Karavira, Karavīra, Karavīrā, Kara-vira: 34 definitions


Karavira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Karavīrā (करवीरा):—One of the sixty-eight Siddhauṣadhi, as per Rasaśāstra texts (rasa literature). These drugs give siddhi (success) in mercurial operations. Even so, they are more powerful than rasa (mercury) itself. These may perform all the kāryas (‘effects’) and grant dehasiddhi (‘perfection of body’) and lohasiddhi (‘transmutation of base metals’) both.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification

Karavīra (करवीर) refers to the medicinal plant known Nerium indicum.—Karavīra has anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, cardiotonic, neuroprotective, and anticancer activities. This plant contains a mixture of toxic cardiac glycosides, the cardenolides particularly oleandrin and neriine.

Roots of Karavīra (Nerium indicum) are purified (śodhana) by svedana process in dolā-yantra using Godugdha for 3 h. After Śodhana, the roots are washed with water and dried. There is a decrease in the cardenolide and oleandrin content of the śodhita-karavīra. Hence, the removal of these compounds may be responsible for the reduction in their effects. It was also observed that śodhita-dravya showed no reported toxicity in animal models.

(cf. Yogaratnākara)

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Karavīra (करवीर) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Nerium oleander Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning karavīra] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Karavīra (करवीर) (identified with Nerium indicum) was commonly transformed from a plant into a creeper, according to in various bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis prescribed in the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “A big and strong mud pot should be filled with the mixture of mud and plenty of beef; and the Nerium indicum plant [e.g., Karavīra] should be grown there with effort by watering profusely with cow dung and good quality beef. The above stated plant of Nerium indicum [e.g., Karavīra] should then be shifted to a pit previously prepared by filling with cow bones, well-burnt ashes and then wetted by water mixed with beef. Thereafter, the plant should be fed with plenty of water mixed with beef. So treated, it is transformed into a creeper to blossom profusely and perennially”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Karavīra (करवीर):—A Sanskrit word referring to the “Oleander” plant and is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. In the Prakrit language, it is also known as Kaṇavīra and in Hindi it is known as Karuvīrā. Its official botanical name is Nerium oleander and naturally grows on dry stream beds throughout the Meditterranean region and up to southern Asia.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Karavīra (करवीर).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—It is also known as Hayamāra (or Aśvamara) because of its fatal effect on animals. It is useful in cardiac inefficiency and consequent dropsy, skin diseases and dyspnoea.

Source: archive.org: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency (ayurveda)

Karavīra denotes the Nerium odorum, the fragrant oleander, also growing freely in this part of the country, of which, similarly, the flowers are used in the worship of idols.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Karavira in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Bhavishya-purana

Karavīra (करवीर):—The consequences of using various flowers in worship, (e.g. karavīra flowers) confers health and incomparable prosperity, according to the Bhaviṣya-purāṇa (brahmaparva, 197:1-11)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Karavīra (करवीर).—A prominent serpent. (Śloka 12, Chapter 35, Ādi Parva).

2) Karavīra (करवीर).—A mountain on the southern side of Mahāmeru. See under Mahāmeru.

3) Karavīra (करवीर).—There was once a country named Karavīra on the base of the mountain Gomanta. That country was being ruled by a King called Sṛgālavāsudeva. He was killed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma together as per instructions from Paraśurāma. (10th Skandha, Bhāgavata).

4) Karavīra (करवीर).—A forest in the neighbourhood of Dvārakā. (Chapter 38, Sabhā Parva).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Karavīra (करवीर) is the name of a flower used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.11:—“[...] offerings of flowers, especially white flowers and rare flowers, shall be made to Lord Śiva. Flowers of Apāmārga, Karpūra, Jātī, Campaka, Kuśa, Pāṭala, Karavīra, Mallikā, Kamala (lotus) and Utpalas (lilies) of various sorts shall be used. When water is poured it shall be poured in a continuous stream”.

2) Karavīra (करवीर) is the name of a plant which is used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] the worship with Japā flowers (China rose) brings about the death of enemies (śatrumṛtyu). Karavīra flowers drive away all ailments (rogoccāṭa). [...] Karavīra flowers measure three times that. Scholars say that the flowers of Nirguṇḍī too measure likewise. In Karṇikāra and Śirīṣa flowers too, the same mode of calculation holds good. Ten prasthas of Bandhujīva flowers constitute a hundred thousand. [...] The devotee shall perform the worship of Śiva with different flowers after considering these modes of calculation for the fulfilment of desires if he has any or for the sake of salvation if he has no desire”.

