṣakuñjara An excellent man. 3 A particular bird.

--- OR ---

kuñjarā (कुंजरा).—m A kind of grass used as a vegetable. 2 A caste or an individual of it. They are venders of vegetables &c. 3 fig. A low, mean fellow, a scrub.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kuñjara (कुंजर).—m An elephant. In comp. Pre-em- inent; as purūṣakuñjara An excellent man.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर).—[kuñjo hastihanuḥ so'syāsti, kuñja-ra, ūṣasuṣipuṣka madhoraḥ P.V.2.17. Vārt.]

1) An elephant; प्राक्छाये कुञ्जरस्य च (prākchāye kuñjarasya ca) Manusmṛti 3.274. दन्तयोर्हन्ति कुञ्जरम् (dantayorhanti kuñjaram) Mahābhārata on P.II.3.36.

2) Anything pre-eminent or excellent of its class (at the end of comp. only). Amara gives the following words used similarly :-स्युरुत्तरपदे व्याघ्रपुङ्गवर्षभकुञ्जराः । सिंहशार्दूलनागाद्याः पुंसि श्रेष्ठार्थवाचकाः (syuruttarapade vyāghrapuṅgavarṣabhakuñjarāḥ | siṃhaśārdūlanāgādyāḥ puṃsi śreṣṭhārthavācakāḥ) ||

3) The Aśvattha tree.

4) The lunar asterism called हस्त (hasta).

5) Hair.

6) Head.

7) An ornament; कुञ्जरः कुन्तले पुमान् मस्तके भूषणे नागे (kuñjaraḥ kuntale pumān mastake bhūṣaṇe nāge) ... Nm.

8) The number 'eight' (from eight elephants of the cardinal points).

-rā, -rī 1 A female elephant.

2) Name of a flower-plant.

Derivable forms: kuñjaraḥ (कुञ्जरः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. An elephant. 2. (In composition,) Pre-eminent, as puruṣakuñjara an excellent. man. 3. Hair. 4. A country. f. (-rā or -rī) 1. A female elephant.

(-rā) 1. A plant, (Bignonia suave-olens.) 2. A shrub, (Grislea tomentosa) E. kuñja a tusk, an arbour, &c. and ra what forms or possesses.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर).— (probably akin to the preceding), m. 1. An elephant, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 177. 2. Preeminent, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 2, 13; in this meaning it is generally the latter part of a compound, e. g. kapi-, m. A most excellent monkey (literally, an elephant among monkeys), [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 3, 17. 3. The name of a Nāga, or serpent, Mahābhārata 1, 1560. 4. The name of a prince, 3, 15597. 5. The name of a mountain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 41, 50.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर).—[masculine] elephant ([feminine] ī); chief or best of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kuñjara (कुञ्जर):—m. (ifc. f(ā). , [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]) an elephant, [Manu-smṛti iii, 274; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) anything pre-eminent in its kind (generally in [compound] e.g. rāja-k, ‘an eminent king’ [Mahābhārata; Kathāsaritsāgara]; cf. [Pāṇini 2-1, 62 and] [gana] vyāghrādi)

3) the number ‘eight’ (there being eight elephants of the cardinal points), [Sūryasiddhānta]

4) a kind of temple, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

5) a kind of step (in dancing to music)

6) the tree Ficus religiosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Name of a Nāga, [Mahābhārata i, 1560]

8) of a prince (of the Sauvīraka race), [Mahābhārata iii, 15597]

9) of a mountain, [Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa]

10) of a locality

11) Kuñjarā (कुञ्जरा):—[from kuñjara] f. a female elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] the plant Bignonia suaveolens, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] the plant Grislea tomentosa

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर):—[(raḥ-rā-rī)] 1. m. Hair; a country; an elephant. f. () A plant; in comp. Excellent.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kuñjara (कुञ्जर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kuṃjara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kunjara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Kuṃjara (कुंजर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kuñjara.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kuṃjara (ಕುಂಜರ):—

1) [noun] the largest living land animal, Elephas maximus, with a trunk and long curved ivory tusks; an elephant.

2) [noun] (myth.) name of a deamon killed by Śiva.

3) [noun] a person who or that which, is of excellent quality.

4) [noun] the tree Ficus religiosa of Moraceae family; peepul.

5) [noun] a small south constellation near Virgo; Crow; Corvus.

6) [noun] any of the fine, threadlike outgrowths from the skin; hair.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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