3) Karavīra (करवीर) is the name of a Mountain, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.37 (“The letter of betrothal is dispatched”).—Accordingly, as Himavat prepared the wedding of Menā and Śiva: “[...] O celestial sage, listen to a detailed narration of the arrival of those mountains. [...] O dear, the delighted mountain Niṣadha came along with his attendants. He was very brilliant. The fortunate mountain Gandhamādana came with great pleasure along with his children and womenfolk. Mountains Karavīra and Mahendra of great wealth and prosperity also came there. Pāriyātra came with attendants, children and womenfolk. He was brilliant and delighted. He had brought many gems and jewels with him. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Karavīra (करवीर).—A Kādraveya Nāga.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 35.

1b) A mountain on the south of Meru.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 27.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Karavīra (करवीर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.35.12, V.101.14/V.103) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Karavīra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Karavīra (करवीर) flowers are used in worship in the month Magha for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In the month of Magha, the tooth-brush is that of plakṣa-wood. The food taken is mauktika. The deity to be worshipped is Naṭeśvara. The flowers used in worship are karavīra. The naivedya offerings is kṛśara. The result  accrued is vahusvama.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (itihasa)

Karavīra is the name of a Serpent (sarpa) mentioned in the thirty-fifth chapter (verses 4-17) of the Ādiparva of the Mahābhārata.—Accordingly, Sauti, on being implored by Śaunaka to name all the serpents in the course of the sarpa-sattra, tells him that it is humanly impossible to give a complete list because of their sheer multiplicity; but would name the prominent ones in accordance with their significance [e.g., Karavīra].

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Karavīra (करवीर) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Karavīra) is named Kṛtaliṅga. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (shaivism)

Karavīra (करवीर) refers to one of the various leaves and flowers used in the worship of Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The text refers the following flowers and leaves to be offered to Lord Śiva [viz., Karavīra][...]. It is stated that if a person offers these flowers to Lord Śiva, planting himself, the Lord Himself receives those flowers.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1a) Karavīra (करवीर) is the name of a cremation ground (śmaśāna) associated with Oḍḍiyāna, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Note: The guardian of the seat is linked to the cremation ground in each seat. More often in the Kubjikā sources he is not. The Kubjikā cult, which is relatively more domesticated with respect to its forerunners, does not stress the importance of the cremation ground [i.e., Karavīra] as a place to practice and encounter supernatural beings, as do its most closely related predecessors and fellow cults. This is especially the case in the early phase of its development.

Note: The Kashmiri Kālīkrama consistently identifies the Northern Seat (uttarapīṭha) with Oḍḍiyāna in which Karavīra is located. [...] Indeed, according to the Kumārikākhaṇḍa the first sacred seat to have come into being is Karavīra itself “that removes the impurity of the Age of Strife”. According to the Ambāmatasaṃhitā, a Kadamba tree grew there under which the scripture was hidden that was recovered and revealed in this Age of Strife. [...] Jñānanetra, the founder of the Kashmiri Kālīkrama, presents Karavīra in the beginning of his Hymn to the Five Wheels of Emptiness (khacakrapañcakastotra) as the main site in the Northern Seat (uttarapīṭha) where the Kālīkrama was first taught. It is here that the bacchanalia he depicts unfolds.

1b) Karavīra (करवीर) is also mentioned as the Cremation Ground (śmaśāna) associated with Oḍiyāna, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Karavīra (करवीर) refers to “oleander (wood)” (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “[...] The spell-master should perform oblations at the eastern gate. One should offer oleander wood (karavīra-kāṣṭha), mustard seed, mixed with marine salt 108 times. After the 108 fire oblations have been completed, all Nāgas send down rain showers. They all send down rain showers in Jambudvīpa, all around in the four directions. All of them become zealous. All Nāgas rejoice”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency

Karavīra probably corresponds to Tagara or Kolhāpur.—Karavīra, which now only a small village on the north side of Kolhāpur, has furnished the foundation for both the customary vernacular name for the State, viz. the Karavīra Ilākhā, and the title of the local Purāṇa, viz. the KaravīraMāhāmya, and must, therefore, have been the original settlement.

The antiquity of. Karavīra, or of Kolhāpur, is undeniable; for, numerous Buddhist remains have been found in the immediate neighbourhood, including a large stūpa, at Kolhāpur itself, containing a crystal relic casket the lid of which bears an inscription in pure Aśoka characters of the third century B. C. (see Cave-Temple Inscriptions, p. 39, No. 6).

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Karavira in India is the name of a plant defined with Nerium oleander in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Tabernaemontana panamensis (Markgr., Boiteau & L. Allorge) Leeuwenb. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· The Gardeners Dictionary
· Bot. Cult., ed. 2 (1811)
· Univ. Ariz. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull., (1909)
· Ill. Flora Japonica: (1940)
· Fl. Turkey (1978)
· Nomenclator Botanicus (1821)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Karavira, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, diet and recipes, extract dosage, side effects, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Karavira in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

karavīra : (m.) the oleander tree.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Karavīra, (cp. Sk. karavīra) 1. the oleander, Nerium odorum. Its flower was used especially in garlands worn by delinquents (see kaṇṭha) — 2. a kind of grass J. IV, 92.—patta a kind of arrow M. I, 429. (Page 196)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karavīra (करवीर).—m S A flowering shrub or its flower, Oleander or Nerium odorum.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karavīra (करवीर).—

1) a sword or scimitar.

2) a cemetery.

3) Name of a town in the S. M. country.

4) a kind of tree. (Mar. kaṇhera, arjunasādaḍā); Rām.5.2.1. Māna.18.242.3.

- red arsenic. (-) 1 a woman who has borne a son, a mother.

Derivable forms: karavīraḥ (करवीरः).

Karavīra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms kara and vīra (वीर). See also (synonyms): karavīraka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karavīra (करवीर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A fragrant plant, (Oleander or Nerium odorum.) 2. The name of a demon. 3. A sword or scymitar. 4. A cemetary, a place for burning or interring the dead. f.

(-rā) Red arsenic. f. (-rī) 1. A name of Aditi, the mother of the gods. 2. A good cow. 3. A woman who has borne a son, a mother. E. kara here said to mean a root, vīra to become evident, and ac affix; or kara hand, vi prefixed to īr to go, &c. affix ka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karavīra (करवीर).—[kara-vīra], m. 1. A fragrant plant, Oleander or Nerium odorum, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 17, 10. 2. The name of a magical weapon, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 30, 7. 3. The name of a Nāga, Mahābhārata 1, 1557. 4. The name of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 16, 28. 5. The name of a city, Mahābhārata 13, 1730.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karavīra (करवीर).—[masculine] fragrant oleander.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karavīra (करवीर):—[=kara-vīra] [from kara] a m. Oleander (Nerium Odorum), [Mahābhārata; Suśruta; Mṛcchakaṭikā; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

2) [v.s. ...] a species of Soma, [Suśruta ii, 164, 15]

3) [v.s. ...] a sword, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a particular spell (for recovering a missile of mystic properties after its discharge), [Rāmāyaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] the thumb

6) [v.s. ...] a cemetery, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of a Nāga, [Mahābhārata i, 1557]

8) [v.s. ...] of a Daitya, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] of a town on the river Veṇvā (founded by Padma-varṇa), [Harivaṃśa 5230] (cf. kara-vīra-pura below)

10) [v.s. ...] of a town on the river Dṛṣadvatī (the residence of Candraśekhara), [Kapila’s Sāṃkhya-pravacana]

11) [v.s. ...] of a mountain, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

12) Karavīrā (करवीरा):—[=kara-vīrā] [from kara-vīra > kara] f. red arsenic, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) Karavīra (करवीर):—[=kara-vīra] [from kara] n. the flower of Oleander, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [=kara-vīra] b See p. 253, col. 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karavīra (करवीर):—[kara-vīra] (raḥ) 1. m. A fragrant plant (Nerium odorum); a demon; a sword; a cemetery. () f. Red Arsenic. () f. Mother of the gods; mother; cow; a poison.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Karavīra (करवीर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kaṇavīra, Karavīra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Karavira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Karavīra (करवीर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Karavīra.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Karavīra (ಕರವೀರ):—

1) [noun] the plant Nerium indicum (= N. ororum, = N. oleander) of Apocynaceae family.

2) [noun] its red flower; Indian oleander.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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